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Jim Crow and Civil Rights


Jim Crow and Civil Rights The African American Experience Guiding Questions: What difference did the rise of Jim Crow policies make in the day-to-day lives of African ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Jim Crow and Civil Rights

Jim Crow and Civil Rights
  • The African American Experience

Guiding Questions
  • What difference did the rise of Jim Crow policies
    make in the day-to-day lives of African Americans
    at the turn of the century?
  • How did African Americans respond to the racial
    hostility they experienced in the Jim Crow era?

What was Jim Crow?
  • The legal and extralegal forms of racial
  • A system of racial domination

When and where did the Jim Crow system exist?
  • 1880s-1900s codification of the separation of
    blacks and whites
  • De jure segregation vs. de factor segregation
  • North and South

  • C. Vann Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow,
    "segregation would have been impractical under
  • Discuss this statement
  • For additional reading see http//www.vcdh.virgin

Why race relations worsened in the late 1880s
and 1890s is a hotly contested question.
  • it reflected the collapse of the cotton economy,
    which led many whites to search for scapegoats.
  • also related to a fear among many southern whites
    that a new generation of African Americans which
    had been born after the Civil War and not been
    subjected to slavery would not defer to white
  • a reaction against the increasing economic
    independence of southern blacks. From 1880 to
    1900, black farm ownership increased from 19.6 to
    25.4 percent, while sharecropping, declined from
    54.4. to 37.9 percent.

A System of Racial Domination
  • Economics
  • Politics
  • Social

Jim Crow
  • Must help students understand that Jim Crow was
    more than a series of strict anti-black laws. It
    was a way of life.
  • List of typical Jim Crow laws
  • Barbers. No colored barber shall serve as a
    barber (to) white girls or women (Georgia).
  • Blind Wards. The board of trustees
    shall...maintain a separate building...on
    separate ground for the admission, care,
    instruction, and support of all blind persons of
    the colored or black race (Louisiana).
  • Burial. The officer in charge shall not bury, or
    allow to be buried, any colored persons upon
    ground set apart or used for the burial of white
    persons (Georgia).
  • See What Was Jim Crow? by Dr. David Pilgrim at

Jim Crow etiquette
  • A black male could not offer his hand (to shake
    hands) with a white male because it implied being
    socially equal. Blacks and whites were not
    supposed to eat together. If they did eat
    together, whites were to be served first, and
    some sort of partition was to be placed between
  • Whites did not use courtesy titles of respect
    when referring to blacks, for example, Mr., Mrs.,
    Miss., Sir, or Ma'am. Instead, blacks were called
    by their first names. Blacks had to use courtesy
    titles when referring to whites, and were not
    allowed to call them by their first names. If a
    black person rode in a car driven by a white
    person, the black person sat in the back seat or
    the back of a truck. White motorists had the
    right-of-way at all intersections.

Race and Place
Social Jim Crowism Segregated Transportation
  • Challenges against Segregated Transportation (see
    All the Women were White)
  • Niagara Movement (see next slide)
  • The Niagara Movement was organized in 1905 by
    W.E.B. DuBois, William Monroe Trotter, Ida Wells
    Barnett, and other middle-class but militant
    Black intellectuals. It was a repudiation of the
    conservative and stifling leadership of Booker T.
    Washington and the Tuskegee Machine. (see The
    Niagara Movement Declaration of Principles at
    http//www.yale.edu/glc/archive/1152.htm )
  • The NAACP was formed in 1909 through the merger
    of two organizations the Niagara Movement and
    the National Negro Conference.

The black laws / speech of Hon. B.W. Arnett of
Greene County, and Hon. J.A. Brown of Cuyahoga
County, in the Ohio House of Representatives,
March 10, 1886.
  • Members of the Ohio House of Representatives
    will be astonished when I tell them that I have
    traveled in this free country for twenty hours
    without anything to eat not because I had no
    money to pay for it, but because I was colored.
    Other passengers of a lighter hue had breakfast,
    dinner and supper. In traveling we are thrown in
    "jim crow" cars, denied the privilege of buying a
    berth in the sleeping coach. This monster caste
    stands at the doors of the theatres and skating
    rinks, locks the doors of the pews in our
    fashionable churches, closes the mouths of some
    of the ministers in their pulpits which prevents
    the man of color from breaking the bread of life
    to his fellowmen.
  • This foe of my race stands at the school house
    door and separates the children, by reason of
    color, and denies to those who have a visible
    admixture of African blood in them the blessings
    of a graded school and equal privileges...We call
    upon all friends of Equal Rights to assist us in
    this struggle to secure the blessings of
    untrammeled liberty for ourselves and prosperity.

Excerpt of The Niagara Movement Declaration of
Principles (1905)
  • Protest We refuse to allow the impression to
    remain that the Negro-American assents to
    inferiority, is submissive under oppression and
    apologetic before insults. Through helplessness
    we may submit, but the voice of protest of ten
    million Americans must never cease to assail the
    ears of their fellows, so long as America is
  • Color-Line Any discrimination based simply on
    race or color is barbarous, we care not how
    hallowed it be by custom, expediency or
    prejudice. Differences made on account of
    ignorance, immorality, or disease are legitimate
    methods of fighting evil, and against them we
    have no word of protest but discriminations
    based simply and solely on physical
    peculiarities, place of birth, color of skin, are
    relics of that unreasoning human savagery of
    which the world is and ought to be thoroughly
  • "Jim Crow" Cars We protest against the "Jim
    Crow" car, since its effect is and must be to
    make us pay first-class fare for third-class
    accommodations, render us open to insults and
    discomfort and to crucify wantonly our manhood,
    womanhood and self-respect.

