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Title: MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in

Knowledge Management
Knowledge Management
MOCURIS teaching materials Presentation for
Janis Grundspenkis and Marite Kirikova Devision
of Systems Theory Riga Technical
Knowledge Management Philosophy
  • This module presents a framework for
    understanding the role of knowledge management in
    modern competitive and innovative organizations.
  • It is an advanced level module for Knowledge
    Engineering career track covering broad subject
    area and is addressed to IS developers career
  • This module trains to create human-centered
    flexible enterprise-wide information
    infrastructure that effectively supports
    knowledge capturing, storage, development,
    distribution and transfer.
  • It introduces to knowledge management tools, such
    as knowledge flow enablers, knowledge navigation
    systems and tools, corporate memories, knowledge
    repositories and tools aimed for identification,
    creation, storage, suppliance, access,
    dissemination, reuse and preservation of
    knowledge in knowledge base.

  • Understand the role of Knowledge Management in
    modern organizations
  • Use information technology for knowledge
  • Use intelligent agent technologies and multi
    agent systems for knowledge management
  • Apply knowledge management systems

  • Knowledge
  • Knowledge management
  • Knowledge management systems
  • Knowledge management tools
  • Organizational memory

Topics (1)
  • Paradigm shift from data, information management
    to knowledge management
  • Knowledge management definitions and components
  • Knowledge sources and knowledge types and life
    cycles of organizational knowledge
  • Knowledge generation, codification and transfer
  • Typologies of knowledge management sub-process
  • Knowledge management approaches
  • Knowledge assets

Topics (2)
  • Concepts of memory in knowledge management
  • Knowledge management tools
  • Knowledge engineering in knowledge management
  • Knowledge management platforms
  • Knowledge management and information systems
  • Implementing knowledge management in

Paradigm shift of data, information management to
knowledge management
  • Definitions of data, information, and knowledge
  • Differences between data, information and
  • From data administration to knowledge management
  • Roots of knowledge management
  • Related management areas
  • Knowledge management

Definitions of Data
  • Data is a set of discrete, objective facts about
  • In an organizational context, data is most
    usefully described as structured records of
  • Data is essential raw material for the creation
    of information.

Definitions of Information
  • Collection of Data is called Information
  • Data becomes information when its creator adds
  • Information is data endowed with relevance and

Definition of Knowledge (1)
Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience,
values, contextual information, expert insight,
and grounded intuition that provides an
environment and framework for evaluating and
incorporating new experiences and information. It
originates and is applied in the minds of
knowers. In organizations, it often becomes
embedded not only in documents or repositories,
but also in organizational routines, processes,
practices and norms
Definitions of Knowledge (2)
  • Knowledge consists of truths, and beliefs,
    perspectives and concepts, judgments and
    expectations, methodologies and know-how.
  • Knowledge is the whole set of insights,
    experiences, and procedures that are considered
    correct and true and that therefore guide the
    thoughts, behaviors, and communications of the
  • Knowledge is reasoning about the information and
    data to actively enable performance,
    problem-solving, decision-making, learning, and

Difference between Data, Information, and
Knowledge (1)
Aamodt A., Nygard M. Different roles and mutual
dependencies of data, information and knowledge -
An AI perspective on their integration. Data
Knowledge Engineering, 1995.
Difference Between Data, Information, and
Knowledge (2)
1.      Adapted from
urric/ ICT/StudentWork/HannahSawyer.ppt
From data administration to KM
Roots of KM
  • Organizational science
  • Computer science and management information
  • Management science
  • Psychology and sociology

Related management areas
  • Change management
  • Quality management
  • Human resource management
  • Innovation management
  • Strategic management

Knowledge management definitions and components
  • KM Definitions
  • KM Components
  • KM system

KM Definitions (1)
  • Stress Systematic and Formal Aspects
  • Knowledge Management is a the systematic,
    explicit, and deliberate building, renewal, and
    application of knowledge to maximize an
    enterprises knowledge-related effectiveness and
    returns from its knowledge assets.
  • Knowledge Management is the formalization of and
    access to experience , Knowledge, and expertise
    that create new capabilities, enable superior
    performance, encourage innovation, and enhance
    custom value.
  • KM involves the identification and analysis of
    available and required knowledge, and the
    subsequent planning and control of actions to
    develop knowledge assets so as to fulfill
    organization objectives.

KM Definitions (2)
  • View KM as a Process
  • Knowledge Management is the process of creating
    value from an organizations intangible assets.
  • Knowledge Management is defined as a process
    through which organizations create, store and
    utilize their collective knowledge.
  • Knowledge Management is the process of capturing
    companys collective expertise whenever it
    resides-in databases, on paper, or in peoples
    heads-and distributing it to whenever if can help
    produces the biggest profit.

