Cultural Diversity - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 70
About This Presentation

Cultural Diversity


Cultural Diversity Understanding our differences through an examination of the Karen Tribes People. University of Alberta EDPY 413 Cheryl Law, Sephora Sookram – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:1213
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 71
Provided by: ualbertaC


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Cultural Diversity

Cultural Diversity
  • Understanding our differences through an
    examination of the Karen Tribes People.

University of Alberta EDPY 413 Cheryl Law,
Sephora Sookram Meagan Fleming
Activity Tell a Story as a Group
  • A few volunteers will stand in a line at the
    front of the class to tell a story.
  • The first person will begin the story by stating
    one sentence.
  • The next person will continue the same story with
    another sentence.
  • The story will continue in this manner.
  • A fun twist
  • No one can use any words with the letters i, s or
  • (Arias, 2008)

Cultural Proficiency
  • A way of being that allows individuals and
    organizations to interact effectively with people
    who differ from them (Robins, Lindsey, Lindsey
    Terrell, 2006, p. 2)
  • Cultural proficiency model is proactive,
    provides tools that can be used in any setting
  • Has a behavioural focus
  • Can be used for both organizations and
    individuals (Robins et al., 2006).
  • It is the policies and practices and values and
    behaviours of organizations and individuals that
    allow for effective interactions.

Cultural Proficiency
  • The culture promotes inclusiveness and
    institutionalizes processes for learning about
    differences and for responding appropriately to
  • Educators need to welcome and create
    opportunities to better understand who they are
    as individuals.
  • It is important to learn how to interact
    positively with people who differ from yourself.
  • Remember that becoming culturally proficient
    takes time time to think, reflect, decide and
  • Begin by reflecting on your school and your own
    individual understandings and values.

Cultural Proficiency
  • 4 Components
  • The Continuum
  • The Essential Elements
  • The Guiding Principles
  • The Barriers

The Continuum
  • Cultural destructiveness
  • See the difference, stomp it out.
  • Cultural incapacity
  • See the difference, make it wrong
  • Cultural blindness
  • See the difference, act like you dont
  • Cultural pre-competence
  • See the difference, respond inadequately
  • Cultural competence
  • See the difference, understand the difference
    that difference makes
  • Cultural proficiency
  • See the difference and respond effectively in a
    variety of environments
  • (Robins et al., 2006)

The Elements
  • Addressing the Differences
  • Assess the culture and name the differences
  • Value diversity by claiming the differences
  • Manage the dynamics of difference
  • Adapt to diversity and train about differences
  • Institutionalize cultural knowledge and allow
    change for the differences

The Guiding Principles
  • Culture is a prevalent force.
  • People are served in varying degrees by the
    dominant culture.
  • People have group identities that they want to
    have acknowledged.
  • There is diversity between cultures and within
  • Respect the unique needs of every culture.

The Barriers
  • The presumption of entitlement
  • All that you have you deserve by virtue of your
    merit alone
  • Systems of oppression
  • Examples include racism, sexism, ageism
  • Perpetuates domination and victimization
  • Unawareness of the need to adapt
  • Believing that others need to change but you do

What is Culture?
  • Can you define culture?
  • In small groups, brainstorm ideas and agree upon
    a definition of culture.

Culture is
  • the set of common beliefs and practices that a
    person shares with a group (Robins et al., 2006)
  • All about Groupness
  • Cultural identity is how people recognize where
    they belong

You vs. Your Students
  • Think about how your culture differs from the
    cultures of your students.
  • Culture determines how you interact with your
    students and react to things that happen in the
  • It is important to reflect upon and be aware of
    your cultural biases and differences.

You vs. Your Students
  • We often think that people in non-dominant
    cultures should change and learn the ways of the
    dominant culture.
  • We must acknowledge differences and expect to
    learn from other cultures and expect that these
    cultures will learn from us.
  • We need to try to adapt and adjust to differences
    between cultures.
  • Its all about compromise!

