New Nursing Curriculum in Sudan: History, Design and Application - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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New Nursing Curriculum in Sudan: History, Design and Application


New Nursing Curriculum in Sudan: History, Design and Application Professor Abdelaziz Elamin Dean College of Nursing Sciences University of Khartoum – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Nursing Curriculum in Sudan: History, Design and Application

New Nursing Curriculum in Sudan History, Design
and Application
  • Professor Abdelaziz Elamin
  • Dean College of Nursing Sciences
  • University of Khartoum
  • E-mail

  • Nursing curriculum is the basic nursing
    educational program which qualify nurses to
    professional practice.
  • It contains the essential material that covers
    the fundamentals of nursing knowledge and
    practical skills

  • Historically the first nursing program in Sudan
    was designed by a WHO expert panel in 1955.
  • The curriculum of that program was designed to
    graduate diploma nurses following 3 years of
    theoretical and practical studies.

High Nursing College
  • A high nursing college for girls was established
    under the umbrella of the ministry of health in
    1956, and the first patch of students admitted
    were 20.
  • In 1972, the college was affiliated to the
    ministry of higher education with self autonomy .
  • The number of registered students increased

High Nursing College/2
  • In 1992 a new nursing curriculum was introduced.
  • The course of the program increased to 4 years
    and a BSc degree is awarded instead of the
  • The new curriculum was designed to prepare
    nurses to respond adequately to the health needs
    of their clients and the community.

Faculty of Nursing Sciences
  • In 1994 the nursing college became part of the
    University of Khartoum under a new name Faculty
    of Nursing Sciences
  • Based on the reputable academic heritage of the
    university, the university formulated a committee
    to modernize the curriculum of the new faculty of
    nursing sciences to raise the standard of the
    nursing care to individuals, families and

Why do we need a curriculum revision?
  • Keep current with regional trends and reflect
    contemporary worldwide nursing practice
  • Ensure seamless articulation among nursing
    institutions across the country
  • Outcome based and student-centered curriculum
    with integration is the desired model, which was
    lacking in previous curricula.

Curriculum Development
  • The curriculum committee started the revision and
    development of the curriculum and worked for may
    years to produce its document, which was passed
    by the senate of the university of Khartoum.
  • The pathway was not covered with flowers and
    several hurdles were on the way.
  • They start by answering basic questions.

Why new curriculum
  • According to the 2001 Sudan Health declaration,
    by the year 2015 all nurses in Sudan should be
    certified nurses with Bachelor degree (BSc) or
    in line to bridge their nursing diploma to BSc

Nursing categories
  • Currently there are 4 different undergraduate
    nursing programs in Sudan
  • Three years diploma
  • Tow years bridging program to upgrade the three
    years program to BSc
  • Four years BSc
  • Five years honor BSc

Factors Influencing Nursing Education at Global
  • Recommendations cited in 2004 report of the
    American Nursing Council Task Force on Nursing
    Workforce including the need to meet
    international accreditation standards
  • Regulatory laws set by governments professional
  • Recommendation made by experts like WHO
  • Funding issues.
  • Philosophy vision of higher education in the

Curriculum change requires
  • Courage the willingness to take risks in order
    to achieve a goal
  • Trust in each other and the process
  • Strong commitment by faculty leaders
  • Communication and collaboration with each other
    and key stakeholders
  • Ability to balance the need for change with the
    instinct to protect what has been achieved

It all starts with your
  • Philosophy
  • Identify major concepts that will be threaded
    throughout courses
  • Examples
  • Evidence-based practice
  • Health Informatics
  • Communication Skills
  • Interdisciplinary teams
  • Quality in Health
  • Infection Control

The Second Step is
  • Organizing framework
  • Examples
  • Administrative Competencies Provider of care,
    manager of care, member of the discipline
  • Core Competencies Professional behaviors,
    Communication, Assessment, Clinical Decision
    Making, Caring Interventions, Teaching and
    Learning, Collaboration, Managing Care
  • Specific competencies Safe Effective Care
    Environment, Health Promotion and Maintenance,
    Psychosocial Integrity, Physiological Integrity.
  • Functional Health Patterns
  • Systems Evaluation