Economic Jim Crowism
Sharecropping System the dominate form of
labor relations
  • What did black farmers want?
  • What did white planters want?
  • Cycle of debt
  • fixing the books
  • settlin time
  • Debt peonage
  • Credit system
  • Vagrancy laws
  • Convict lease system
  • Involuntary servitude

Sharecropper Contract, 1882
  • To every one applying to rent land upon shares,
    the following conditions must be
  • read, and agreed to.
  • To every 30 and 35 acres, I agree to furnish the
    team, plow, and farming
  • implements . . . The croppers are to have half of
    the cotton, corn, and fodder (and peas
  • and pumpkins and potatoes if any are planted) if
    the following conditions are complied
  • with, but-if not-they are to have only two-fifths
    (2/5) . . . All must work under my
  • direction.
  • . . . No cropper is to work off the plantation
    when there is any work to be done on
  • the land he has rented, or when his work is
    needed by me or other croppers.
  • . . . Every cropper must feed or have fed, the
    team he works, Saturday nights,
  • Sundays, and every morning before going to work,
    beginning to feed his team (morning,
  • noon, and night every day in the week) on the day
    he rents and feeding it to including the
  • 31st day of December. ...for every time he so
    fails he must pay me five cents.
  • The sale of every cropper's part of the cotton to
    be made by me when and where I
  • choose to sell, and after deducting all they owe
    me and all sums that I may be responsible
  • for on their accounts, to pay them their half of
    the net proceeds. Work of every
  • description, particularly the work on fences and
    ditches, to be done to my satisfaction,
  • and must be done over until I am satisfied that
    it is done as it should be.
  • SOURCE Grimes Family Papers, Southern Historical
    Collection, University of North

SharecroppingContinuity or Change?
Frustrated SharecroppersRobert Curtis Smith
(turn of the century) in Litwack, Trouble in
Mind, p. 134
  • If you make a crop and dont clear nothin and
    you still wound up won on your sharecrop and on
    your furnish and you try to move, well the
    police be after you then all right. But if youre
    clear well mostly, you cant go too far because of
    the money. If you move, or if you try to move,
    they know if they like the way you work they make
    you pay somethin just for holdin the house up.
    If, after you pay that you want to move, well you
    cant go too far becauseyou gonne need money to
    carry you on to the place where you can get work.
    And if you caint get work at one place you go to
    the next place, but you caint go too far, because
    you aint got enough in hand to go that far.

Sharecropping in Virginia
  • http//www.mcps.org/ss/5thgrade/ShareCropTN.pdf

How did African Americans respond to the limits
of Southern labor systems?
  • Maintain self-sufficiency
  • Tenancy
  • A tenant owned the crop he produced, the
    sharecropper did not
  • Black womens labor

  • In the rural South, blacks lived in the same
    housing that had been built for slaves. What did
    this housing look like?
  • When did housing improve? How?

  • 1895-1896, U.S. Department of Agriculture report
    on housing in the Tuskegee region of Alabama
  • Practically all the negroes live in cabins,
    generally built of logs, with only one or at most
    two rooms. The spaces between the logs were
    either left open, admitting free passage of the
    wind in winter as well as in summer, or were
    chinked with earth or occasionally with pieces of
    board. The roofs were covered with coarse
    shingles or boards and were apt to be far from
    tight. The windows had no sash or glass, but
    instead, wooden blinds, which were kept open in
    all weather to admit the light.

W. E. B. Du Bois (1908)
  • As cooking, washing and sleeping go on in the
    same room an accumulation of stale sickly odors
    are manifest to every visitorA room so largely
    in use is with difficulty to kept clean.
    .animals stray into the house there are either
    no privies or bad ones facilities for bathing
    even the face and hands are poorThe average
    country home leaks in the roof and is poorly
    protected against changes in the weather. A hard
    storm means the shutting out of all air and
    light cold weather leads to overheating,
    draughts, or poor ventilation hot weather breeds

Georgia farm operator (turn of the century)
  • The original plantation houses of the South, I
    regret to say, were mostly 1-room affairs, 20 or
    25 feet square, and those were mostly of logs.
    The modern house is a frame house, boarded and
    sheathed with 3 rooms a general family room,
    which is used only to put the family bed in and
    then a separate bedroom, and a kitchen. The
    general modern tenant house is a 3-room house.

1901, Georgia commissioner of Agriculture
  • Landlords have been forced to build better tenant
    houses and provide them with modern systems that
    are adapted all around, in order to retain and
    keep the best labor. That is really the way that
    a great many of our best people succeed in
    keeping their labor, and the better class of
    labor, by making everything around them as
    comfortable as possible.

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Sharecroppers cabin
The Politicsof Jim Crow
  • Disfranchisement and Political Intimidation

Disfranchisement 2 Parts
  • Disfranchisement I The Politics and Culture of
  • Use of violence to suppress black political
  • Disfranchisement II Literacy Requirements,
    property qualifications, Poll Taxes, Grandfather
    Clauses, and Understanding Clauses
  • Disfanchisment Laws had to be carefully crafted
    to avoid 15th amendment, they could not
    explicitly use race as a barrier to voting.