What is Diversity?
  • Think about the different cultures and sources of
    diversity in your classrooms.
  • What kinds of diversity do you encounter in your

Diversity is
  • Three sources of diversity
  • demographic characteristic
  • culture, ethnicity, language, age, gender, social
    class, religion
  • personal characteristics
  • age, gender, communication style, economic
    background, personality
  • abilities and skills
  • social and technical
  • (Johnson Johnson, 2009, pp.443-444)

Diversity Daisy
On the petal, write something that is unique
about yourself. In the interior, work with your
group to write about similarities between the
group members.
Karen Tribes People
  • Refugee Students in Edmontons Classrooms

Who are the Karen Tribes People?
  • (Picture of Karen working in a rice field,
    Microsoft Corporation, 2005).

The Karen Tribe people are an ethnic minority in
Burma, that now consist of one of Thailands
largest refugee groups.
(Burma Map, Google Maps Canada, 2008).
  • Burma, also known as Myanmar is a land of about
    35 million people in Southeast Asia (Background
    Note Burma, 2008).
  • The population of Burma has a diversity of
    cultures and ethnicities.
  • The largest group is of course the Burmans, but
    it is also home for the Kachins, Chins, Mons,
    Karenni, Shans, Arakanese, and Karen (Background
    Note Burma, 2008).

Why are the Karen Refugees?
  • Burma has had one of the longest-running civil
    wars in world history (Bowles, 1998).
  • Decades of military conflict and genocide in
    Burma has transformed the Karen people, as well
    as other cultures into refugees (Binkley, D.
    M., 2007).
  • The Karen Tribe, a usually peaceful people, fight
    for their own state, own political rule and their
    own ethnic identity (Buadaeng, 2007).

What Teachers Need to Know About Karen Students
and Families
  • Teachers need an understanding of Karen Tribal
  • Traditions, Beliefs and Religion
  • Education
  • The difficult adaptation to life in Canada

Karen Tribe People
  • Karen Groups and Sub Groups
  • The Karen are a Burmese hill-tribe people
    (McGill, 2007).
  • There are four divisions of culture in the Karen
  • The two main tribal cultures are Sgaw and Pwo
  • Sgaw Karen are the largest group of the four.
  • The two smaller groups (only 1 of Thai Karen
    population) are the Pa O and Kavgah
  • (Lewis, E. P, 1984).

(Karen Tribe, Classroom Clipart, 2007)
Religion, Celebration and Beliefs
Buddha, Cardinal Photo, 2008
Religion, Celebration and Beliefs
  • The Karen people are
  • very spiritual and believe in many myths.
  • superstitious and believe that everything is
    connected to a spirit (Sudhamongkol, n.d.).
  • The Karen people believe
  • things they say or do have consequences and they
    are fearfully aware of their actions
    (Sudhamongkol, n.d.).
  • babies do not have souls until they invite a
    spirit to present the soul to the child, where
    they then secure the soul by tying string around
    the babies wrists (Lewis, E. P, 1984).

Religion, Celebration and Beliefs
  • Traditional Gods
  • Lord of Land and Water who owned the entire
    contents of the earth
  • Crop Grandmother who watches over their fields
  • The Karen tribe will offer meat and pray at
    shrines for the blessing of rice in their fields
  • (Lewis, E. P, 1984).

Religion, Celebration and Beliefs
  • Karen core religions
  • Buddhism (believe in Karma)
  • Animism (where they believe that animals and
    plants also have spirits)
  • Christianity (Increasing, about 30)
  • (Lewis, E. P, 1984).

Social Relationships
  • The Karen Tribe is very hospitable
  • Karen that live in their own homes, mainly live
    with a nuclear family
  • Marriage is stable, divorce is low
  • Polygamy is prohibited
  • Members often use nicknames when referring to one
  • (Anderson, 1993).
  • In the Karen language there are no first or last
  • (Allott et al., 2007).

