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Sustainable Building Design


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Title: Sustainable Building Design

Sustainable Building Design Planning
  • Brahmanand MOHANTY, Ph.D.

Buildings, resources the environment
  • Buildings are highly resource intensive
  • Raw materials, energy, water
  • 30-40 of worlds primary energy is used in
  • Construction
  • Operation maintenance
  • High rise in demand for new construction
  • Greenfield projects
  • Demolition of low-rise zones to create high-rise
  • Adverse impacts of buildings on the environment
  • Contributing to greenhouse gas emissions
  • Depletion of resources increase in waste

Buildings, resources the environment
Source Sustainable Building and Construction
Initiatives, 2006
Recent efforts to meet the challenge
  • Design development of energy efficient
  • Reduced embodied energy of the building
  • Designing concepts advanced materials to lower
    the operating energy
  • Aiming for carbon neutral buildings
  • High performance buildings (low energy or
  • Energy-positive buildings
  • Green buildings
  • Less resource intensive
  • Least impact on the environment
  • Improved quality, comfort health of the

Definition of a green building
  • A green building should create delight when
    entered, serenity and health when occupied and
    regret when departed
  • - Natural Capitalism -

Concept of sustainable architecture
Source Sustainable Architecture and Building
Design, 2002
Cost effective concepts/tech./products
  • Market is ripe with cost effective concepts,
    technologies products
  • To reduce the need for energy services
  • Optimized design
  • Site planning, shape, orientation, fenestration
    shading, natural ventilation, passive cooling,
  • Better implementation
  • Choice of material technology, optimized
    insulation of walls roofs, high performance
    glazing, artificial lighting cooling solutions
  • To satisfy the needs with more efficient
  • Improved end-use energy efficiency
  • Better artificial lighting control
  • Better artificial cooling control
  • Provision of energy services through alternative
    means strategies

Designing sustainable building
  • Overcoming the general perception of sustainable
    building being more expensive
  • More emphasis on adopting the right building
    science and less dependence on high-cost building
  • A better scientific understanding of the way
    buildings work and avoiding high technological
  • The main challenge To do more with less

Designing sustainable building
  • Overall objective Lower energy consumption and
    life-cycle costs
  • Start with building fabrics to lower energy
    demand (life span 50-100 years)
  • Then look for devices to generate energy from
    renewables (life span 10-20 years)
  • More capital needed for oversized renewable
    energy systems for a poorly designed building

Designing sustainable building
  • Example of application in cold climates
  • Very little energy demand for an airtight and
    super-insulated building money required on
    energy supply technologies used to cover the
    additional cost of improving building fabric
  • Money saved by using hygroscopic materials to
    handle the indoor air humidity than mechanical
    ventilation (fans, ducts, grilles, and filters)

Energy efficient technologies in buildings
  • Heating of building
  • Radiative (heating by direct radiation) and
    convective (warming and circulating air)
  • Central (indirect) versus decentralized (direct)
    heating system
  • Electric heater vs. gas heater and efficient
    reverse-cycle heat pumps
  • Combustion-based heating systems
  • Boiler efficiency, system efficiency and
    efficient control system
  • Addition features such as larger heat exchangers,
    extra insulation, automatic operation of flue
    dampers, etc.
  • Combined heat and power
  • Provision of electricity and heat with high
    overall efficiency

Energy efficient technologies in buildings
  • Cooling of building
  • Passive cooling (ventilation and thermal mass) or
    use of low energy mechanical systems (fans,
    evaporating cooling
  • Mechanical cooling in extreme climatic conditions
  • Mechanical/electrical vapour compression chiller
  • Vapour absorption chiller requiring heat as
    energy source (e.g. exhaust heat from power
    generator of cogeneration plant)
  • Simultaneous heating and cooling system
  • Heat recovered from cooled space for the space to
    be heated

Energy efficient technologies in buildings
  • Lighting of building
  • Optimizing daylight through fenestration (light
    shelves, louvers, prismatic glazing)
  • Daylight through roof (light well, atria, or
    light pipe)
  • Energy efficient lighting devices
  • Depending on the type of illumination required
  • Accent lighting versus task lighting
  • Proper lighting control
  • Zoning of lighting system, timer based switching,
    occupancy detectors, daylight sensing, etc.