The Culture of Violence and Intimidation
  • Chain GangsConvict Lease System

Taken from the third chapter of "The Reason why
the colored American is not in the World's
Columbian Exposition," published in 1893
  • the convicts are leased out to work for railway
    contractors, mining companies and those who farm
    large plantations. These companies assume charge
    of the convicts, work them as cheap labor and pay
    the states a handsome revenue for their labor
  • ..The reason our race furnishes so large a
    share of the convicts is that the judges, juries
    and other officials of the courts are white men
    who share these prejudices. They also make the
    laws. It is wholly in their power to extend
    clemency to white criminals and mete severe
    punishment to black criminals for the same or
    lesser crimes. The Negro criminals are mostly
    ignorant, poor and friendless. Possessing neither
    money to employ lawyers nor influential friends,
    they are sentenced in large numbers to long terms
    of imprisonment for petty crimes.
  • Every Negro so sentenced not only means
    able-bodied men to swell the state's number of
    slaves, but every Negro so convicted is thereby
  • http//www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/fredouconl


Jackson Weekly Clarion, printed in 1887 the
inspection report of the state prison in
  • "We found in the hospital section twenty-six
    inmates, all of whom have been lately brought
    there off the farms and railroads, many of them
    with consumption and other incurable diseases,
    and all bearing on their persons marks of the
    most inhuman and brutal treatment. Most of them
    have their backs cut in great wales, scars and
    blisters, some with the skin pealing off in
    pieces as the result of severe beatings. Their
    feet and hands in some instances show signs of
    frostbite, and all of them with the stamp of
    manhood almost blotted out of their faces....
    They are lying there dying, some of them on bare
    boards, so poor and emaciated that their bones
    almost come through their skin, many complaining
    for the want of food.... We actually saw live
    vermin crawling over their faces, and the little
    bedding and clothing they have is in tatters and
    stiff with filth. As a fair sample of this
    system, on January 6, 1887, 204 convicts were
    leased to McDonald up to June 6, 1887, and during
    this six months 20 died, and 19 were discharged
    and escaped and 23 were returned to the walls
    disabled and sick, many of whom have since died."
  • http//www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/creating2.ht

Why the convict lease system?
  • no black crime spree
  • Southern governments wanted to control the black
  • The system used by the planter class and
    industrialist to intimidate black sharecroppers
    and provide workers for the Souths growing
  • The system reaffirmed white feelings of racial
  • Helped maintained racial hierarchy of southern

Other Helpful Websites
  • http//www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/
  • Especially see sections on Jim Crow Laws,
    Lynching and Riots, and Jim Crow Stories.
    The lesson plans and activities are also useful.

  • Almost all southern states passed statutes
    restricting suffrage in the years from 1871 to
  • But, it was in the 1890s that a formal movement
    for disfranchisement emerged in full force.
  • Why the Delay?
  • The Fifteenth Amendment
  • prohibited states from depriving a citizen of his
    vote due to race, color, or condition of
  • Four main ways disfranchisement was accomplished
  • Poll Tax , Literacy requirements , Property
    requirements , Residency requirements

Escape clauses
  • designed so that poor and illiterate whites could
    still qualify to vote.
  • (1) Understanding clause
  • Literacy and educational requirements
  • http//www.rethinkingschools.org/archive/17_02/Vot
    e172.shtml LA Literacy Test
  • Grandfather clause
  • Could not vote if grandfather could not have
    voted prior to 1867

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African-American Responses to Jim Crow Politics
  • Booker T. Washington
  • The Atlanta Compromise Speech of 1895 (see
    http//historymatters.gmu.edu for document)
  • The Washington-DuBois Debate
  • Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others
    published within The Souls of Black Folk (1903)
    (see http//historymatters.gmu.edu for document)

W.E.B. Du Bois ,  The Souls of Black
Folk.  1903.Chapter III Of Mr. Booker T.
Washington and Others
  • it has been claimed that the Negro can survive
    only through submission. Mr. Washington
    distinctly asks that black people give up, at
    least for the present, three things,
            First, political power,         Second,
    insistence on civil rights,         Third,
    higher education of Negro youth, and
    concentrate all their energies on industrial
    education, the accumulation of wealth, and the
    conciliation of the South. This policy has been
    courageously and insistently advocated for over
    fifteen years, and has been triumphant for
    perhaps ten years. As a result of this tender of
    the palm-branch, what has been the return? In
    these years there have occurred
  • The disfranchisement of the Negro.
  • The legal creation of a distinct status of civil
    inferiority for the Negro.
  • The steady withdrawal of aid from institutions
    for the higher training of the Negro.
  •    These movements are not, to be sure, direct
    results of Mr. Washingtons teachings but his
    propaganda has, without a shadow of doubt, helped
    their speedier accomplishment. The question then
    comes Is it possible, and probable, that nine
    millions of men can make effective progress in
    economic lines if they are deprived of political
    rights, made a servile caste, and allowed only
    the most meagre chance for developing their
    exceptional men? If history and reason give any
    distinct answer to these questions, it is an
    emphatic No.

Racist Publications and Black Response
How are African Americans represented in these
photographs? http//www.ferris.edu/news/jimcrow/m
  • Do you see any similarities to depicting people
    as inferior and the use of violence against them?
  • Negative images used to justify discrimination
    and segregationist system

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Defending black identity
  • Henry M. Turner
  • A man must believe he is somebody before he is
    acknowledged to be somebodyRespect Black.
    (Litwack, Trouble in Mind, p. 462)

Black Progress/Black Resistance
The Quest for an Education
  • Discussion starter Ask students what the
    importance of education is to them. How
    significant is it in their lives?

The Value of an education
  • Elderly black woman, deer fesser, please accept
    this 18 cents it is all I have. I save it out of
    my washing this week. God will bless you. Send
    you more next week.
  • A teachers diary, Aunt Hester gave a pound of
    butter and a dime. Grandma Williams a chicken.
    Effie McCoy, a cake and five cents Bessie a
  • See Richard Wormser, The Rise and Fall of Jim
    Crow, p. 49

The value of an education from another
  • Montgomery Alabama Lawyer, It is a question of
    who will do the dirty workIf you educate the
    Negroes they wont stay where they belong and
    you must consider them as a race, because if you
    let a few rise it makes the others discontented.
  • Unknown, It tends to make the negro unwilling to
    work where he is wanted and desirous of working
    where he is not wanted
  • See Litwack, Trouble in Mind, p. 95

The Quest for Education
  • Why were students afraid?
  • One Virginia county man, down in my neighborhood
    they are afraid to be caught with a book.
  • Caroline Smith, 1871, Georgia They would not let
    us have schools. They (KKK) went to a colored man
    there, whose son had been teaching school, and
    they took evry book they had and threw them into
    the fire and they said they would dare any other
    negro to have a book in his house

Booker T. Washington and W. E. B.
Du Bois
  • Identify significant differences in the early
    lives of Washington and Du Bois. Where was each
    man born? Who was born a slave? Where did they go
    to school? What early experiences played a role
    in shaping their differing philosophies on
    elevating African-Americans in American society?
  • Contrast the educational theories of both men.
    What did each man believe should be the purpose
    of education for African Americans?