(Elder and Young Karen, Mekong, 2008).
  • In Myanmar
  • 35 of secondary school-aged children are
    enrolled in school
  • 69 of children enrolled in the first grade at
    school go on to reach grade five
  • (Mortimer, 2004).
  • In refugee camps
  • 2/3 of Karen have some type of education, at
    least elementary
  • 1/3 had no education at all
  • There is a high drop out rate in refugee schools
    due to
  • overcrowding,
  • lack of materials and
  • lack of job opportunities
  • (Allott et al., 2007).

(Children in Classroom at Burmese Refugee Camp in
Thailand, Kindersley Robertson, n.d.).
  • Students are facing problems because the Thai
    government only allows minimum refugee assistance
    from the United Nations.
  • Special needs are essentially ignored
  • Teachers have no special needs training
  • Educational influence from Thai and western
  • Transition to Canadian schools can be

Karen Refugees
(Some Camp Houses Images, Binkley, 2005).
Coming to Canada
  • Characteristics of Karen refugees sent to Canada
  • Many are single-parent women
  • Women who may have been sexually or violently
  • Those not accepted in society
  • Those who have family problems
  • Refugees that were on opposing political sides
  • Those in need of medical or psychological
  • Ethnic minorities abused in camps
  • Those who have family in Canada
  • In 2006, Canada began selecting Karen refugees.
  • (Backgrounder, Group Resettlement to Canada,

Refugees in Canada
(Karen Refugee Family Citizenship and Immigration
Canada, 2007).
Living in Canada
  • Karen refugees have difficulty adjusting to life
    in Canada after living in refugee camps
  • Thailand did not let refugees find employment
  • Many will begin their very first jobs when
    entering Canada.
  • Karen refugees need to learn about banks,
    climate, food and technology.
  • (Binkley, D. M., 2007).
  • Organizations offer orientations to life in

Communicating with Karen Tribe Members
  • Avoid walking in front of others. Go behind
    those who are seated, or ask first and
  • If you accidentally pick up something belonging
    to another person, apologize
  • When Karen invite you to eat with them, refuse
    first. If they ask you repeatedly, accept, but do
    so gently
  • (Allott et al., 2007)
  • As teachers,we must also realize that cultures
    use words with different meanings. For example,
    unlike other Asian groups who rarely say no,
    the Karen often say no as a way of being
  • They will also never show anger or any negative
    emotion because it is believed to be disgraceful.
  • (Dailey et al., 2007)

Manners, Habits and Conventions
  • The Karen are a reticent, even shy people, and
    many will be surprised and perhaps worried by
    directness of speech, voice levels, and body
  • With the Karen, a quiet, low-key style of
    communication works best, peppered with lots of
    reassuring and friendly smiles.
  • It is generally not good to approach issues too
    directly or straight forwardly, and it is good to
    re-ask a question to which no answer has yet been
    received, perhaps in different ways.
  • When a Karen folds his arms in front of him
    while talking to you, it is a sign of respect,
    not aggression or defensiveness.
  • In general, the Karen like to be very
    self-reliant and to pursue an independent
    lifestyle within their own culturally close-knit
  • (Allot et al., 2007)

Manners, Habits and Conventions
  • If a Karen is offered something, he or she may
    be reluctant to take it, even if the item is
  • Persevere gently. Karen do not like to boast or
    put themselves forward. They also do not like to
  • In Karen families, males are generally the heads
    of household.
  • It is good to be aware of the age and gender
    conventions when dealing with families,
    especially if it is easierbut not necessarily
    more tactfulto communicate with younger family
    members who may have more English.
  • (Allott et al., 2007).

Welcome the Karen Tribe to Your Classroom
What are the Implications for Teachers?
  • Consider CULTURE and LANGUAGE together and
  • What do teachers need to know to help these
    learners feel comfortable in the classroom?
  • What do teachers need to know to help these
    learners learn English?
  • Expect overlap!