Energy efficient technologies in buildings
  • Electrical appliances in building
  • Choice of right type and size of white goods
    (refrigerator, freezer, clothes washer, etc.)
  • Purchase of energy efficient home and office
  • Reduction of standby power by switching off
  • Building energy management system
  • Better monitoring and control of energy use in
    the entire building

Appropriate building materials
  • Embodied energy of construction materials
  • Building materials classified into 5 groups
  • Renewable materials from photosynthesis/biology
    (natural timber, wool, etc.)
  • Materials extracted with minimal processing
    (earth, sand and gravel)
  • Extracted and processed materials (lime, plaster,
    stone, slate and brick)
  • Extracted and highly processed materials (steel,
    cement, glass and plastics)
  • Recycled materials (reused timber, brick,
    aggregate, steel, glass and insulation)

Appropriate building materials
  • Typical materials and systems used as walls
  • Double brick wall
  • Reverse masonry veneer
  • Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC blocks)
  • Concrete block
  • Insulated concrete
  • Lightweight timber
  • Panel systems

Appropriate building materials
  • Alternative materials used as walls
  • Mud brick (adobe)
  • Rammed earth (pisé)
  • Earth bermed
  • Straw bale

Appropriate building materials
  • Typical materials for roofing and flooring
  • Tiles
  • Metal sheeting
  • Green roofs
  • Concrete slab floors
  • Earth covered

Appropriate building materials
  • Composite materials
  • Lightweight walls with heavyweight floor
  • Lightweight floor with heavyweight walls
  • Lightweight walls and floors with water mass
  • Thermal performance of windows
  • Increasing the number of glazing layers
  • Increasing the size of the cavity between the
    sheets of glass
  • Replacing the air in the cavity with argon or
    krypton gas
  • Applying a low emissivity layer to one or more
    panes of glass

Application of renewable energy
  • Solar thermal system
  • Flat-plate versus evacuated-tube collector
  • Open versus closed circuit
  • Passive versus active system
  • Solar boosted heat pump
  • Solar photovoltaic system
  • Crystalline or amorphous silicon
  • Unframed laminate or framed
  • Building integrated photovoltaic system (BIPV)

Application of renewable energy
  • Wind generators/turbines
  • Installed on rooftops on high towers to capture
  • Turbine axis in horizontal or vertical plane
  • Small wind generators classification
  • Low or high voltage turbines (provide heat, pump
    water or drive suitable motor, without battery)
  • Low voltage (12, 24, 36 or 48V) turbines (charge
    battery and power low voltage lights, appliances
    and pump water, mainly in off-grid mode
  • Low voltage turbines (charge batteries and use
    inverter to power high voltage appliances
  • High voltage turbines (115 or 230V) using special
    inverter (feed into electric grid)

Benefits of sustainable building design
  • Triple bottom line
  • Money saving, better comfort and quality of life
    and low environmental pollution
  • Studies conducted to assess the benefits of LEED
    certified buildings in USA
  • Lower operating costs
  • Efficient asset management, increased occupant
    productivity and well being and less staff
  • Average construction cost premium very low
    (0-10) and high savings over building lifetime

Benefits of sustainable building design
  • Study conducted by CII-India
  • Green buildings consumed 30-50 less energy
  • Incremental costs in the range of 5-8 with
    payback period of 3 to 5 years
  • Better human visual and thermal comfort and
    higher productivity
  • Comparison of three LEED platinum rated buildings

Benefits of sustainable building design
  • Conclusion of study by CII-India
  • With rapid market transformation, further
    lowering of incremental costs

Examples of sustainable building design
  • ING office building in Amsterdam
  • One of the pioneer sustainable building
  • Features of the building
  • Absence of air conditioning system
  • Use of massive 18 interior walls to act as
    insulator and building flushed with night air
  • Building energy consumption one-tenth of its
    predecessors and one-fifth of new office building
  • Annual energy cost savings of US2.9 million
    compared to costs of additional features of
    US700,000 (payback time of only 3 months)
  • Productivity gains through lower absenteeism

Examples of sustainable building design
  • Office building in Melbourne, Australia
  • Refurbished with 87 of the building structure
    recycled and awarded 6 green star- office design
  • Project achievements
  • 70 reduction in energy use compared to
    conventional office buildings
  • 82 reduction in piped water use
  • 72 reduction in sewer discharge

