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OLD TESTAMENT THEOLOGY O. T. Theology: Origin Biblical Theology Simple Treats the religion of the Bible Historical (discusses what the sacred writers thought of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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O. T. Theology Origin
Johann Gabler, in 1787, delivered an address on
the difference between Dogmatic and Biblical
  • Biblical Theology
  • Simple
  • Treats the religion of the Bible
  • Historical (discusses what the sacred writers
    thought of divine things)
  • Special Revelationgt
  • Dogmatic Theology
  • Complex
  • Biblical Theology and philosophy
  • Didactic (what the theologians think)
  • Special and General Revelationgt

O. T. Theology Definition
  • Geerhardus Vos, Biblical Theology is that
    branch of Exegetical Theology which deals with
    the process of the self revelation of God
    deposited in the Bible. Biblical Theology, 13.gt
  • John Murray, Biblical theology deals with the
    data of special revelation from the standpoint of
    its history systematic theology deals with the
    same in its totality as a finished product. The
    method of systematic theology is logical, that of
    biblical theology is historical. WTJ, 261,

O. T. Theology The Redemptive Historical
  • Exegesis (then interpretation)
  • Compare with other passages
  • Formulate ideas without distorting the facts
  • Be aware of the flow of Biblical revelationgt

O. T. Theology Techniques
  • Word Studies key words their theological
    thrust one cannot exegete without knowing the
    meaning of the words
  • Subject Studies tracing the growth or
    development of a subject determining the key
  • Theology of Biblical Books What does_____say?
    Examines the book as a literary unit. Determines
    the theme or themes. How do the parts support
    that theme? 
  • Theology of the Old Testament such as Vos,
    Payne, etc.gt

O. T. Theology and Systematic Theology
  • Biblical theology is the ground for systematic
  • Biblical and systematic theology are
    complementary, not antithetical
  • There is a difference in method and nature of the
  • Biblical Theology- what has God revealed?
  • Systematic Theology- what is true about God?gt

O. T. Theology and Systematic Theology
  • The Danger of Systematic Theology
  • Theological drift the system is substituted for
  • Strong denominationalism leads to failure to
    recognize the catholicity of the Church
  • Biased exegesis (the whole determines the meaning
    of the parts)gt
  • The Value of Systematic Theology
  • It presents the results of Bible study in capsule
  • It is useful in combating heresy
  • It provides conventional languagegt

O. T. Theology History
  • The Rise of Old Testament Theology
  • Federal Theology Cocceius (1603-1669)
  • Attempt to escape from traditionalism and
    confessions to purely Biblical orientation
  • Developed theology around the structure of
    covenant (foedus)
  • Pietism Spener and Francke- (1635-1705)
  • Emphasized practical orientation of theology and
    the devotional use of Bible
  • Argued for historical interpretations as opposed
    to prooftexting
  • Johann Gabler Father of Biblical Theology, a
    rationalist, seeking to explain the biblical
    religion in terms of universal laws of reasongt

O. T. Theology History
  • The Triumph of Israels Religion Extreme
    Rationalism (1790-1830)
  • Hermann Samuel Reimarus, 1694-1768
  • Wolfenbüttel Fragments
  • J.D. Semler, 1725-1792, canon the result of human
    endeavors entirely
  • Georg Lorenz Bauer, 1755-1806, rationalist
    theology, Theologie des Alten Testaments
  • W.M.L. de Wette, first to do Biblical Theology
    under influence of Kantianismgt

O. T. Theology History
  • Rationalism under the influence of a philosophy
    of religion (Historicists)
  • Hegel the dialectic
  • Schleiermacher the focus of theology  
  • Wilhelm Vatke Biblische Theologie, 1835,
    developed the history of religions approach
  • Bruno Bauer a student of Vatke, wrote a second
    history of religions, Old Testament theology
    based on the Hegelian philosophygt

O. T. Theology History
  • Julius Wellhausen wrote Prolegomena zur
    Geschichte Israels, 1878
  • Signaled a shift in Biblical Theology from
    rationalism to the history of Israel's religion
  • Based on Graf and Kuenen
  • OT prophets lived before the giving of the OT
  • OT religion grew out of nature religion
  • Behind the sacrifices and rituals of Israel lay
    the agricultural feasts of her pagan neighborsgt

