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Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)/ Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)


Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)/ Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) A condition of the brain that makes it difficult for children to control their ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)/ Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)/ Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • A condition of the brain that makes it difficult
    for children to control their behavior in school
    and social settings.
  • It is one of the most common chronic conditions
    of childhood and affects between 4 and 12 percent
    of all school-age children. About three times
    more boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD.

  • ADD - Used by the U.S. Department of Education
    and many of the schools
  • ADHD is taken from the diagnostic criteria in
    the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
    Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV)

Characteristics of ADD/ADHD
  • Attention deficit disorder is a chronic
    neurological condition characterized by
    developmentally inappropriate attention skills,
    impulsivity, and in some cases, hyperactivity.

Characteristics of ADD/ADHD
  • Inattention is the inability to concentrate on
    a task
  • Impulsivity is the tendency to respond quickly
    without thinking through the consequences of an
  • Hyperactivity refers to behavior that is
    described as a constant, driving motor activity
    in which a child races from one endeavor or
    interest to another

Characteristics of ADD/ADHD
  • Children with ADD/ADHD have difficulty staying
    on task, focusing attention, and completing their
    work. They are easily distracted, rushing from
    one idea or interest to another, and they may
    produce work that is sloppy and carelessly
    executed. They give the impression that they are
    not listening or have not heard what they have
    been told. Children with attention deficit
    disorder have attention problems and/or problems
    with hyperactivity, displaying symptoms of
    age-inappropriate behavior.

Symptoms of ADD/ADHD
  • Symptoms must meet the following criteria,
    according to the American Psychiatric
  • Severity. The symptoms must be more frequent and
    severe than are typical of other children at
    similar developmental levels
  • Early Onset. At least some of the symptoms must
    have appeared before the child reaches age 7.
  • Duration. The childs symptoms must have
    persisted for at least six months prior to the

  • ADD/ADHD affects children in all areas,
    disrupting the childs home life, education,
    behavior, and social life. At home, children
    with this condition have difficulty accommodating
    to home routines and parent expectations. They
    may resist going to bed, refuse to eat, or break
    toys during play.

  • At school, they have trouble completing their
    class work, often missing valuable information
    because of their problems paying attention. They
    speak aloud out of turn and find themselves in
    trouble for their behavior. Their social
    interactions may be undermined by their
    impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention,
    hampering their ability to make and keep friends.
    In terms of gender, more boys than girls are
    diagnosed with ADD/ADHD.

Eligibility for Services
  • The condition of attention deficit disorder is
    not listed as a separate category of disability
    in the special education law, IDEA 1997.
    However, because of the hard work of parents and
    professionals concerned about children with ADD,
    two significant laws have been passed that allow
    children with ADD to be eligible for special
    education services under existing categories of

Two Laws for Eligibility
  • 1991 Clarification of Policy to Address the
    Needs of Children with Attention Deficit
    Disorders within General and/or Special Education
  • 1999 The Regulations for the Individuals with
    Disabilities Education Act of 1997 (IDEA 1997)

Subtypes of ADHD in the DSM-IV
  1. ADHD-IA Symptoms of Inattention
  2. ADHD-HI Symptoms of Hyperactivity and
  3. ADHD-C Combined Type

ADHD-IA Symptoms of Inattention
  • Fails to give close attention to details, makes
    careless mistakes
  • Has difficulty sustaining attention
  • Does not seem to listen
  • Does not follow through or finish tasks
  • Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
  • Avoids or dislikes tasks requiring sustained
  • Loses things needed for tasks
  • Is easily distracted by extraneous stimuli
  • Is often forgetful in daily activities

ADHD-HI Symptoms of Hyperactivity and
  • Hyperactivity
  • Fidgets with hands or feet, squirms in seat
  • Leaves seat in classroom or in other situations
  • Runs about or climbs excessively
  • Has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure
    activities quietly
  • Talks excessively
  • Acts as if driven by motor and cannot sit still
  • Impulsivity
  • Blurts out answers before questions are completed
  • Has difficulty waiting in line or awaiting turn
    in games or activities
  • Interrupts or intrudes on others