The Intercultural Classroom
  • Interculturalism entails
  • Living cultural experiences
  • Taking responsibility for more than acceptance
  • Allows us to better examine our own individual
    and collective identities

Creating a Culturally Sensitive Classroom
  • Physical Appearance
  • Seat the student next to another student who
    speaks the L1
  • Note Karen languages differ from Tibeto-Burman
    languages but use Thai or Burmese scripts
  • Many words are borrowed from the Thai, Burmese,
    Mon, Shan cultures
  • 2 main languages Sgaw and Pwo ? not mutually
  • Recognition of students names
  • Name Quilt or Name Snake
  • Practice pronouncing names

Creating a Culturally Sensitive Classroom
  • Physical Appearance cont.
  • Display a map of the world and have students plot
    where they are from (natively or ancestrally)
  • Translate signs and labels into L1
  • Literacy Play Centres (Handout)

Creating a Culturally Sensitive Classroom
  • Rules and Procedures
  • Ideal translate list of rules and announcements
  • Non-verbal classroom management
  • Ex Planned ignoring, proximity interference,
    signal interference
  • Establish a cue
  • Ex Hand raised, squeaky hammer, clapping
  • Demonstrate procedures
  • Assign partners rotating classroom
  • Ex Clean the fish tank, tidy the bookshelves

Creating a Culturally Sensitive Classroom
  • Community of Learners
  • Karen desire for harmony
  • Positive attitude towards cultural and linguistic
  • Ex Introduce student as a speaker of x who is
    learning English, encourage use of L1 orally and
    in print
  • Bilingual partners Peer tutors
  • Give specific responsibilities and recognition to
    partners and tutors
  • May involve peer note-taking
  • Suggest ways other students can help
  • Ex School tour, learning some L1 expressions

Creating a Culturally Sensitive Classroom
  • Structure of Learning Activities
  • Respect students may wish to work alone
  • Cooperative learning activities
  • Group brainstorming
  • Think-pair-share
  • Learning Teams
  • Jigsaw
  • Dr. Marcia Tates Brain-based Strategies
  • Music!
  • Increase wait and activity time

Creating a Culturally Sensitive Classroom
  • Teaching Global Understanding
  • Real life stories by students
  • Guest speakers family members and elders
  • May also bring in cultural artifacts ? Culture
  • Show Tell of cultural artifacts
  • Calendar of cultural celebrations
  • Ex Mark and celebrate the Karen New Year (Nee
    Saw Ko) and Karen National Day (February 11)

Creating a Culturally Sensitive Classroom
  • Multilingual reading materials?
  • Childrens Literature
  • Canada
  • O Canada by Ted Harrison
  • (I Like the Seasons!) What Happens in Winter? by
    Sara L. Latta
  • Family Diversity
  • The Family Book by Todd Parr
  • Social Cultural Issues
  • Karenni by Anne Johnson
  • The Cat from Kosovo by Mary-Jane Hampton
  • The Sandwich by Ian Wallace
  • If the World were a Village A Book About the
    Worlds People by David J. Smith
  • Folktales
  • The Rice Fairy Karen Stories from Southeast Asia
    by Edward Norman Harris
  • The Flying Canoe by Roch Carrier

Second Language Learning Principles
  • We have already explored two of the L2 learning
  • A supportive environment is key to learning a
    second language.
  • AND
  • In and of itself, language can be a source of
    satisfaction and delight.
  • What are the others? We will use the principles
    as a framework (ESL K-9 Guide)

Principles and their Implications
  • Language and concepts are developed together.
  • Implication Teachers embed English language
    learning within a meaningful context
  • Yay!! This is what content-area teachers do
  • Think social studies, science, mathematics, art,
  • Now think about how to create a content class
    that is language-sensitive

Principles and their Implications
  • Language must be adjusted so the student can
    understand what is being communicated.
  • Implication Teachers must modify instruction and
    assignments in content areas ? Goal is
    Comprehensible Input and Output
  • Gestures
  • Realia
  • Key visuals
  • Graphic Organizers