Govt. role in promoting green building
  • Governments have major influence in promoting
    green buildings
  • Own and occupy vast amount of space
  • Can lead the way and set good example for
    citizens and private developers
  • Example of government initiatives
  • Low-energy and zero-energy office buildings
    initiated by the Government of Malaysia

Govt. role in promoting green building
  • Low energy office building
  • Key data
  • Gross floor area 20 000 m2
  • Energy performance index 114 kWh/m2/year
  • Addition cost to construct 5
  • Annual energy savings RM 600 000
  • Payback period 5 years
  • Energy efficiency features
  • Orientation building envelope insulation
  • Energy efficient lighting, ventilation office
  • Energy management system

Ministry of Energy, Water Telecommunications,
Govt. role in promoting green building
  • Zero energy office building
  • Key data
  • Gross floor area 4 000 m2
  • Energy performance index 35 kWh/m2/year
    (excluding solar PV)
  • Energy performance index 0 kWh/m2/year
    (including solar PV)
  • Addition cost to construct 21 (excluding solar
  • Addition cost to construct 45 (including solar
  • Energy efficiency features
  • Building envelope insulation double glazing
  • Almost 100 daylighting task lighting
  • Energy efficient ventilation floor slab cooling
  • Energy efficient appliances
  • Energy management system

Recently completed Malaysia Energy Centre
Govt. role in promoting green building
  • Thailand government support for existing
    residential homes
  • Study the house design
  • Provide advice through expert team for improving
    energy efficiency
  • Extend financial support up to 30 of the actual
    improvement costs
  • Support from national energy agency (DEDE) for
    the construction of energy efficient new
    residential homes
  • Detailed design of 3 types of individual houses
    of different sizes and costs based on detailed
    study carried out by experts
  • Construction permit given by concerned
    authorities in a short time

Govt. role in promoting green building
  • Municipal energy plan for Almaty (2005-06)
  • Several energy audits to initiate demonstration
  • Small revolving fund created to lend money to
    carry out retrofits on existing buildings
  • Results of demonstration projects
  • Possible to reduce energy consumption of
    municipal buildings by 20 to 25
  • Reduce overall energy bill by 4.4 to 5 million
    US per annum

Govt. role in promoting green building
  • CESE, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
  • Energy efficiency features
  • Building envelope
  • Cavity wall with insulation
  • Insulated shaded roof
  • Double glazed shaded windows
  • Lighting system
  • Efficient fixtures
  • Efficient lamps
  • Daylight integration
  • HVAC system
  • Load calculated with optimized envelope
    lighting system
  • Efficient chillers
  • Efficient condensing system
  • Use of geothermal cooling

EPI 240 kWh/m2.annum
Envelope optimization
EPI 208 kWh/m2.annum
Lighting optimization
EPI 168 kWh/m2.annum
HVAC optimization
EPI 133 kWh/m2.annum
Control systems
EPI 98 kWh/m2.annum
Regulatory and control measures
  • Barriers to achieving energy efficiency and
  • Lack of legislation, unavailability of
    information, high first-costs, market failures,
  • Effectiveness of policy instruments
  • If introduced and enforced effectively
  • Need for other supporting policy instruments to
    overcome other barriers
  • Two types of regulatory and control instruments
  • Normative (building codes, appliance standards,
    regulation for procurement and setting of energy
    efficiency obligations and quota)
  • Informative (mandatory audit, mandatory labelling
    and certification, utility demand side management)

Energy conservation building codes
Building codes implemented around the world in
2005 (Source UNEP, 2007)
Energy conservation building codes
  • Most popular instrument in reducing energy use
  • On-going process in many countries since early
  • Mainly for air conditioned commercial buildings,
    but also for non-air conditioned spaces as well
    as residential buildings
  • Compliance is mandatory/voluntary in nature
    periodical updating
  • Effectiveness of building codes
  • Building codes in many developing countries are
    less effective due to inadequate resources and
    efforts for their implementation
  • Difficult to implement if the awareness is low,
    professionals are not trained, products are not
    in the market, demonstration projects are not
    commissioned or incentive measures not announced
  • Most building codes are designed for new
    construction and are not applicable to existing
    building stock

Energy efficiency building codes
  • Types of building codes
  • Prescriptive
  • Building envelope (walls, roofs, windows) OTTV
  • Lighting (natural artificial) Maximum power
  • Heating, ventilation air conditioning kW/RT
  • Service water heating pumping
  • Electrical systems appliances (transformers,
    household office appliances)
  • Overall performance-based
  • Prescribe an annual energy consumption or energy
    cost budget, providing scope for innovation