KM Definitions (3)
  • Focusing on Organizational Aspects
  • Knowledge Management is getting the right
    knowledge to the right people at the right time
    so they can make the best decision.
  • Knowledge Management is the art of creating value
    from an organizations intangible assets.
  • Knowledge Management is the explicit control and
    management of knowledge within the organization
    aimed at achieving the companys objective.
  • Knowledge Management means exactly the management
    of organizational knowledge of creating greater
    value and generating a competitive advantage.

KM components (1)
  • From the point of view of knowledge flow
  • The flow of knowledge
  • Knowledge cryptography
  • Communities of knowledge workers
  • Knowledge repositories and libraries

KM components (2)
  • From the technical viewpoint
  • Software interface
  • Access and authentication tools
  • Collaborative intelligence tools
  • Application level software
  • Transport level software
  • Middleware and legacy integration software
  • Repositories

KM system (1)
Relation of terms knowledge, KM life cycle, KM
KM system
KM life cycle
is used in
is supported by
KM system (2)
Knowledge management system (KMS) is an
information and communication technology (ICT)
system in the sense of an application system or
an ICT platform that combines and integrates
functions for the contextualized handling of
both, explicit and tacit knowledge, throughout
the organization or that part of the organization
that is targeted by a knowledge management
initiative. A KMS supports networks of knowledge
workers in the creation, construction,
identification, capturing, acquisition,
selection, valuation, organization, linking,
structuring, formalization, visualization,
distribution, retention, maintenance, refinement,
evolution, accessing, search and last but not
least the application of knowledge the aim of
which is to support the dynamics of
organizational learning and organizational
KM system (3)
Seven layers architecture for developing a KMS
Interface layer
Access and authentication layer
Collaborative intelligence and filtering
Application layer
Transport layer
Middleware and legacy integration layer
Knowledge sources and types
  • Knowledge sources
  • Knowledge types

Knowledge sources (1)
Kirikova M., Grundspenkis J., Types of Knowledge
and Knowledge Sources, Scientific Proceedings of
Riga Technical University, Computer Science, 2002.
Knowledge sources (2)
Kirikova M., Grundspenkis J., Types of Knowledge
and Knowledge Sources, Scientific Proceedings of
Riga Technical University, Computer Science, 2002.
Knowledge Types (1)
Knowledge Types (2)
  • Blacklers classification of knowledge
  • Embrained knowledge
  • Embodied knowledge
  • Encultured knowledge
  • Embedded knowledge
  • Encoded knowledge
  • Cognitive psychologists classification of
  • Declarative knowledge
  • Procedural knowledge
  • Strategic knowledge

Knowledge Types (3)
Kirikova M., Grundspenkis J., Types of Knowledge
and Knowledge Sources, Scientific Proceedings of
Riga Technical University, Computer Science, 2002.
Life cycles of organizational knowledge
  • Knowledge conversation as life cycle of
    organizational knowledge
  • The personal knowledge evolution cycle
  • The institutional knowledge evolution cycle

Knowledge conversation as life cycle of
organizational knowledge
Tacit knowledge
Explicit knowledge
Tacit knowledge
Explicit knowledge
Field Building
Linking Explicit Knowledge
Explicit knowledge
Learning by Doing
Explicit knowledge
Tacit knowledge
Nonaka I., Takeuchi H., The Knowledge-Creating
Company, 1995.
The knowledge life cycle in organizational
learning processes
Knowledge sources
Individual knowledge
Inter-subjective knowledge
repack reproduce
Institutionalized knowledge
Knowledge products services
Knowledge in use
Personal knowledge evolution cycle
  • Tacit subliminal knowledge
  • Idealistic vision and paradigm knowledge
  • Systematic schema and reference methodology
  • Pragmatic decision-making and factual knowledge
  • Automatic routine working knowledge

The institutional knowledge evolution cycle
  • Create new knowledge learn, innovate, and
  • Capture and store knowledge
  • Organize and transform knowledge
  • Deploy knowledge
  • Apply, use and leverage knowledge

Knowledge generation, codification and transfer
  • Knowledge generation
  • Knowledge codification
  • Knowledge transfer

Knowledge generation
The actual process of conducting research and
producing new knowledge
  • Five modes of knowledge generation
  • Acquisition
  • Dedicated resources
  • Fusion
  • Adaptation
  • Knowledge networking

Knowledge codification
The aim of knowledge codification is to put
organizational knowledge into a form that makes
it accessible to those who need it.
  • Possible forms of codified knowledge
  • Documented knowledge
  • Mapped knowledge
  • Modeled knowledge
  • Knowledge codified in systems

Knowledge transfer (1)
Knowledge transfer is the process of passing
available knowledge to specified audiences
  • Functionalities
  • channel identification and choice,
  • scheduling, and
  • sending
  • Aspects of knowledge transfer
  • hard aspects focus on improved access to
    knowledge (information), electronic
    communication, document repositories, and so
  • soft aspects focus on human face-to-face
    communication (meetings, talk rooms etc.).