ADHD-C Combined Type
  • Symptoms of both IA and HI
  • Inattention
  • Hyperactivity
  • Impulsivity

Legal Protections for Students with ADD
  • Children with ADD may be eligible under the
    category of other health impaired
  • A child with attention deficit disorder may be
    eligible for special education services under the
    existing disability category of other health
    impaired (OHI). A child with ADD/ADHD may also be
    eligible for services under other existing
    categories of disability under IDEA 1997 if he
    or she meets the applicable criteria for those
    disabilities. Thus, children with ADD/ADHD may
    be eligible for services under other health
    impaired, learning disabilities, or emotional

Legal Protections for Students with ADD
  • Children with ADD may receive services under the
    legislation of Section 504.
  • The Department of Education further indicates
    that a child with ADD/ADHD may be eligible for
    services in the general education classroom under
    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation ACT of 1973,
    even if that child does not qualify for special
    education and related services. Section 504
    mandates that any agency receiving federal funds
    must provide reasonable accommodations for people
    with disabilities.

Legal Protections for Students with ADD
  • The disability of ADD/ADHD is listed as a
    specific condition under other health impaired
  • The 1999 Regulations are written policies
    designed so that schools can implement the
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act for
    1997 (IDEA 1997). In the Regulations, ADD and
    ADHD are specifically listed as conditions that
    could render a child eligible for services under
    the other health impaired (OHI) category of
    IDEA 1997.

Treatments for ADD/ADHD
  • Many different kinds of treatments are
    prescribed for children with attention deficit
    disorder, including medication, alternative
    therapies, education, and counseling. It is
    important to stress that medication must be only
    one part of a broader treatment plan. A
    multimodal plan of treatment combines education,
    effective instruction, behavior management
    strategies, family and child counseling, and good
    parenting and home management.

  • Many students with attention deficit disorder
    receive medication to improve their attention and
    to control their hyperactive behavior. In fact,
    the National Institutes of Health found that
    medication is prescribed in 96.4 percent of all
    cases of ADD/ADHD. The ideal medication should
    control hyperactivity, increase attention span,
    and reduce impulsive and aggressive behavior
    without inducing insomnia, loss of appetite,
    drowsiness, or other serious toxic effects.

First-Tier Medications Psychostimulants
First-Tier Medications
  • These medications are usually tried first. As
    the most widely used type of medication
    prescribed for attentional and hyperactivity
    disorders, they are very effective for most
    patients. More than 75 percent of individuals
    with ADD improve with psychostimulants. The
    psychostimulant medications include Ritalin,
    Dexedrine, Cylert, Adderall, and Concerta.

First-Tier Medications
  • Research on ADD/ADHD suggests that the
    psychostimulant medication affects the brain in
    these individuals by increasing the arousal or
    alertness of the central nervous system.

First-Tier Medications
  • It is thought that these individuals do not
    produce sufficient neurotransmitterschemicals
    within the brain that transmit messages from one
    cell to another across a gap, or synapseand that
    the psychostimulants work by stimulating the
    production of the chemical neurotransmitters
    needed to send information from the brain stem to
    the parts of the brain that deal with attention.
    The psychostimulant medications appear to
    lengthen the childrens attention spans, control
    impulsivity, decrease distractibility and motor
    activity, and improve visual-motor integration

First-Tier Medications
  • The duration of effect for Ritalin and Dexedrine
    is three to five hours. Consequently, unless a
    second dose is taken during the school day, the
    effects of a morning dose of either of these two
    medications will wear off during the course of
    the day. The psychostimulants Cylert and
    Adderall are taken in one daily dosage, and their
    effects are long-lasting. Concerta, a newer
    medication which contains Ritalin, is purported
    to last eight to twelve hours because it is
    released throughout the day.

Second-Tier Medications Antidepressants and
Other Medications
  • As noted, about 75 to 85 percent of children with
    ADD/ADHD show general improvement with
    psychostimulant medications. For those who do
    not improve, second-tier medications,
    antidepressant medications (Norpramin, Tofranil,
    Elavil, Prozac, Pamolar, and Wellbutrin), can be
    used. Also, an antihypersentive medication
    (clonidine) may be prescribed.
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