Terminal Objectives
  • Educational Outcomes or Terminal Objectives
  • This is what you want your graduate to look like
    or be able to do when they graduate
  • They will be broad statements that relate back to
    the major concepts identified in the philosophy

Enabling Objectives
  • Level objectives or course objectives
  • Determine the number of levels for your program
  • These must demonstrate progression.
  • They also provide the framework for the clinical
    evaluation tool.
  • The objectives for the final course are the same
    as the educational outcomes or terminal objectives

Course Design
  • Determine the content for each course
  • The major concepts identified in philosophy are
    deepened throughout the program
  • The organizing framework provides the structure
    for the content
  • It is impossible to cover everything the
    challenge is to identify the concepts that are

Learning Teaching Activities
  • Use appropriate teaching methods e.g. interactive
    lectures, seminars, small group discussions
  • Facilitate active student search, discovery, and
    learning of essential material
  • Faculty do not need to feel responsible for
    covering all of the material.
  • Pre and post course students questionnaires help
    in quality assurance.

  • All assessments should reflect the depth and
    breath of content described in course objectives.
  • Continuous assessment is mandatory as well as end
    of course comprehensive examination
  • Both summative and formative assessment methods
    should be used.
  • Post test validation is important

Begin with the end in mind
  • Used competencies as organizing framework
  • Three level objectives were developed for each
  • Professional Behaviors
  • Communication
  • Assessment
  • Clinical Decision Making
  • Caring Interventions
  • Teaching and Learning
  • Collaboration
  • Managing Care

Course Development
  • 8 semesters with several courses offered in
    shorter blocks or over the entire semester
  • Separate courses for basic sciences,
  • and nursing administration leadership.
  • Geriatrics is integrated in family community
  • Courses may be offered in any sequence, but many
    institutions offer professional nursing concepts
    and assessment in the first semester and nursing
    care of multi-system failure must be in the last.
  • Evidence-based nursing practice is emphasized in
    all courses.

Staff Queries may include ..
  • What is wrong with the present curriculum?
  • Will there be time for more content in the new
  • What will we give up?
  • Can we teach the new content effectively?
  • What if we dont teach the right things?
  • What if customers satisfaction rates go down?
  • What if skill levels decline?
  • Do we have the expertise?
  • How will this impact my teaching load?

The 2006 Curriculum
  • In 2006 the revised curriculum was adopted by the
    university of Khartoum
  • A 5th year was added to give honor degree
  • The following slides describe issues related to
    that curriculum.
  • College staff were dedicated to take
    responsibilities and work in team and apply
    nursing ethics effectively

Curriculum objectives
  • develop the students' affective, cognitive and
    psychomotor skills for clients care
  • provide high standard, holistic nursing care for
    individual, family and the community according to
    policies and procedures
  • be more effective in caring for clients according
    to (NANDA approved) nursing diagnoses that
    reflect the client's health needs and priorities

Old new curricula
  • The new curriculum is tailored to have the
    following characteristics
  • Community-oriented
  • Outcome-based
  • Student-centered
  • Although the old and new curricula are different
    in some specific objectives and contents, every
    program consists essentially of four parts as

Old new curricula/2
  • First part where the students learn
  • Nursing Ethics history of nursing
  • fundamental Nursing skills
  • Communication skills
  • Basic medical sciences
  • Introduction to community nursing
  • Psychology sociology

Old new curricula/3
  • Second part
  • Include clinical courses in medical nursing,
  • surgical nursing, pediatric nursing and
  • midwifery.
  • The students move from theory to practice. It
    gives them a broad understanding of clinical
    nursing protocols.