Knowledge transfer (2)
Complete knowledge transfer

organizations ability to do things and increase
its value
Typologies of KM sub-processes
  • Knowledge management process
  • Role of KM process in organization

KM process (1)
Knowledge Acquisition
Knowledge Sharing
Knowledge Utilization
KM process (2)
Create Knowledge
Organize Knowledge
Value Knowledge
Store Knowledge
Distribute Knowledge
Apply Knowledge
Feedback Knowledge
KM process (3)
Identify knowledge
Process triggering
Define knowledge goals
Create knowledge
Store knowledge
Continuously reproducing
Distribute knowledge
Apply knowledge
KM process (4)
KM process (5)
Knowledge Generation
Knowledge Codification
Knowledge Transfer
Role of KM process in organization
Apšvalka D, Zinašanu parvaldibas metožu lietojums
organizaciju intelektuala kapitala izmantošanai,
Masters thesis, Riga Technical University, 2003.
KM approaches
  • Process-centred and Product-centred
  • Enabling knowledge creation
  • Business process oriented knowledge management

Process-centered Product-centered approach (1)
  • Product-centered
  • Product-centered approach focuses on knowledge
    documents, their creation, storage and reuse in
    computer-based corporate memories.
  • It is called also IT-based approach.
  • The typical goal is to take documents with
    knowledge embedded in them and store them in a
    repository where they can be easily retrieved.

Process-centered Product-centered approach (2)
  • Process-centered
  • Process-centered approach mainly understands
    Knowledge Management as a social communication
  • Knowledge is closely tied to the person who
    develops it and is shared mainly trough
  • The main purpose of Information Technology in
    this approach is to help people communicate with
    knowledge, not to store it.
  • The underlying strategy here is to facilitate
    connections between those people who possess
    knowledge and those who need knowledge.

Process-centered Product-centered (3)
Product process centered approaches in KM
Enabling knowledge creation (1)
  • This approach is emphasised on the assumption
    that knowledge cannot be managed, it is only
  • In this approach managers need to support
    knowledge creation rather than control it, and it
    is called knowledge enabling
  • Knowledge is dynamically created in social
    interactions and has a subjective nature deeply
    rooted in individual value systems
  • Enabling knowledge creation includes facilitating
    relationships and conversations as well as
    sharing local knowledge across an organisation or
    beyond geographic and cultural borders.

Enabling knowledge creation (2)
  • Five knowledge enablers
  • Instil a knowledge vision
  • Manage conversation
  • Mobilise knowledge activists
  • Create the right context
  • Globalise local knowledge

Enabling knowledge creation (3)
Krogh G., Ichijo K., Nonaka I., Enabling
Knowledge Creation, Oxford University Press, 2000.
Business process oriented KM (1)
  • The operative methods and procedures used to
    generate, store, distribute and apply knowledge
    differ according to particular business process.
  • These specific methods have to be integrated into
    a knowledge management approach that is oriented
    towards business process
  • Corporate culture is an interwoven network of
    different professional cultures, functional
  • Knowledge management tasks have to be combined
    with daily work tasks and integrated into the
    daily business processes.

Business process oriented KM (2)
  • Systematic methods to integrate KM activities
    into the business processes
  • The business knowledge management approach
  • The knowledge value chain approach
  • The building block approach
  • The model-based knowledge management approach
  • The reference-model for knowledge management

Knowledge Assets
  • Definitions and types of knowledge assets
  • Intellectual capital
  • Identifying knowledge assets
  • Evaluating knowledge assets

Definitions and types of knowledge assets (1)
  • Definitions of Knowledge Assets
  • Knowledge assets are the knowledge regarding
    markets, products, technologies and
    organizations, that a business owns or needs to
    own and which enable its business processes to
    generate profits, add value, etc.
  • Knowledge asset is a guidance and support
    information, owned by the organization, that
    enhance stakeholders ability to accomplish work
  • Knowledge assets include all the underlying
    skills, routines, practices, principles,
    formulas, methods, heuristics and intuitions,
    whether explicit or tacit and all the
    data-bases, manuals, reference works, textbooks,
    diagrams, displays, computer files, and artifacts
    in which both facts and procedures are recorded
    and stored.