Principles and their Implications
  • Clear directions
  • Keep brief, emphasize key words, speak slowly
  • Deliver in 1 modality
  • Accompanying handouts
  • Assignment models
  • Build vocabulary (still to come)
  • Note Cooperative learning and meaningful context

Principles and their Implications
  • Lesson plan Content objectives language
  • Consider reading, writing, listening, and
    speaking demands of lesson
  • Consult TESOL Standards to help develop language
  • Many students will be at the Beginning English
    Language Proficiency Level Limited or no
    understanding of English
  • Assignment modifications
  • Illustrative example

Principles and their Implications
  • Students learn more effectively when they use
    language for a purpose. Language is learned
    through social interaction.
  • Implication Teachers ensure their meaningful
    context includes opportunities for interaction
  • Note Cooperative learning
  • Conversational strategies
  • Ex How to seek clarification, express an
    opinion, indicate disagreement (Handout)

Principles and their Implications
  • Focus is on meaning versus form.
  • Implication Teachers explicitly teach key
    vocabulary (in context)
  • What words to choose? Words that are
    high-utility, relevant to the lesson, and
    relevant to home life
  • Ex was, eggs, grocery store
  • High-frequency word lists

Principles and their Implications
  • Activities to develop vocabulary
  • Mini-lessons
  • Word walls
  • Portable word walls (Ring or file folder to
    practise reading and use in writing)
  • Picture dictionaries
  • Word Study Activities
  • Word Posters, Word maps, Dramatizing words, Word
  • Shared reading
  • Interactive read-alouds
  • Buddy reading

Principles and their Implications
  • Second language learning builds on previous
    knowledge and experience.
  • Implication Teachers must support the continual
    development of the L1
  • Encourage use of L1 in classroom
  • Make self and world connections
  • Picture dictionaries
  • Work with parents to retain L1 at home

Principles and their Implications
  • Language skills develop gradually.
  • Implication Teachers must be patient and avoid
  • BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills)
    may take up to 2 years
  • CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency)
    may take 5-7 years if literate in L1
  • Set goals (adapted)
  • Receptive vocabulary develops faster than
    expressive vocabulary
  • Know you are making a difference!

Karen Languages
  • The Karen languages are very different from
  • There are few translators to help refugees
    overcome the language barrier when coming to
  • The Karen are not a large group of people
  • Differences within the Karen languages
  • Listen to their language at http//www.metacafe.

Looking Closer at Karen Languages
  • Only 1 syllable and 6 tones ? tones denote
  • Ex maà máa mâa ma
  • Implication Many English sounds do not exist
  • Final consonants (hat)
  • Final vowels (pie)
  • No vowels (sky)
  • Different grammar
  • verbs are not conjugated
  • adjectives may not exist
  • BUT Sentence structure Subject Verb Object
  • Use classifiers
  • Ex Three leaves Leaves three pieces
  • So what does this mean for teachers?

Developing Literacy
  • Concepts about the alphabet ? Letter knowledge
  • Handwriting
  • Phonemic awareness
  • Phonics skills
  • Grammar
  • Burmese-English dictionaries
  • (Presentation Literacy Instruction for Div. 1).

Your Support Network
  • Websites
  • Refugees from Burma Their Backgrounds and
    Refugee Experiences http//
  • Karen Website http//

Your Support Network
  • Educational Documents ESL K-9 Guide to
    Implementation, TESOL Standards
  • EDPY 413 Course Textbook 50 Strategies for
    Teaching English Language Learners (3rd ed.) by
    Adrienne L. Herrell Michael Jordan
  • Local Organizations Edmonton Public, ELSSC
    (English Language Support Services Centre),
    Edmonton Catholic Schools ESL Centre, EMCN
    (Edmonton Mennonite Centre for Newcomers)