Booker T. Washington
  • Washington was "born a slave on a plantation in
    Franklin County, Virginia..." (Up From Slavery)
    in 1856. After emancipation, he and his family
    moved to Malden, West Virginia. The nearby
    Kanawha Sapines salt furnaces provided wage work
    for many freed slaves in West Virginia, including
    members of Washington's family. A prominent white
    family, the Ruffners, hired the young Washington
    as a domestic. Washington later said the lessons
    he learned from them were "... as valuable to me
    as any education I have gotten anywhere since."
  • see http//www.cr.nps.gov/museum/exhibits/tuskegee

from "Nineteenth Annual Report of the Principal
of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute"
by Booker T. Washingtonhttp//lcweb2.loc.gov/amme
  • The chief value of industrial education is to
    give to the students habits of industry, thrift,
    economy and an idea of the dignity of labor. But
    in addition to this, in the present economic
    condition of the colored people, it is most
    important that a very large proportion of those
    trained in such institutions as this, actually
    spend their time at industrial occupations. Let
    us value the work of Tuskegee by this test...Our
    students actually cultivate every day, seven
    hundred acres of land, while studying
    agriculture. The students studying dairying,
    actually milk and care for seventy-five milch
    cows daily...and so I could go on and give not
    theory, nor hearsay, but actual facts, gleaned
    from all the departments of the school.

from "The Primary Needs of the Negro Race" by
Kelly Millerhttp//lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/aap/aaphi
  • The first great need of the Negro is that the
    choice youth of the race should assimilate the
    principles of culture and hand them down to the
    masses below. This is the only gateway through
    which a new people may enter into modern
    civilization...The Roman youth of ambition
    completed their education in Athens the noblemen
    of northern Europe sent their sons to the
    southern peninsulas in quest of larger
    learning...The graduates of Hampton and other
    institutions of like aim are forming centers of
    civilizing influence in all parts of the land,
    and we confidently believe that these grains of
    leaven will ultimately leaven the whole lump.

W. E. Burghart Du Bois, "The Talented Tenth,"
September 1903
  • The Negro race, like all races, is going to be
    saved by its exceptional men. The problem of
    education, then, among Negroes must first of all
    deal with the Talented Tenth it is the problem
    of developing the Best of this race that they may
    guide the Mass away from the contamination and
    death of the Worst, in their own and other races.
  • How then shall the leaders of a struggling people
    be trained and the hands of the risen few
    strengthened? There can be but one answer The
    best and most capable of their youth must be
    schooled in the colleges and universities of the
    land. We will not quarrel as to just what the
    university of the Negro should teach or how it
    should teach it I willingly admit that each
    soul and each race-soul needs its own peculiar
    curriculum. But this is true A university is a
    human invention for the transmission of knowledge
    and culture from generation to generation,
    through the training of quick minds and pure
    hearts, and for this work no other human
    invention will suffice, not even trade and
    industrial schools.

The Niagara Movement and the NAACP
  • Niagara Movement 1905
  • NAACP 1909
  • Heirs to the 19th century abolitionist movement
  • NAACP mission to ensure that African Americans
    be physically free from peonge, mentally free
    from ignorance, politically free from
    disfranchisement, and socially free from insult.
  • Booker T. Washington declined to join, so did Ida
    B. Wells

Discussion Question
  • Do you think that you could have lived as a black
    person in the Jim Crow South?
  • How would you have coped?
  • What would you have done to survive? What would
    have been the most difficult thing for you as a
    young black person to have accepted or coped with
    in Virginia at the peak of Jim Crow?
  • Answer the same questions from the perspective of
    a young white person.

Going North The Great Migration
  • Two phases
  • Phase 1 1900-1915
  • Phase 2 WWI to 1930

The Chicago Defender, April 7, 1917
  • Albert Alex Smith, "They Have Ears But They Hear
    Not," The Crisis, XXI (November, 1920), p. 17.

Great Migration
  • One Way Ticket (Langston Hughes)
  • I pick up my life, And take it with me, And I
    put it down in Chicago, Detroit, Buffalo,
    Scranton, Any place that is North and East,
  • And not Dixie.
  • I pick up my life And take it on the train, To
    Los Angeles, Bakersfield, Seattle, Oakland, Salt
    Lake Any place that is North and West, And not

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For Images and Maps about Migration North see
  • http//www.inmotionaame.org/migrations/landing.cfm
  • Great Migration lesson plan -- http//artsedge.ken

Migration Series by Jacob Lawrence
  • http//www.columbia.edu/itc/history/odonnell/w1010