Definitions and types of knowledge assets (2)
  • Types of knowledge assets
  • Human knowledge assets - capabilities of the
  • Structural knowledge assets - organizational
    capabilities to meet market requirements
  • Market knowledge assets - to knowledge about the
    market, the company's clients, partners,
    competitors, etc

Intellectual capital
  • Definition
  • Intellectual capital is knowledge that can be
    converted into value
  • Intellectual capital consists of
  • Human capital the tacit knowledge embedded in
    the minds of the employees
  • Structural capital the organizational routines
    of the business
  • Relational capital the knowledge embedded in
    the relationships established with the outside

Identifying knowledge assets
  • Identify most important knowledge
  • Determine where it is most at risk to "brain
  • Identify experts (the people with the knowledge)
    both internally and outside the company
  • Learn how to capture and package knowledge
    (create knowledge assets)

Evaluating knowledge assets
  • Elements for evaluating knowledge potential
  • Knowledge relevance indicator
  • Knowledge connectivity factor
  • Knowledge activation factor
  • Added value in context
  • Knowledge capturing and learning

Concepts of memory in Knowledge Management
  • Human memory
  • Organizational memory
  • Organizational memory system
  • Organizational learning

Human memory (1)
  • Definitions
  • Memory is ability to store and retrieve
  • Memory is a basic human ability that allows us to
    recall past events and knowledge. It is a concept
    whose importance stems from the fact that our
    understanding of time is one directional,
    forward, and all of our current actions depend
    upon the past knowledge and future expectations
  • Memory is the retention of, and ability to
    recall, information, personal experiences, and
    procedures (skills and habits)

Human memory (2)
  • Three important factors concerning with memories
  • Memories are constructions made in accordance
    with present needs, desires, influences, etc.
  • Memories are often accompanied by feelings and
  • Memory usually involves awareness of the memory

Human memory (3)
  • Structure of memory
  • Memory is a set of encoded neural connections
  • Encoding can take place in several parts of the
  • The stronger the connections, the stronger the
  • Recollection of an event can occur by a stimulus
    to any of the parts of the brain where a neural
    connection for the memory occurs

Human memory (4)
  • Stores and processes of human memory

Deleted if not needed
Sensory store
Short term store
Long term store
Human memory (5)
  • Taxonomy of human memory

Adapted from Steven P.R. Rose,
Organizational memory (1)
  • Definitions
  • Repository for the knowledge developed jointly by
    multiple individual firm members in the
    amplification of individual learning to firm
    level learning
  • Involves the use of five storage bins individual
    firm members, organizational culture,
    transformation, structure, and ecology
  • organizational memory has four dimensions
  • level refers simply to the amount of knowledge
    an organization has accumulated
  • dispersion the extent to which memory is shared
    and spread across the organization by the
    organizational members
  • accessibility refers to the extent to which
    memory can be retrieved for use
  • content concerns the meaning of memory in terms
    of whether it is procedural (involving skills and
    competencies) or declarative (involving facts or

Organizational memory (2)
  • Content of organizational memory
  • Knowledge
  • Explanations
  • Predictions
  • Action-outcome theories
  • Paradigm
  • Norms
  • Values
  • Beliefs
  • Information
  • Potential knowledge
  • Organizational memory carrier
  • Organizationally accessible human capital
  • Domain
  • General

Organizational memory (3)
  • Organizational memory processes
  • Storing organizational memory
  • Retrieving organizational memory
  • Representing organizational memory

Organizational memory system (1)
System that functions to provide a means by which
knowledge from the past is brought to bear on
present activities, thus resulting in increased
level of effectiveness for the organization
Organizational memory system (2)
  • Six perspectives on organizational memory system
  • OMS as a new type of the use of application
  • OMS as a concept
  • OMS in a functional view
  • OMS as a property of information systems
  • OMS in a behaviorists view
  • OMS in a technological view

Organizational memory system (3)
  • Organizational memory system enabling software
  • Databases handling of data about memory
  • Expert systems formalized memory in memory
    base, and formal inference capabilities in
    inference engine
  • Case-based reasoning case descriptions by key
    terms in base, and retrieval of case by inference
  • Hypertext hypermedia multi-media objects and
    a uniform user-interface consisting of links
    between key terms
  • E-mail and its GroupWare variants computer
    network and software to handle electronic
    conversations (from very formal to very informal)
  • Model bases database consisting of mathematical
    models that can be used to process data
  • And other.

Organizational memory system (4)
  • Organizational memory system hardware components
  • A filling system, containing an acquisition
    module, a classifier model and an insertation
  • A retrieval system, containing a browser and a
    query system module
  • An interface system, for interfacing the
    filing/retrieval subsystems and the model and
    memory contents servers.