Me My M Mshttp//
  • I have always liked M Ms.The most diverse
    multicultural integrated candy in the world.You
    have your red ones, your yellow ones, your orange
    ones,your brown ones, and your green ones, (and
    the newest blue ones).All in one package, all
    co-existing TogetherOne color doesnt think that
    it is superior to the other.One color doesnt
    discriminate against the other.All colors are
    the same size, shape, and weight.All colors look
    different on the outside, but have the same
    ingredients on the inside.M Ms all have the
    same flavor, and they all taste G-o-o-o-d.Not
    all M Ms are perfect though, some have
    Nuts!!!In the real world we call them racists,
    and bigots.Would it be nice if like M Ms our
    prejudices,melted into the abyss like chocolate
    melts in our mouth?And all people were judged by
    what was inside, rather than the color you see
    on the outside???If candy can be prejudice free
    WHY CANT WE???

  • Alberta Education. (2007). English as a second
    language kindergarten to grade 9 guide to
    implementation. Retrieved October 3, 2008, from
  • Allott, A. J., Barron, S., Ewers, K., Larkin, E.,
    Okell, J., Swain, A., VanBik, K., Yin, S.M.
    (2007, June). Refugees from Burma Their
    backgrounds and refugee experiences. Retrieved
    October 6, 2008, from http//
  • Anderson, E. F. (1993). The people of the
    hills. Plants and People of the Golden
    Triangle Ethnobotany of the Hill Tribes of
    Northern Thailand. Portland Dioscorides Press.
  • Arias, J. (2008). Multilingual students and
    language acquisition Engaging activities for
    diversity training. English Journal, 97(3),
    38-45.Retrieved October 21, 2008, from ERIC
  • Backgrounder Group resettlement to Canada Karen
    Refugees in Mae La Oon Camp, Thailand. (2006,
    June). Citizenship and Immigration Canada.
    Retrieved October 6, 2008 from http//www.cic.gc.c
    a/EnGLIsh/department /media/backgrounders/2006/200

  • Backgrounder, Karen Refugees. (2007, February).
    Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved
    10/06, 2008, from http//
    /department/media/ backgrounders2007/
  • Background Note Burma. (2008, June). Bureau of
    East Asian and Pacific Affairs. Retrieved October
    6, 2008 fromhttp//
  • Binkley, D. M. (2007, March). Why are the
    Karen Refugees? Retrieved October 11, 2008 from
  • Bowles, E. (1998, August). From village to
    camp refugee camp life in transition on the
    Thailand-Burma Border. Force Migration Review.
    Retrieved October 9, 2008 from http//www.reliefwe
  • Buadaeng, K. (2007). Ethnic identities of the
    Karen peoples in Burma and Thailand. In Inman,
    P.B., Peacock, J. L., Thornton, P.M. (Eds.).
    Identity Matters Ethnic and Secretarian
    Conflict. United States Berghahn Books.

  • Cooper, A. (2008). Course lectures. Presented to
    EDEL 335, University of Alberta.
  • Dailey, J., Kemp C., Robinson, A., Smith, J.
    Vu, M. (2007). Karen People A Cultural
    Profile. Burma Refugees Site. Retrieved October
    10, 2008 from http//
  • Karen and Lisu. (2008). Guide to Thailand.
    Retrieved October 12, 2008 from
  • Graceffo, A. (2007, October). Shackled by the
    Kneck. Go A Broad. Net. Retrieved October 4, 2008
    from http//
  • Johnson, D. W., Johnson, F. P. (2009). Joining
    together Group theory and group skills (10th
    ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ Pearson Education,
  • Karen Website. (2000). Retrieved October 3,
    2008, from http//
  • Lewis, E., P. (1984). Karen. Peoples of the
    Golden Triangle Six Tribes in Thailand. New
    York Thames and Hudson Inc. pp. 68-99.
  • McGill, D. (2007, February). The Town that Loves
    Refugees. Christianity Today. Feb2007, Vol. 51
    Issue 2, p96-103.

