Chapter 18: Energy and Mineral Resources - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Title: Chapter 18: Energy and Mineral Resources


1
Energy and Mineral Resources
2
World energy sources
  • Oil 37
  • Coal 25
  • Natural gas 23
  • Nukes 6
  • Biomass 4
  • Hydropower 3
  • Solar 0.5
  • Wind 0.3

3
The Middle East and Petroleum
4
Why these places?
  • Organic rich sediments provide source
  • (Some) sedimentary rocks make good reservoirs
    (porosity and permeability)
  • Structures provide traps (folds and faults, etc.)

5
All petroleum is not the same
light
heavy
6
Natural gas
  • World reserves of 172 trillion m3
  • Demand is on the order of 3 trillion m3/yr and
    increasing
  • So we have on the order of 50 years left
  • But, it is not easily used for transportation

7
Importance of petroleum
  • It keeps all our vehicles moving
  • And powers industries
  • What alternatives do we have?

8
Shale oil
  • From fine grained sedimentary rock
  • Many deposits worldwide
  • Contain kerogen that can be converted to crude oil

9
Shale oil
  • From fine grained sedimentary rock
  • Many deposits worldwide
  • Contain kerogen that can be converted to crude
    oil
  • But requires too much energy to extract and
    process due to low porosity and permeability
  • Plus major environmental cost

10
Tar sands
11
Tar sands
  • Bitumen in sand
  • Mined by open pit mining
  • Only makes up about 10 of the deposit rest is
    waste
  • More than half of Canadas oil production, and
    more than
  • 10 of N. American production
  • Also quite a bit in Venezuela

Huge environmental cost! Mining scars CO2
emissions
12
Alberta
13
Mining tar sands in Alberta
14
Syncrude Plant
15
Tar sands
  • Reserves estimated at 170-300 billion barrels
    equivalent to 4-6 years world demand
  • Perhaps more energy than Saudi Arabia
  • Today producing more than 1 million barrels/day
  • Recall that US uses 20 million barrels/day
  • Tar sands mean we import more from Canada which
    was already 1
  • But, we need new pipelines and refineries

Keystone Pipeline crossing our state
16
Electricity
  • Electricity is the energy we take for granted
  • Most comes from coal
  • Some comes from nuclear
  • Some comes from hydropower

17
Coal
18
The problem with ND coal
  • Does not burn well
  • Contains too much water
  • Very dirty
  • Very polluting
  • Nobody wants it

Coal Creek Station
19
Mountain top removal
20
Gas hydrate could this be another source of
electricity?
Chunks of gas hydrate recovered from the Gulf of
Mexico in 2002
21
Nuclear energy
Nuke at Monticello, Minnesota
22
Natural uranium
  • 99 cannot be used in conventional reactors
  • So, supplies are limited
  • Could build breeder reactors to use the other 99
  • But this gives weapons-grade uranium and plutonium

23
Hydropower
24
Tidal power
First tidal powered turbine (Ireland)
25
Geothermal power
Geothermal plant in Iceland
26
Electricity in the future
  • We still have lots of coal to burn
  • But that adds to global warming
  • But, there are lots of alternatives

27
Heres the really bad news
  • We are running out of petroleum
  • Quickly

28
How much is left?
  • Reserves
  • Proven reserves
  • Depends on lots of things we dont know for sure
  • Lets do some calculations

29
Graph of US oil production etc
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(No Transcript)
31
World oil discoveries
32
Discovery vs demand
33
Bakken Formation
  • 200 300 billion barrels
  • May recover 3 50 (6 150 billion barrels)
  • Produced over 30 years 0.2 5 billion
    barrels/yr
  • Equivalent to 0.0005 0.013 billion barrels/day
    (0.5 14 million/day)
  • Latest estimates from NDGS are that even 3
    recovery may be optimistic

34
Bakken Formation
  • So, assume 3 recovery
  • Produced over 30 years 0.2 billion barrels/yr
    200 million barrels/year
  • Equivalent to 0.0005 billion barrels/day (0.54
    million/day)
  • World uses 118 million barrels/day
  • Equivalent to 43 billion barrels/year
  • So the Bakken could provide about 0.4

?
35
World oil production (in barrels)
  • Most oil fields are small
  • Four fields produce gt 1 million barrels/day
  • Ghawar 4.5 million/day (Saudi Arabia)
  • Cantarell 2 million/day (Mexico)
  • Burgan 1.7 million/day (Kuwait)
  • Da Qing 1 million/day (China)
  • Total world production is 82.5 million/day
  • Bakken could produce 0.54 million/day