Organizational learning (1)
  • Learning is the transformation (development,
    maintenance and use) of organizational memory.
  • Organizations learn in three ways
  • single-loop
  • double-loop and
  • deutero

Organizational learning (2)
  • The essence of learning organization
  • Continuous learning at the systems level
  • Knowledge generation and sharing
  • Critical, systemic thinking
  • A culture of learning
  • A spirit of flexibility and experimentation
  • People-centered

Knowledge management tools
  • Tools for knowledge socialization
  • Tools for knowledge externalization
  • Tools for knowledge combination
  • Tools for knowledge internalization
  • Software for collaboration

Tools for knowledge socialization (1)
  • Communication enablers

Conversations at the water cooler or in the
company cafeteria are often occasions for
knowledge transfer
Telephone also is a form of knowledge transfer
through conversation
Chat is another form of informal knowledge
transfer through personal conversation to
electronic conversation.
Tools for knowledge socialization (2)
  • Video conferencing
  • Is used to see the person or group with whom you
    are working virtually
  • Combine virtuality with face-to-face
    collaboration. It enables people to exchange both
    video and audio across a distributed network
  • Allows people to meet face to face in small or
    large groups with colleagues for meetings,
    corporate training, and distance learning
    programs without participants being required to
    travel to a central location

Tools for knowledge socialization (3)
  • Web Conferencing
  • Enables virtual meetings where users from
    different locations connect, conduct meetings,
    and share information as if everyone were in the
    same room
  • Allow participants to collaborate, share
    documents, and can add content to them
  • Two Types of Web Conferencing
  • Real-time conferencing
  • Non-real time conferencing

Tools for knowledge socialization (4)
  • Digital Whiteboards
  • Permits real time display of drawings, pictures
    or documents for group discussion and comment
  • Can capture whatever is drawn on regular paper
    notepads, and store as image on a personal
  • Can be networked to allow multi-user
    collaboration over the Internet

Tools for knowledge socialization (5)
  • Bulletin boards
  • Bulletin boards are used to post notices and
    facilitate discussions on any topic
  • Electronic bulletin boards allow users to publish
    live, digital content to public spaces
  • Two types
  • Simple bulletin boards
  • Electronic bulletin boards

Tools for knowledge externalization (1)
  • Expert systems
  • Knowledge intensive computer programs that
    capture the expertise of a human in limited
    domains of knowledge
  • Include rule-based systems, decision trees and
    also case-based reasoning systems
  • Arrives at intelligent solutions to user queries
    by using the rules contained in the systems
    knowledge base

IF condition THEN do this ELSE do
something else
Tools for knowledge externalization (2)
  • Yellow Pages
  • Web-searchable electronic version of skills list
  • Pointers to expertise
  • Helps on locating and discovering organizational
  • Sample key entries in Yellow Pages
  • Persons name
  • Contact information (address, e-mail, telephone,
    web page)
  • Professional background
  • Practical experience
  • Training

Tools for knowledge externalization (3)
The idea of Yellow Pages
Tools for knowledge externalization (4)
  • Knowledge maps
  • Graphical representation of knowledge and its
    relation to organizational concepts
  • A form for categorizing organizational knowledge
    systematically mapping them
  • Consists of elements that in fact are pointers to
  • Are designed to help people find where they have
    to go to get the required knowledge
  • Yellow Pages also can be organized as a knowledge
    map by categorizing and representing personal
    profile data in specific manner

Tools for knowledge externalization (5)
Yellow Pages as a knowledge map
Tools for knowledge externalization (6)
  • Data warehouse
  • Collection of summarized data from various
    sources, structured and optimized for query
    access using OLAP (on-line analytical processing)
    query tools
  • Organize and collect data into databases
  • Are used to hold explicit knowledge which helps
    people to create new tacit knowledge
  • Helps company personnel to identify hidden
    business opportunities
  • Improves productivity through improved access to
    information and knowledge

Tools for knowledge externalization (7)
  • Intelligent Agent-based tools
  • Filtering, editing, searching, and organizing
    pieces of knowledge are essential though
    frequently overlooked components of successful
    knowledge management
  • Search tools need to integrate knowledge latently
    existing in a companys transaction databases,
    data warehouses, discussion databases, documents,
    informal media, and, most importantly, in
    peoples mind
  • Different types of intelligent agents
  • Search agents
  • Browsing agents
  • Monitoring agents
  • E Commerce agents
  • Mail agents
  • Web mastering agents

Tools for knowledge combination (1)
  • Intranets
  • Designed to focus on the employee, and on
    improving workflow and business processes
  • Useful for knowledge distribution, connectivity,
    and publishing
  • Intranet is not only a connection medium but also
    a knowledge base
  • Owing to their consistent, platform-independent
    access formats such as rich HTML, and a common,
    consistent protocol (HTTP), makes it possible to
    access and view documents of different file
    format, operating system, or communication
  • Besides information distribution and publication,
    intranets provide the backbone platform for push
    delivery of information to users desktops

Tools for knowledge combination (2)
  • Groupware
  • Software that supports communication and
    collaboration between people
  • Groupware tools provide a document repository,
    remote integration, and a base for collaborative
  • Groupware tools consist of
  • Group calendars
  • Project management module
  • File management
  • Yellow Pages
  • Mail fax support
  • Forum chat
  • Voting system
  • Search
  • Bulletin boards
  • Conferencing
  • And other