"Interview of Jacob Lawrence"from African
American Frontiers Slave Narratives and Oral
Histories Alan GovenarABC-CLIO (Santa Barbara,
2000) _at_ http//www.inmotionaame.org/texts/?migrati
My family was a part of the migration. That is,
my mother, my sister, and my brother. My father
and my mother were separated. I was born in
Atlantic City, New Jersey. They were moving up
the coast, as many families were during that
migration. And I was part of that. We moved up to
various cities until we arrivedthe last two
cities I can remember before moving to New York
were Easton, Pennsylvania, and Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania. And then we finally settled in New
York City. So that was my upbringing. My young
years were spent just doing that traveling as
part of the migration, and that was it. I was
aware of people moving, older people like my
mother's peersI would hear them talk about how
another family has arrived. And these were the
people who would mention the fact that they had
been here a few years and they were seeing the
new migrants coming in and settling or moving on.
And I didn't realize what it was at the time, of
course it's only in later years that I realized
what was going on.
The Music of the Great Migration
  • http//www.pbs.org/theblues/classroom/defmigration
  • Harlem Music lesson Plan--http//artsedge.kennedy-
  • Harlem childrens games lesson plan

Times Is Gettin Harder Blues of the Great
  • Times is gettin' harder,
  • Moneys gettin' scarce.
  • Soon as I gather my cotton and corn,
  • Im bound to leave this place.
  • White folks sittin' in the parlor,
  • Eatin' that cake and cream,
  • Niggers way down to the kitchen,
  • Squabblin' over turnip greens.
  • Times is gettin' harder,
  • Moneys gettin' scarce.
  • Soon as I gather my cotton and corn,
  • Im bound to leave this place.
  • Me and my brother was out.
  • Thought wed have some fun.
  • He stole three chickens.
  • We began to run.
  • Times is gettin' harder,
  • Moneys gettin' scarce.
  • Soon as I gather my cotton and corn
  • Im bound to leave this place.

(find at Historymatters.gmu see also"Sir I Will
Thank You with All My Heart" seven Letters from
the Great Migration
  • What life was like for African Americans in the
    Jim Crow North in the early the 20th century?

Chicago, Illinois, July 1941 LOC Prints and
Photographs Division
Chicago Housing
Chicago, Illinois, July 1941 LOC Prints and
Photographs Division
Torched school in New Jersey from Scott Nearing,
Black America (New York The Vanguard Press, 1929)
The New Negro
African American ResponsesOrganized Protest
  • National Urban League --1910 in New York City
  • Churches
  • Universal Negro Improvement Association -- 1914

African American ResponsesWWI
  • Complex factor WWI
  • W.E. B. Dubois Returning Soldiers May 1919
  • We are returning from war! The Crisis and tens
    of thousands of black men were drafted into a
    great struggle. For bleeding France and what she
    means and has meant and will mean to us and
    humanity and against the threat of German race
    arrogance, we fought gladly and to the last drop
    of blood for America and her highest ideals, we
    fought in far-off hope for the dominant southern
    oligarchy entrenched in Washington, we fought in
    bitter resignation. For the America that
    represents and gloats in lynching,
    disfranchisement, caste, brutality and devilish
    insultfor this, in the hateful upturning and
    mixing of things, we were forced by vindictive
    fate to fight also.
  • But today we return! We return from the slavery
    of uniform which the world's madness demanded us
    to don to the freedom of civil garb. We stand
    again to look America squarely in the face and
    call a spade a spade. We sing This country of
    ours, despite all its better souls have done and
    dreamed, is yet a shameful land.

  • Red Summer
  • If We Must Die (1919) Claude McKay
  • If we must die, let it not be like hogsHunted
    and penned in an inglorious spot,While round us
    bark the mad and hungry dogs,Making their mock
    at our accursed lot.If we must die, O let us
    nobly die,So that our precious blood may not be
    shedIn vain then even the monsters we
    defyShall be constrained to honor us though
    dead!O kinsmen we must meet the common
    foe!Though far outnumbered let us show us
    brave,And for their thousand blows deal one
    deathblow!What though before us lies the open
    grave?Like men we'll face the murderous,
    cowardly pack,Pressed to the wall, dying, but
    fighting back!

The Harlem Renaissance and the New Negro
  • paintings by Jacob Lawrence and Aaron Douglas
  • sculptures by Augusta Savage
  • picture quilts by Faith Ringgold
  • Poetry by Langston Hughes
  • Lesson plan --http//artsedge.kennedy-center.org/c

More websites
  • Portrait of Place, Portrait of a Family

Between the Wars
  • Direct Action during the Depression contrasted
    sharply both quantitatively and qualitatively
    with the history of such tactics during the
    entire preceding century A. Meier and E. Rudwick
  • Increase in Black Political Awareness
  • Newspaper circulation doubled
  • NAACP membership increased
  • Increased militancy
  • Marcus Garvey UNIA
  • Dont Buy Where You Cant Work (1929-1941)
  • Harlem Riot- 1935

The Fight for Civil Rights Toward a Social
Movement (pre-Brown)
  • Focus The early twentieth-century civil rights
    efforts of African American with particular
    attention on individual acts and local
    organization such as church groups, and national
    organizations (i.e. NAACP , NUL and CORE).
  • Goal Help students understand that long before
    the African American struggle for rights became a
    mass movement, local resistance in black
    communities took many forms.

Rising Black Militancy
  • Langston Hughes (1931) Tired
  • I am so tired of waiting,
  • Arent you
  • For the world to become good
  • And beautiful and kind?
  • Let us take a knife
  • And cut the world in two
  • And see what worms are eating
  • At the rind.

World War II and the Rise of African-American
Protest Politics
  • Philip Randolph and the March on Washington
  • The president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
    Porters, a primarily black union, was A. Philip
    Randolph (1889-1979).
  • March 1941, Randolph proposed a new civil rights
    strategy a massive march on Washington D. C.
  • Three demands
  • The immediate end to segregation and
    discrimination in federal government hiring.
  • An end to segregation of the armed forces.
  • Government support for an end to discrimination
    and segregation in all American employment.