36
Ghawar
  • Production started in 1951
  • By 1981 producing 5.7 million barrels/day
  • Soon fell - in 2001 produced 4.5 million
    barrels/day
  • Major problem is water flooding, in part due to
    overpumping
  • ExxonMobil estimates total oil that can be
    produced there is 60 billion barrels
  • Have produced more than 50 billion barrels to
    date
  • 4.5/118 4 of world production

37
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)
  • On the order of 5 10 billions of barrels
  • Produced over 30 years
  • Equivalent to 150 300 million barrels/yr
  • World uses 43 billion barrels/yr
  • So, ANWR might make up 0.3 0.6 of world needs

38
ANWR and the US
  • US oil demand is about 20 million barrels/day
  • Equivalent to 7.6 billion barrels/yr
  • So, ANWR could produce 2-4 of our needs

39
Outer Continental Shelves (OCS)
  • Not counting Alaska, potentially
  • 18 billion barrels of additional crude oil
  • according to DOI
  • Will take 10 years to get it going
  • Produced over 30 years
  • Will add 1-2 to US daily production

40
Replacements for (conventional) petroleum
  • Natural gas
  • Tar sands
  • Shale oil
  • Ethanol
  • Biodiesel
  • Hydrogen
  • Liquid Coal
  • Plug in cars

41
Lets look at ethanol
42
Ethanol in Brazil - facts
  • Brazil gas contains 25 ethanol
  • Equivalent to 40 of total fuel used
  • In 2007, all Brazilian cars can run on ethanol
  • Enough ethanol is available
  • Ethanol is used by planes too
  • Ethanol is half the price of gasoline
  • Ethanol has saved 120 brillion for Brazil
  • Industry is because of sugar cane

43
Ethanol in Minnesota - facts
  • Corn!
  • State law encourages ethanol production
  • 0.20/gallon with some limits
  • So, Minnesota has a few dozen ethanol plants
  • They are making good money
  • But, are subsidized

44
Conclusions by the ethanol industry
  • Extend ethanol subsidy
  • Make ethanol fuel more available
  • Require that state buy flexible fuel vehicles
  • Require that 20 of all fuels be renewable
  • Public forums for discussing fuel prices
  • Expand ethanol production to other things besides
    corn
  • Make sure that ethanol plants are locally owned

45
Ethanol acreage
  • US uses 146 gal gasoline/yr (a more recent
    estimate says 170)
  • Corn yields could be 300 bu/acre
  • Ethanol yields could be 2.7 gal/bu
  • So, A 1.5 x 146 / (300 x 2.7)
  • 270 million acres of corn needed

46
Corn acreage
  • Just calculated 270 million acres needed
  • (More recent numbers give 320 million acres
    needed)
  • Total cropland in the US is about 434 million
    acres
  • Corn is about 20 of total harvest today
  • In US we have 86 million acres of corn today
  • Numbers confusing? North Dakota is about 45
    million acres

47
Major Crops in the U.S.A. - 1997(in US
billions)
  • Corn 24.4
  • Soybean 17.7
  • Wheat 8.6
  • Alfalfa 8.3
  • Cotton 6.1
  • Hay 5.1
  • Tobacco 3.0
  • Rice 1.7
  • Sorghum 1.4
  • Barley 0.9
  • Source 1997 USDA-NASS reports

Any significant increases in corn production take
away from other needed commodities and drive up
prices.
48
biodiesel
  • Typical made from vegetable or animal fat
  • Can be used alone or blended
  • Very polluting!
  • Can make from waste
  • But sources are scattered
  • Or from food crops

Food vs Fuel
49
Hydrogen
  • Today almost all hydrogen comes from natural gas
  • In principle can get it from water bit it takes
    a lot of energy to produce
  • So, hydrogen is really just an energy storage
    system today

50
Plug in cars
  • Some technical problems (e.g., batteries) with
    cars
  • Have to get the electricity from somewhere!

51
Liquid coal
  • Can convert coal into diesel
  • But the energy required is very large
  • Produces twice as much CO2
  • But we have lots of coal

52
Key concern 1 GHG emissions
53
Key concern 2 energy yield
  • Gasoline is the standard
  • Natural gas good energy source, but . . .
  • Biodiesel good energy source but . . .
  • Tar sands minor gains
  • Liquid Coal minor gains
  • Ethanol may not break even
  • Shale oil loses energy
  • Hydrogen loses energy
  • Plug in cars loses energy

54
Useful Energy Yields
55
So, what will we do when the music stops?
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