Tools for knowledge combination (3)
  • Forums
  • In forums topics are posted to a website for
    discussion and comment where participants can
    follow a line of discussion on a topic
  • These discussions give rise to a library of
    information on a wide variety of subjects
  • New knowledge can be transmitted via the forums
    to others who have similar problems

Tools for knowledge combination (4)
  • Workflow management systems
  • Workflow can be described simply as the movement
    of documents and tasks through a business process
  • Workflow Management Systems allow organizations
    to define and control the various activities
    associated with a business process
  • Categories of workflow applications
  • Production Workflow Systems
  • Messaging-based Workflow Systems
  • Web-based Workflow Systems
  • Suite-based Workflow Systems

Tools for knowledge combination (5)
  • Balanced scorecard
  • The balanced scorecard is a management system
    (not only a measurement system) that enables
    organizations to clarify their vision and
    strategy and translate them into action
  • It provides feedback around both the internal
    business processes and external outcomes
  • The balanced scorecard retains traditional
    financial measures

Tools for knowledge combination (6)
Four dimensions of balanced scorecard
Tools for knowledge internalization (1)
  • Neural networks
  • Neural network is a hardware and software that
    attempt to emulate the processing patterns of the
    biological brain
  • Neural networks have learning capabilities
  • A generic artificial neural network can be
    defined as a computational system consisting of a
    set of highly interconnected processing elements,
    called neurons
  • Neural network becomes immensely promising when
    you have data but lack experts to make judgments
    about it
  • But it is necessary to spend much time training
    the neural network, cleaning up data, and

Tools for knowledge internalization (2)
  • Some points how neural networks can be used
  • Neural networks can be developed for capturing
    the meaning of words relative to the context in
    which they appear
  • Neural networks can be used in data mining
  • Neural networks have been much applied within the
    medical domain. For example, for clinical
    diagnosis, image analysis and interpretation,
    signal analysis and interpretation, drug
  • Many other fields

Tools for knowledge internalization (3)
  • Case-based reasoning
  • Case-based reasoning approach allows companies to
    learn from previous problems or cases to solve
    the present problems similar to the past ones
  • The case-based reasoner solves new problems by
    using or adapting solutions that were used to
    solve old problems
  • Using past knowledge gained from several projects
    reduce the task to a simple match and
    cut-and-paste job
  • Solving the problem by analogy make the process
    of arriving at the solution faster, better, and
    easier than it would have been had if started
    from scratch

Tools for knowledge internalization (4)
The idea of case-based reasoning
Software for collaboration (1)
  • Tacit Active Net
  • Helps to find people
  • Initiate and manage collaboration
  • Coordinate your activities automatically with
    those of other people across the enterprise
  • Automatically learns about people's activities
    and focus, and identifies who should be talking
    or working together
  • Makes it easy to locate and share files, find
    answers to questions, or find the online
    conversations you should join

Software for collaboration (2)
  • Tacit ESP
  • Flexible software foundation for complete
    collaboration management
  • Automatically discovers an individuals business
    activity and expertise

Software for collaboration (3)
  • Tacit Knowledge Mail
  • Automatically learns about the work-focus,
    interests, and experiences of each user
  • Intelligently distinguish between critical
    business knowledge and noise
  • Dynamic search and information-routing
    capabilities are integrated directly into
    Microsoft Outlook and Lotus Notes

Knowledge Engineering in Knowledge Management
  • Definition of knowledge engineering
  • Differences between knowledge management and
    knowledge engineering
  • Applying Knowledge Engineering to Knowledge

Definition of knowledge engineering
  • Knowledge Engineering is the process used to
    acquire and structure information about a
    subject. This approach serves to guide
    development of the integrated knowledge base
    required for problem solving and decision making
    and identify deficiencies in the knowledge base
    needed for planning new research
  • Knowledge Engineering (KE) is a field within
    Artificial Intelligence that develops Knowledge
    Based Systems
  • Knowledge consists of truths, and Beliefs,
    perspectives and concepts, judgments and
    expectations, methodologies and know-how
  • Knowledge is the whole set of insights,
    experiences, and procedures that are considered
    correct and true and that therefore guide the
    thoughts, behaviors, and communications of the

Differences between knowledge management and
knowledge engineering
Applying Knowledge Engineering to Knowledge
Management (1)
  • Knowledge enfineering process
  • Knowledge Acquisition
  • Generation
  • Preservation
  • Exploration
  • Interpretation
  • Knowledge Elicitation
  • Make process in the human brain transparent
  • Transfer experts knowledge to create tangible
  • Knowledge Representation
  • Providing of theories and systems for expressing
    structured knowledge and for accessing and
    reasoning with it in a principled way.