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
  • Est. 1942 on the University of Chicago campus.
  • The creation of CORE marked the beginning of a
    mass movement for civil rights.
  • Interracial founders committed to Gandian
    techniques of nonviolent direct action
  • Their tactics provided an important example for
    later civil rights activists.
  • strikes, demonstrations, boycotts
  • Dont Buy Where You Cant Work (1929-1941)
  • Sit-ins by Howard Univ. students (1943-1944

Jackie Robinson Civil Rights Advocate
  • The first black man to "officially" play in the
    big leagues,
  • First game with Dodgers in 1947
  • http//www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-r

Barbara Johns and Beyond Rising Expectations,
  • Barbara Johns, April 23, 1951
  • Brown v. Board of Education, May 1954
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott, December 1955
  • Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas,
    September 1957
  • Key Point Students took the initiative in
    seeking to transform legal rights into tangible
    racial advances.

The Brown Decision
  • Immediate Reaction to the Decision Comparing
    Media Coveragehttp//www.landmarkcases.org/brown/
  • Compare and contrast different regions newspaper
  • How did Virginia newspapers report the decision?
  • Get Local
  • Were Loudoun County schools segregated?
  • Was segregation de jure (by law) or de facto (in
    fact)? Make sure the students understand that
    even if schools were not legally segregated (de
    jure), they could have been segregated in fact
    (de facto) because people of color were excluded
    from moving into certain neighborhoods and
    communities, and the segregated communities
    created segregated schools.
  • How and when did the schools become integrated?
  • http//www.balchfriends.org/Glimpse/EssUnderstandi

African Americans in Montgomery Protest
Segregation Transportation
  • Half a century before the 1955-1956 Montgomery
    Bus Boycott African Americans in the city had
    conducted a two-year boycott when the city
    council enacted a trolley-car segregation bill.
    Like the bus boycott of 1955-1956, the
    Montgomery streetcar boycott of 1900-1902 was
    part of a larger regional black protest against
    Jim Crow urban transit.
  • (August Meier and Elliott Rudwick, The Boycott
    Movement Against Jim Crow Streetcars in the
    South, 1900-1906, Journal of American History,
    55, 4 (March 1969), 756. (pdf)
  • Slide from presentation by Elsa Brown, 2002

Known Streetcar Boycotts
  • Atlanta, 1892-1893
  • Augusta, 1898
  • Savannah, 1899
  • Atlanta and Rome, 1900
  • Augusta, 1900-1903
  • Jacksonville, 1901
  • Montgomery, 1900-1902
  • Mobile, 1902
  • New Orleans and Shreveport, 1902-1903
  • Little Rock, 1903
  • Columbia, 1903
  • Slide from presentation by Elsa Brown, 2002
  • Houston, 1903-1905
  • Vicksburg and Natchez, 1904
  • San Antonio, 1904-1905
  • Richmond, 1904-1905
  • Memphis, Chattanooga, and Knoxville, 1905
  • Jacksonville and Pensacola, 1905
  • Nashville, 1905-1906
  • Danville, Lynchburg, Petersburg, and Norfolk,
  • Newport News, 1906-1907
  • Savannah, 1906-1907

Who are these Women?
  • March 2, 1955 December 1, 1955

Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Mary Louis Smith, Claudette Colvin Who were
  • http//www.historylearningsite.co.uk/montgomery_bu
  • Montgomery Bus BoycottOrganizing Strategies and
    Challenges Activity at http//civilrightsteaching.
  • Jo Ann Robinson Who was she?
  • Women's Political Council (WPC) of Montgomery,
  • May 21, 1954 letter to Mayor
  • INTERVIEW http//library.wustl.edu/units/spec/fil

  • Slide from
  • Slide from presentation
  • by Elsa Brown, 2002

Flyer announcing boycott
Slide from presentation by Elsa Brown, 2002
Teaching the Bus Boycott
  • Toni Morrissons Remember http//houghtonmifflinbo
  • http//www.teachingforchange.org/busboycott/busboy
  • Teaching With DocumentsAn Act of Courage, The
    Arrest Records of Rosa Parks http//www.archives.g

Student Activism and the Emergence of a Mass
Movement, 1960-1965
  • Focus College students developed new strategies
    and revitalized old ones that help to escalate
    the civil rights struggle and broaden its base.
    Their tactics included sit-ins, freedom rides,
    jail-ins, boycotts, voter registration drives,
    and marches.
  • Goal To help students understand how/why the
    involvement of college students brought
    transformed the movement.

Freedom Songs of the Civil Rights Movement
  • Sweet Chariot The Story of the Spirituals
  • http//ctl.du.edu/spirituals/Freedom/civil.cfm
  • http//www.learningtogive.org/lessons/unit53/
  • Eyes on the Prize Lesson
  • http//www.tolerance.org/teach/resources/songbook/
  • Smithsonian Folkways Recordings
  • http//www.folkways.si.edu/
  • Search for Sing For Freedom The Story of the
    Civil Rights Movement Through Its Songs and
    Voices of the Civil Rights Movement Black
    American Freedom Songs 1960-1966. There are
    audio clips for both CDs available online.