Appliance energy efficiency standards
  • Energy standard label for building, materials
  • Labelling of energy efficient appliances
  • Compliance is either voluntary mandatory
  • Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS)

Energy efficiency public procurement
  • Public authorities are single-largest energy
    consumers in many countries
  • Procurement regulation can be mandatory or
  • USAs Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)
    one of the most stringent legislative frameworks
    for procurement
  • Chinas energy efficiency procurement law
    modelled after the US FEMP
  • Procurement regulations more effective in
    countries facing energy shortages and high energy

Supporting policies and programmes
  • Three categories of supporting policies and
  • Economic or market-based instruments
  • Initiated by regulatory incentives and involve
    voluntary action, such as cooperative
    procurement, energy performance contracting,
    energy efficiency certificate schemes, and Kyoto
    flexible mechanism
  • Fiscal instruments and incentives
  • Support to overcome first-cost related barriers
    or market failures, such as taxation, tax
    exemption/reduction, capital subsidy, grant,
    subsidized loan, and public benefit charges
  • Support, information and voluntary action
  • Persuade consumers to change their behaviour
    through awareness raising, information campaigns,
    education and training of building professional,
    and public leadership programs

Supporting policies and programmes
  • Economic or market-based instruments
  • Energy performance contracting
  • Contractor guarantees the energy savings in
    building and is paid from the actual cost
    reductions achieved
  • Cooperative or technical procurement
  • Public or private decision-maker procures large
    quantities of energy consuming equipment in order
    to trigger market for more efficient products
  • Energy efficiency certificate (or white
  • Saving obligations imposed on energy suppliers
    who fulfil it by claiming for end-use energy
    efficiency measures, either through their own
    initiatives or through trading of saving

Supporting policies and programmes
  • Fiscal instruments and incentives
  • Tax exemptions or reductions
  • Adopted for advanced technologies where
    first-cost is a major barrier should pay for
    results according to performance
  • Energy and carbon tax
  • Reinforce the impact of standards and subsidies
    or make energy efficiency investment more
    profitable effective when tax revenues are
    ploughed back to support energy efficiency
  • Public benefit charges
  • A specific form of energy tax to raise funds from
    the operation of the energy market to undertake
    energy efficiency and DSM activities

Supporting policies and programmes
  • Fiscal instruments and incentives
  • Capital subsidies, grants, subsidized loans and
  • Provided to overcome first-cost barriers (e.g.
    for house insulation in the UK)
  • Subsidized loans for ESCO activities (e.g.
    low-interest loan from the EC Revolving Fund in
  • Subsidy program for a limited time or for a
    specific target to create a market for energy
    efficient equipment and appliances (e.g.
    limited-period rebate program in Denmark,
    subsequently adopted by Thailand)
  • Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness depends on
    the program design as there is high risk of some
    beneficiaries being free-riders

Supporting policies and programmes
  • Support, information and voluntary action
  • Public information and awareness campaigns
  • Aimed at changing individual behaviour, attitude
    and values
  • Increase the effectiveness and long-term impact
    of other policy instruments, mainly by reducing
    the rebound effects of regulatory and control
    policy measures
  • Activities include Energy Information Centres,
    consumption feedback surveys, special events for
    stakeholders, sensitization toolkits for teachers
    and activities for school children
  • More effective when followed up by linking them
    with professionals who can provide advisory
    services and assist in implementation
  • Information campaign more effective when targeted
    towards residential sector than the commercial

Supporting policies and programmes
  • Support, information and voluntary action
  • Training activities
  • Used as a tool to provide assistance for decision
    making, some times integrating with investment
  • Energy audit forms as a link between energy
    information provided to establishments and the
    grant aids available for EE investments
  • More effective when combined with other measures
    (e.g. financial incentives for architects
    undergoing training in Switzerland or job
    opportunity for installers/fitters qualified for
    EE work in the UK)
  • Public leadership program
  • Public EE programs are very cost-effective as
    they reduce energy consumption and costs
  • 12 billion Euros per annum of energy saving
    potential in Europe
  • 25 of energy savings over 15 years in Germany
  • 4.8 GWh and 5.2 billion US saving per year in
    the USA