Applying Knowledge Engineering to Knowledge
Management (2)
Combining the KM KE processes
Knowledge Management
Knowledge Engineering
Identify Capture
Test Evaluate
Liebowitz J. Knowledge Management Learning from
Knowledge Engineering, CRC Press, 2001.
KM Platforms
  • Lotus Notes and Domino
  • The 4Keeps knowledge management platform
  • NIONEX knowledge management platform
  • Ontology Middleware Platform for Real-World
    Knowledge Management

Lotus Notes and Domino (1)
Integrated, Web-like environment that provides
users with quicker access to and better
management of many types of information including
Domino and Internet-based e-mail, calendar of
appointments, personal contacts and to-dos as
well as Web pages, News Groups and intranet
  • Focuses on
  • Human side of E- business
  • Enabling people to use ground-breaking technology
    to collaborate
  • Learn and fully leverage their collective
    knowledge to achieve success

Lotus Notes Domino (2)
  • Features
  • Submit (check-in) documents, deliverables
    (project plans, drawings, ideas, architectures,
    patentable material, etc.), and other
    collaborative content that contains intellectual
  • Store this in a repository that allows version
    control, check-out
  • Trigger approval process using workflow to
    review, revise, and approve
  • Alternatively leverage forms/templates
  • Promote quality, reuse
  • Provide information about the content (summaries,
    catalog, top 10 list)
  • Search/Navigate using a taxonomy, etc.
  • Locate experts in relevant topics
  • Generate reports on knowledge gaps, usage, other

The 4Keeps KM platform
  • Integrated set of tools and technologies for
    building modeling tools
  • Its purpose is to allow organizations to build
    and deploy knowledge management systems
  • Provides an integrated environment for managing
    enterprise business information which is tailored
    to fit an organizations particular business
  • Features
  • Repository based solutions
  • Leverage existing tools
  • Validate
  • Web-enabled

NIONEX KM platform
  • Developed on the basis of a very successful
    knowledge portal
  • Permits components and functionality's such as
    content management systems, e-learning and
    established portal applications to be easily
    integrated into the platform to meet your
  • The NIONEX knowledge management platform is a
    differentiated further development of the
    technology framework that was used for three
    outstanding knowledge portals
  •, the largest free-of-charge European
    knowledge portal
  • Wissens-Center, the subscriber restricted
    e-learning portal with the highest sales volume
    in Europe
  •, the first and most successful
    knowledge portal in Italy

Ontology Middleware Platform for Real-World
Knowledge Management (1)
Administrative software infrastructure that makes
the rest of the modules in a knowledge management
toolset easier for integration in real-world
  • Features
  • Versioning (tracking changes) of knowledge bases
  • Access control (security) system
  • Meta-information for knowledge bases.

Ontology Middleware Platform for Real-World
Knowledge Management (2)
  • Features of provided infrastructure
  • A repository providing the basic storage services
    in a scalable and reliable fashion
  • Multi-protocol clients access to allow different
    users and applications to use the system via the
    most efficient transportation media
  • Knowledge control
  • Support for pluggable reasoning modules suitable
    for various domains and applications

Knowledge Management andInformation Systems
  • Role of information in knowledge creation
  • Role of IS in Knowledge Management

Role of information in knowledge creation
Apšvalka D, Zinašanu parvaldibas metožu lietojums
organizaciju intelektuala kapitala izmantošanai,
Masters thesis, Riga Technical University, 2003
Role of IS in Knowledge Management (1)
  • IS that support information flow are one
    essential component in knowledge management
  • IS and IT create a virtual environment for
    knowledge management
  • The information specialist brings a fundamental
    skill to the knowledge environment
  • Organization cannot develop a knowledge
    management environment without opening up
    information flows and providing access to
    appropriate information, nor without managing its
    store of explicit intellectual assets

Role of IS in Knowledge Management (2)
  • What is needed from IT and IS in knowledge
  • Information architecture that include
  • languages, categories and metaphors for
  • identifying and accounting for skills and
  • Technical architectures that
  • are open, flexible and social
  • show respect for the individual
  • empower users
  • Application architectures that focus on
  • problem solving, relationship building and
    representation rather,
  • than on output and transactions

Role of IS in Knowledge Management (3)
IS (part of KMS)
deals with
Hard information/knowledge
Soft information/knowledge
Implementing Knowledge Management in
  • 10-step roadmap
  • American Productivity Quality Centers roadmap
  • Seven Steps to implementing KM in your

10-step roadmap (1)
  • Four phases

Infrastructural Evaluation
KM system analysis, design, and development
System development
Performance evaluation
10-step roadmap (2)
  • Phase 1 Infrastructural evaluation
  • Step 1 Analyzing existing infrastructure
  • Step 2 Aligning knowledge management and business
  • Phase 2 KM system analysis, design, and
  • Step 3 Designing the knowledge management
    architecture and integrating existing
  • Step 4 Auditing and analyzing existing knowledge
  • Step 5 Designing the knowledge management team
  • Step 6 Creating the knowledge management
  • Step 7 Developing the knowledge management system

10-step roadmap (3)
  • Phase 3 System Deployment
  • Step 8 Deploying with RDI methodology
  • Step 9 Change management, culture, reward
    structure design, and choice of the CKO
  • Phase 4 Performance Evaluation
  • Step 10 Measuring results of knowledge
    management, devising ROI metrics, and evaluating
    system performance.