Old New Curricula/4
  • Third parts
  • in which students learn to
  • Care for specific clients
  • practice nursing care in different medical
  • Share in community health promotion through
    specific activities
  • Fourth part
  • application of research methodology
  • Specialty courses for those who progress to 5th

Curriculum application
  • General
  • To obtain a degree of Science in Nursing,
    students are required to successfully complete
    full-time study of approved
  • 5 semesters for bridging
  • 4 semesters for upgrading
  • 6 semesters for the Diploma
  • 8 semesters for the general B Sc
  • 10 semesters for honor B Sc
  • The academic year is often 2 semesters
  • The semester s varied between 15 - 18 weeks
  • The total credit hours are 16-22 per semester

Admission requirements
  • The BSc program was designed to accept secondary
    schools graduates (boys girls) who wish to
    study nursing and satisfy the following criteria
  • Are 16 years or above
  • Score 80 or above in the secondary school
  • is medically fit
  • pass face to face interview

Teaching and learning strategies
  • Focus on
  • practical training under supervision
  • Active self learning
  • Problem solving approach throughout the stages of
  • Evidence-based practice
  • Community orientation to identify its problems
    and shared solution

Evidence-based Practice
  • Is conscientious use of current best evidence in
    making decisions about patient care.
  • EBP components
  • Systemic research for and critical appraisal of
    the most relevant evidence to answer a clinical
  • The clinical experience of the concerned doctor
    or nurse and experts opinion in the absence of
  • Patients preference values.

Teaching and learning Methods
  • Methods for Theoretical part
  • Group discussion
  • Interactive lectures
  • Seminars
  • Problem solving case studies
  • Tutorials
  • Assignments

Methods for Practical training
  • Skill training on manikins (skill lab)
  • Skill training on real patient under tutors
  • Simulation role play
  • Programmed clinical training following the
    nursing process
  • Nursing rounds
  • Writing clinical nursing reports

Practical Training cont.
  • Home visits
  • Field work
  • National training trips
  • International trips
  • Student research
  • Residency program for honor students

Students Evaluation
  • Theoretical
  • Continuous evaluation (Practical training ,quiz,
    discussion, seminars presentation projects).
  • Final written /practical examination
  • ( 60 for the practical and 40 for the

Curriculum Evaluation
  • Achievement of objectives
  • Outcome quality
  • College exams results
  • Nursing council Qualifying examination
  • Surveys for client satisfaction
  • Employer satisfaction survey
  • Nursing audit

  • Academic institutions
  • Faculties
  • Schools under the umbrella of some faculties of
  • Nursing Academy which is belonging to the
    ministry of health
  • Even the limited facilities are well designed and

Health Care Institutions
  • Hospitals
  • Health centers
  • Polyclinics
  • Specialized centers
  • Other community institutions

Honor Degree
  • In some nursing colleges including that of the
    university of Khartoum, the students enrollment
    in upper-division (5th year) is limited to those
    who meet the following criteria
  • completed all required courses in the fresh
    students semesters with a minimal grade of clear
  • maintain full-time study at nursing institute
  • minimum cumulative grade point of 3.5
  • minimum grade of B in the specialty subject

Challenges facing curriculum application
  • Increased number of academic institutions,
    compared with the very limited number of
    qualified teaching staff
  • The educational institutions are facing financial
    difficulties that hinder development and
    maintenance of skill laboratories libraries
  • Variation of language used in teaching curriculum
    material applications

Challenges facing curriculum application
  • The absence of specialized nursing council makes
    it difficult to unify or standardize the
    undergraduate nursing programs in Sudan.
  • The clinical educational institutions are not
    well prepared or equipped to meet the students
    training needs (reality shock).
  • Difficulties in evaluation and revision of
    student-centered policies, procedures, and

  • In preparing this lecture I used some material
    from the following source
  • Dr. Rashida Abdelfatah, Nursing College,
    University of Khartoum, a lecture on nursing
    curriculum presented at a workshop in Khartoum

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