  • Mekong. (2008). Sgaw Karen Profile. Retrieved
    October 9, 2008 from http//
  • Mortimer, A. A. (2004, August). An Examination
    of Current Provision of Education for Children
    with Special Educational Needs in Karen refugee
    camp schools at the Thai-Myanmar border.
    Retrieved October 20, 2008 from
  • News Release Canada to welcome 2,000 more Karen
    refugees. (2007, February). Citizenship and
    Immigration Canada. Retrieved October 6, 2008
  • Prasad, S. (2008, October 3). Lecture. Presented
    to EDEL 435, University of Alberta.
  • Robins, K. N., Lindsey, R. B., Lindsey, D. B.,
    Terrell, R. D. (2006). Culturally proficient
    instruction A guide for people who teach 2nd
    ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA Corwin Press.
  • Salend, Spencer J. (2005). Differentiating large-
    and small- group instruction. In Inclusive
    education Adapting instruction for students with
    special needs (pp. 276-310). Boston Pearson
    Custom Publishing.
  • Sudhamongkol, P., (n.d.) The Karen. Retrieved
    October 9, 2008 from http//

  • Tompkins, G. (2007). Literacy for the 21st
    century Teaching reading and writing in
    prekindergarten through grade 4. Columbus, OH
    Pearson Education.
  • Visiting Refugee Camps. (2008-07-28). Citizenship
    and Immigration Canada. Retrieved 10/07, 2008,
    from http//
  • Waddington, R. (2002). The Karen. The Peoples of
    the World Foundation. Retrieved October 11, 2008,
    from http//
  • Webmaster (2000). Karen Website. Retrieved
    November 10, 2008, from http//
  • Young, G. (1962). Hill Tribes of the Northern
    Thailand. Bangkok Siam Society. pp.69-71.

PowerPoint Images Reference
  • ALAJAZEERA. (April, 2008). Karen Refugees Flee
    Myanmar Crackdown (Video Clip). YouTube.
    Retrieved November 8, 2008 from
  • Amazing Grace in the Karen Language (Video Clip).
    (January, 2008). Metacafe. Retrieved October 25,
    2008 from http//
  • Binkley, D. M. (December, 2005). Some Camp
    Houses Images. Karen Connection Website Photo
    Gallery. Retrieved October 11, 2008 from
  • Buddha. (2008). Cardinal Photo. Retrieved October
    27, 2008 from http//
  • Burma Map. (2008). Google Maps Canada.
    Retrieved October 28, 2008 from

  • Elder and Young Karen. (2008). Mekong. Retrieved
    October 9, 2008 from http//
  • Fires Burn as Monks are Beaten by the Army.
    (September, 2007). News. Retrieved
    October 26, 2008 from http//
  • Free Burma. (May, 2008). Defy Criminal Burmese
    Junta. Retrieved October 27, 2008 from
  • Karen Refugee Family. (September, 2007)
    Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved
    October 24, 2008 from http//
  • Karen Tribe. (2007). Classroom Clipart.
    Retrieved October 20, 2008 from
    .cgi? actionviewlinkCulture_and_Communitiesima
  • Kindersley, D Robertson, K. (n.d.). Children in
    Classroom at Burmese Refugee Camp in Thailand.
    Retrieved October 29,2008 fromhttp//www.dkimages

  • Myanmar Children. (2008). Better Nature for the
    Better Living. Retrieved October 29, 2008 from
  • Picture of Karen Working in a Rice Field and of
    Boy Holding Rifle. (2005). Microsoft Corporation.
    Retrieved October 25, 2008 from
  • Refugee camp. (July, 2008). Citizenship and
    Immigration Canada. Retrieved October 24, 2008
    from http//
  • Refugee school Mae Sot. (September, 2007).
    Picasa Web Album. http//
  • Rice Farming Experience. (2008). Colours of
    Life. Retrieved October 27, 2008 from
    http// /
  • Waddington, R. (2002). Karen in Jewelry and
    Karen Family Dining Image. The Peoples of the
    World Foundation. Retrieved October 11, 2008,
    from http//
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)