American Productivity Quality Centers roadmap
  • Five stages

Get started
Develop a strategy
Design and lunch a KM initiative
Expand and support
Institutionalize KM
American productivity quality centers road map
  • Stage I Get Started
  • Activity 1 Make the concepts of KM real for
    others in your organization
  • Activity 2 Identify others to support the
    development of KM
  • Activity 3 Look for windows of opportunity to
    introduce the benefits of KM
  • Activity 4 Capitalize on the Internet and enlist
    the IT department to provide tools and a balanced
    view of KM
  • Stage II Develop a Strategy
  • Activity 1 Form a KM task force
  • Activity 2 Select pilots or identify current
    initiatives that could work as pilots
  • Activity 3 Find the resources to support the pilot

American productivity quality centers road map
  • Stage III Design and Lunch a KM Initiative
  • Activity 1 Fund the pilots
  • Activity 2 Develop methodologies that can be
  • Activity 3 Capture lessons learned
  • Stage IV Expand and Support
  • Activity 4 Develop an expansion strategy
  • Activity 5 Communicate and market the strategy
  • Activity 6 Manage growth

American productivity quality centers road map
  • Stage V Institutionalize Knowledge Management
  • Activity 1 Embed KM in the business model
  • Activity 2 Realign the organization's structure
    and budget
  • Activity 3 Monitor the health of KM
  • Activity 4 Align performance evaluation and
    rewards with KM strategy
  • Activity 5 Balance an organizational KM framework
    with local control
  • Activity 6 Continue the journey

Seven Steps to implementing KM in your
organization (1)
  • Step 1 KM Vision Development
  • Understanding where your organisation is now in
    terms of KM
  • Identifying where your organisation wants to be
  • Using the KM vision framework to identify a
  • Step 2 Knowledge Assessment
  • Identify the areas of knowledge most important to
    the business
  • Which knowledge assets would be of most value to
    the business to better develop and leverage
  • Assessing the organizational readiness

Seven Steps to implementing KM in your
organization (2)
  • Step 3 KM Strategy and Framework development
  • Prominent KM strategies
  • Review of different KM frameworks
  • Development of KM strategies and frameworks for
    your organization
  • Step 4 KM Business Case Support
  • Why do we need a business case
  • What are the essential components to include in
    your business case
  • Step 5 New KM roles and responsibilities
  • What are the new KM roles and responsibilities
  • Knowledge architecture
  • Rewards and recognition

Seven Steps to implementing KM in your
organization (3)
  • Step 6 Implement KM processes and technologies
  • KM enabling your processes
  • Available KM technologies
  • Step 7 Measure and improve
  • 7 steps for developing measurements
  • Knowledge asset accounting
  • Starting your KM initiative

  • Tiwana A. The Knowledge Management Toolkit,
    Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 2000.
  • Srikantaiah T.K. and Koenig M.E.D. (Eds.).
    Knowledge Management for Information
    Professionals, ASIS Monograph Series, 1999.
  • Liebowitz J. (Ed.). Knowledge Management
    Handbook, CRC Press, 1999.
  • Berghoff U.M. and Pareshi R. (Eds.). Information
    Technology for Knowledge Management,
    Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998.

  • Wess G. (Ed.). Multiagent Systems. A Modern
    Approach to Distributed Artificial Intelligence,
    The MIT Press, 2000.
  • Knapik M. and Johnson J. Developing Intelligent
    Agents for Distributed Systems, McGraw-Hill,
  • Krogh G.V. , Ichijo K., Nonaka I. Enabling
    Knowledge Creation How to Unlock the Mystery of
    Tacit Knowledge and Release the power of
    Innovation, Oxford Uniersity Press, 2000.
  • Wijnhowen F. Managing Dynamic Organisational
    Memories, Boxwood Press, 1999.

  • Brooking A. Corporate Memory Strategies for
    Knowledge Management, International Thomson
    Business Press, 1999
  • Davenport Th. H. and Prusak L. Working Knowledge,
    Harward Business School Press, 1998.
  • Nonaka I. and Takeuchi H. The Knowledge-Creating
    Company How Japanesse Companies Companies Create
    Dynamics of Innovation, Oxford University Press,
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