  • Paul and Silas bound in jailHad no money for to
    go their bailKeep your eyes on the prize, hold
    onPaul and Silas thought they was lostDungeon
    shook and the chains come offKeep your eyes on
    the prize, hold onFreedom's name is mighty
    sweetAnd soon we're gonna meetKeep your eyes on
    the prize, hold onI got my hand on the gospel
    plowWon't take nothing for my journey nowKeep
    your eyes on the prize, hold on
  • Hold on, hold onKeep your eyes on the prize,
    hold onSoozie!Only chain that a man can
    standIs that chain o' hand on handKeep your
    eyes on the prize, hold onI'm gonna board that
    big greyhoundCarry the love from town to
    townKeep your eyes on the prize, hold onHold
    on, hold onKeep your eyes on the prize, hold on

  • Greensboro Lunch Counter Sit-in (1960)
  • Bigger Than a Hamburger and A Conference on
    the Sit-ins see handout
  • Consider the following statement by journalist
    Louis Lomax, "They the sit-ins were proof that
    the Negro leadership class, epitomized by the
    NAACP, was no longer the prime mover in the
    Negro's social revolt. The demonstrations have
    shifted the desegregation battles from the
    courtroom to the marketplace.
  • See Greensboro Sit-ins Launch of a Civil Rights
    Movement at http//www.sitins.com/index.shtml.
    Site contains photographs, documents, and audio
    clips from Greensboro participants and civil
    rights leaders.

Ella J. Baker (June, 1960) Bigger than a
  • The Student Leadership Conference made it crystal
    clear that current sit-ins and other
    demonstrations are concerned with something much
    bigger than a hamburger or even a giant-sized
  • Whatever may be the difference in approach to
    their goal, the Negro and white students, North
    and South, are seeking to rid America of the
    scourge of racial segregation and discrimination
    - not only at lunch counters, but in every aspect
    of life.
  • By and large, this feeling that they have a
    destined date with freedom, was not limited to a
    drive for personal freedom, or even freedom for
    the Negro in the South. Repeatedly it was
    emphasized that the movement was concerned with
    the moral implications of racial discrimination
    for the "whole world" and the "Human Race."

Ella Baker
  • SNCC
  • Ella Baker
  • 1940s (NAACP)1950s (SCLC) 1960s (SNCC)
  • Baker left the SCLC after the Greensboro
    sit-ins. She wanted to help the new student
    activists and organized a meeting at Shaw
    University for the student leaders of the sit-ins
    in April 1960. From that meeting SNCC was born.
  • Different leadership style than MLK
  • Baker believed in group centered leadership vs
    leadership-centered group

A Movement in Transition SNCC
  • SNCC went through three stages.
  • First 1960 to 1963 (Sit-ins and Freedom Rides)
  • Second 1963 to 1964 (Freedom Summer) A time of
    transition which sparked a reconsideration of
  • Nearly 1,000 volunteers worked in Mississippi
    that summer.  During those months, 6 people, were
    killed, 80 beaten, 35 churches burned, and 30
    other buildings bombed.
  • Third 1965 to 1967. A trip to Africa by several
    SNCC leaders, discussions with and about Malcolm
    X, and growing alienation between blacks and
    whites inside SNCC was capped by the Watts riot
    in August, 1965. The following June, "Black
    Power" became SNCC's battle cry in a march led by
    James Meredith in Mississippi.

Freedom Rides
  • Define The Freedom Riders left Washington DC on
    May 4, 1961. They were scheduled to arrive in New
    Orleans on May 17, the seventh anniversary of the
    Brown decision. The Freedom Riders never made it
    to New Orleans.
  • Outcome led to the end of segregation in
    interstate bus travel in a ruling, -- took effect
    in September 1961.
  • Website
  • African American Odyssey-Library of Congress
  • See http//memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/ao
  • especially the Civil Rights Era section.

  • Project C ('Confrontation Birmingham' )
  • New campaign in Birmingham.
  • Goal to activate the black community and to
    force complete desegregation of all the city's
  • Letter from Birmingham City Jail
  • Written in response to a letter in the local
    paper, the Birmingham News by eight white Alabama
    clergymen. The clergymen stated that the
    demonstrations by "impatient" "outsiders" was
    "unwise and untimely". They thought that the
    civil rights movement should wait and give
    Birmingham citizens a chance to reform their city
    on their own.
  • MLK Perhaps it is easy for those who have never
    felt the stinging darts of segregation to say,
    Wait. comes a time when the cup of endurance
    runs over, and men are no longer willing to be
    plunged into the abyss of despair. I hope sirs,
    you can understand our legitimate and unavoidable
  • For more information about the letter, listen to
    the following NPR radio report

ALABAMA CENTENNIAL, by Naomi Long Madgett
  • They said, "Wait." Well, I waited.For a hundred
    years I waitedIn cotton fields, kitchens,
    balconies,In bread lines, at back doors, on
    chain gangs,In stinking "colored" toiletsAnd
    crowded ghettos,Outside of schools and voting
    booths.And some said, "Later."And some said,
    "Never!" Then a new wind blew, and a new
    voiceRode its wings with quiet urgency,Strong,
    determined, sure.
  • "No," it said. "Not 'never,' not 'later."Not
    even 'soon.'Now.Walk!"
  • And other voices echoed the freedom words,"Walk
    together, children, don't get weary,"Whispered
    them, sang them, prayed them, shouted
  • And I walked the streets of MontgomeryUntil a
    link in the chain of patient acquiescence broke.
  • Then again Sit down!And I sat down at the
    counters of Greensboro.Ride! And I rode the bus
    for freedom.Kneel! And I went down on my knees
    in prayer and faith.March! And I'll march until
    the last chain fallsSinging, "We shall
  • Not all the dogs and hoses in BirminghamNor all
    the clubs and guns in SelmaCan turn this
    tide.Not all the jails can hold these young
    black facesFrom their destiny of manhood,Of
    equality, of dignity,Of the American DreamA
    hundred years past due.Now!