Example of public leadership in India
  • Retrofitting/rehabilitation of government
  • Energy audits conducted in important government
  • Presidents Office Residence Complex
  • Prime Ministers Office
  • Government Offices (Power, Railways,
    Telecommunications, Transport)
  • Medical Institute Hospital Building
  • Airport Terminals
  • Assessed energy savings potential
  • Varying between 25 and 46
  • Payback period 1 to 4 years
  • Implementation of recommendations
  • Through Energy Service Companies (ESCOs)

Presidents Office Residence Complex
Supporting policies and programmes
  • Support of Energy Service Companies (ESCO)
  • Stakeholders often do not have knowledge and
    expertise and/or lack investment needed to
    implement cost-effective EE measures
  • Typical questions asked by public authorities
  • Is it possible to reduce energy costs without
    compromising service quality?
  • Can funds be mobilized for EE investments without
    the available financial resources?
  • How can the performance of newly invested
    equipment and facilities be monitored and
  • How to overcome investment risks while
    guaranteeing the expected results?
  • ESCOs are an answer to the above questions
  • ESCOs offer triple benefits arrange financing
    and cover technical, financial and other risks
    associated with energy savings

Supporting policies and programmes
  • Support of Energy Service Companies (ESCO)
  • Tools available to implement EE measures in
  • Energy performance contracting (EPC)
  • Contractual agreement between beneficiary and
    ESCO to achieve energy saving target and
    performance fee for service linked to EE
    investment and the period of contract
  • Third-party financing (TPF)
  • In addition to beneficiary and ESCO, a third
    party is involved to provide capital needed and
    charge a fee linked to energy savings
  • Debt-service for public/private beneficiary
    considered as operational expense and not a
    capital obligation

Supporting policies and programmes
  • Support of Energy Service Companies (ESCO)
  • Tools available to implement EE measures in
  • Leasing
  • Can be a type of TPF or ESCO-based financial
  • Should be part of a performance-based contract
    between beneficiary and ESCO (and where
    applicable, a third financing party)
  • Profit-sharing (project and/or OM incentives)
  • ESCO remunerated on the basis of the energy and
    OM costs it manages to reduce through better
    energy management and OM practices
  • When contracting period is sufficiently long,
    ESCO invests on EE technologies to further reduce
    OM costs and increase revenue

Supporting policies and programmes
  • Support of Energy Service Companies (ESCO)
  • Five important steps for EE service contracting

Source The PU-Benefs project (European
Commission), 2005
Supporting policies and programmes
  • Support of Energy Service Companies (ESCO)
  • Typical barriers to ESCO development
  • No clarity in administrative and budgetary
    procedures concerning Energy Performance
    Contracting (EPC)
  • Lack of awareness and information
  • High transaction costs compared to expected
    profits and split incentives
  • Low energy prices, inadequate service levels
  • Lenders poor knowledge about advantages of EPC
    and lack access to financing due to ESCOs poor
  • Need for government support for successful ESCO

Supporting policies and programmes
  • Support of Energy Service Companies (ESCO)
  • Ingredients for the success of ESCO business
  • Unsubsidized energy prices, transparent market, a
    trustworthy business environment, and a mature
    financing industry
  • Exemplary role of public sector in initiating EE
    reconstruction through ESCOs
  • Examples of benefits from EPC projects
  • Large number of examples around the world showing
    energy savings of 20-40 in buildings
  • In Germany, EPC projects in 31 federal real
    estates reduced energy costs by 34
  • Savings potentials of 25-30 identified in
    municipal buildings in Hungary

To sum up
  • Impacts of integrated, whole building design
  • Cost effectiveness resource conservation
  • State-of-the-art strategy for sustainable site
    development, water savings, energy efficiency,
    materials selection indoor environmental
  • Increased first costs recovered within reasonable
    time period
  • Boost in employee productivity occupants
    health, safety well-being
  • Increased property value high value for
    tenants goodwill publicity
  • Benefit to the communities - reduced need for
    resources lower waste disposal costs -
    contributing to local economic development
  • Role of industry player and public authorities
  • Industry players increasingly adopting
    sustainable building practices as a result of
    demand from market consumers, investors,
    shareholders, the community
  • Public authorities can play an important role by
    adopting right policies and supporting measures,
    and setting up exemplary practices
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