Birmingham cont
  • On Sept. 15, 1963, the all-Black Sixteenth Street
    Baptist Church was bombed. Sunday school was in
  • See
  • Ballad of Birmingham
  • Websites
  • http//cnnstudentnews.cnn.com/2001/fyi/lesson.plan
    s/05/02/church.bombing/ Includes Lesson Plan

Ballad of Birmingham
  • "Mother dear, may I go downtown         Instead
    of out to play,  And march the streets of
    Birmingham In a Freedom March today?"
  • "No, baby, no, you may not go, For the dogs are
    fierce and wild, And clubs and hoses, guns and
    jails Aren't good for a little child."
  • "But, mother, I won't be alone. Other children
    will go with me, And march the streets of
    Birmingham To make our country free."
  • "No, baby, no, you may not go,                  
                                 For I fear those
    guns will fire.
  • But you may go to church instead And sing in the
    children's choir."
  • She has combed and brushed her night-dark hair,
    And bathed rose petal sweet, And drawn white
    gloves on her small brown hands, And white shoes
    on her feet.
  • The mother smiled to know that her child Was in
    the sacred place, But that smile was the last
    smile To come upon her face.
  • For when she heard the explosion, Her eyes grew
    wet and wild. She raced through the streets of
    Birmingham Calling for her child.
  • She clawed through bits of glass and brick, Then
    lifted out a shoe. "O, here's the shoe my baby
    wore, But, baby, where are you?"

The Militant Years, 1966-68
  • Focus The changing face of the civil rights
  • Goal Help students understand why the
    expectations created by the civil rights movement
    met with frustration in the mid-1960s and how
    their disappointment and frustration aroused a
    new urgency among black civil rights activist.

  • Have students identify the ways in which Martin
    Luther King, Jr. is portrayed in the mass media,
    and specifically, which of his ideas are
    communicated to the public.
  • Have students read and discuss a range of Kings
    ideas almost completely unknown to most of the
    public today.
  • Homework Read excerpts of Kings speeches and
    writings. Identify lines that stand out as
    interesting, deep, meaningful, moving or

  • Martin Luther King, Jr., kept getting up morning
    after morning, knowing they the FBI and other
    government agencies were after him, knowing they
    were possessed of this zealous intensity that was
    illegal and immoral!  And so he was a danger to
    America.  Why?  Because he loved democracy so
    much he wanted to see it become real.  He wanted
    to march democracy from parchment to pavement. 
    He wanted to see it become a reality in this
    nation.  Thats why he had a dream. 
  • But America has frozen him.  Now they freeze King
    in this posture of dreaming before the sunlit
    summit of expectation at the height of his
    national fame in Washington, D.C., where he said,
    I have a dream.  He said more than that.   We
    ought to have a moratorium on that speech for the
    next ten years.  I dont want to hear it no
    more!  And if youre gonna play the speech, play
    the other parts of the speech  We have come to
    the nations capital to cash a check marked
    insufficient funds.   In other words,
    Wheres my money?! Thats the part we ought to
    play.  Right?  We ought to play the part where
    King says, The foundations of this nation will
    continue to shake.  He said, The whirlwinds of
    revolt will continue to shake the foundations of
    this nation until the Negro is granted his full
    citizenship rights.  Play that part, too!

  • Letter from Birmingham Jail, April 16, 1963The
    purpose of our direct-action program is to create
    a situation so crisis-packed that it will
    inevitably open the door to negotiation My
    friends, I must say to you that we have not made
    a single gain in civil rights without determined
    legal and nonviolent pressure. Lamentably, it is
    an historical fact that privileged groups seldom
    give up their privileges voluntarilyWe know
    through painful experience that freedom is never
    voluntarily given by the oppressor it must be
    demanded by the oppressed.

  • Speech to the March on Washington for Jobs and
    Justice, August 28, 1963There will be neither
    rest nor tranquility in America until the colored
    citizen is granted his citizenship rights. The
    whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the
    foundations of our nation until the bright day of
    justice emerges.

MLK on Poverty
  • Speech to Teamsters and Allied Trade Councils,
    New York City, May 2, 1967Today Negroes want
    above all else to abolish poverty in their lives,
    and in the lives of the white poor. This is the
    heart of their program. To end humiliation was a
    start, but to end poverty is a bigger task. It is
    natural for Negroes to turn to the Labor movement
    because it was the first and pioneer anti-poverty
    program... I am now convinced that the simplest
    approach will prove to be the most revolutionary.
    The solution to poverty is to abolish it directly
    by a now widely discussed measure the guaranteed
    annual income. We are likely to find that the
    problems of housing and education, instead of
    preceding the elimination of poverty, will
    themselves be affected if poverty is first

  • From Inconvenient Hero (1997), by Vincent
    HardingHe was planning to bring the poor of
    every color, to stand and sit with the poor where
    they could not be missed.
  • MLK said, Weve got to camp in put our tents
    in front of the White House Weve got to make it
    known that until our problem is solved, America
    may have many, many days, but they will be full
    of trouble. There will be no rest, there will be
    no tranquility in this country until the nation
    comes to terms with our problem.

  • "Beyond Vietnam," Address, Riverside Church, New
    York, April 4, 1967 I am convinced that if we
    are to get on the right side of the world
    revolution, we as a nation must undergo a radical
    revolution of values. We must rapidly begin the
    shift from a thing-oriented society to a
    person-oriented society.
  • A true revolution of values will soon look
    uneasily on the glaring contrast of poverty and
  • A true revolution of values will lay hands on the
    world order and say of war "This way of settling
    differences is not just."
  • Our only hope today lies in our ability to
    recapture the revolutionary spirit and go out
    into a sometimes hostile world declaring eternal
    hostility to poverty, racism, and militarism.

  • For more on MLK see http//urbandreams.ousd.k12.ca

Lessons Learned The Walk Away Points
  • 1. African Americans have suffered great
    challenges to realizing full freedom and
  • 2. They have a long history of resisting
    oppression and racism
  • 3. Individuals can make a difference/students can
    make a difference

  • Please note this presentation is for workshop
    purposes only.
  • Please address all source inquiries to the
    presenter Wendi N. Manuel-Scott
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