O. T. Theology Wellhausian Scheme
  • Animism moving objects are indwelt with spirits
  • Gen 147, spring of judgment
  • Gen 126, oaks of Moreh 1318, oaks of Mamre
  • Polytheism Joshua 1511, baals
  • Totemism- some members of tribes related to
    animals Caleb-dog, or el names as descendants
    of some god
  • Taboo- certain prohibited foods (can't eat
    because they belong to the tribal gods)
  • Ancestor worship- Genesis 23
  • Monolatry recognize many gods, worship one
  • Monotheism eighth century, J documentsgt

O. T. Theology Key Themes in the
Religionsgeschichte Approach
  • Late date assigned to P document in
    Pentateuchal criticism
  • New picture of Israels religion, based on
    documentary hypothesis
  • Evolutionary model, based on Hegel and Darwingtgt

O. T. Theology HistoryThe Conservative Reaction
  • E.W. Hengstenberg (ca 1835)
  • Wrote Christology of the Old Testament
  • This work held to conservative theological
  • Major failing did not reckon with the nature of
    progressive revelation
  • Nonetheless, he revived an orthodox view of the

O. T. Theology HistoryThe Conservative Reaction
  • Steudel didn't hold to inerrancy, but reacted
    against the historical-critical method affirmed
    historical-grammatical method
  • Gustav Oehler (1812-1872)
  • Oehler was a student of Steudel
  • Oehler wrote a famous Old Testament Theology
    (published posthumously) still used by
  • Focused on the organic growth of Old Testament
    religion, the outstanding work of the
    Heilsgeschichte (salvation history) schoolgt

O. T. Theology HistoryThe Conservative Reaction
  • Heilsgeschichte salvation history school
    focused on the story of salvation
  • J.C.K. Hofmann ca 1841,
  • Found in the Bible a record of the process of
    saving or holy history that aims at the
    redemption of all mankind
  • Process not fully completed until eschatological

O. T. Theology HistoryThe Conservative Reaction
  • Heilsgeschichte
  • The Erlangen School, including Hofmann, held
  • Propositional statements in Scripture were not
    meant to be an end in themselves nor an object of
    faith, but
  • Were designated to bear witnessgtthe redemptive
    acts of God
  • Franz Delitzsch- Bible a witness to salvation, an
    incomplete, usable source, witness of ancient

O. T. Theology HistoryThe Renaissance of
Biblical Theology
  • Factors Contributing to the revival of Biblical
    Theology (early 20th century)
  • The loss of faith in evolutionary naturalism
  • The reaction against the purported objectivity
    in the study of religion-history
  • The trend of Continental theology back to
    Reformation theology (the movement known as

O. T. Theology HistoryThe Renaissance of
Biblical Theology
  • Otto Eissfeldt
  • History of Israels religion and Old Testament
    theology were separate disciplines, with
    different goals and therefore with different
  • Theology deals with revelation, not history
    (debated Eichrodt 1926-29)gt

O. T. Theology HistoryThe Renaissance of
Biblical Theology
  • Walther Eichrodt Key theology 1933, 1939
  • Made use of the covenant theme and employed a
    cross-section methodology
  • Argued that Old Testament theologians could get
    to the essence of Old Testament religion by
    means of the same historical-critical methods
    investigators of the history of religion used.
    Smith, OTT, 39gt

O. T. Theology HistoryThe Renaissance of
Biblical Theology
  • Gerhard von Rad (1957,1960) Theologie des Alten
    Testaments, represented an approach to the Old
    Testament that closely aligned Old Testament
    criticism with Old Testament theology
  • Hexateuch is a reworking of various tribal
    traditions which had been transmitted orally
  • Events are not historical but confessional
  • The OT possessed no central axis or continuity
    of a divine plan rather, it contained a
    narration of the peoples religious reading of
    their history, their attempt to make real and
    present older events and narratives. Kaiser,
    TOTT, 5gt

O. T. Theology Recent History
  • The Biblical Theology Movement H.H. Rowley,
    Alan Richardson, Norman Snaith, G. Ernest Wright,
    B.W. Anderson, begins around 1950
  • Five Key Ideas
  • The rediscovery of the theological dimension
    (message and mystery of the Bible)
  • The unity of the Bible
  • The Idea that revelation is historical
  • The distinctiveness of Hebrew thought
  • The uniqueness of Biblical faith vis-à-vis other

O. T. Theology Recent History
  • Brevard S. Childs, Biblical Theology of the Old
    and New Testaments, 1992
  • The challenge of Biblical Theology is to engage
    in the continual activity of theological
    reflection which studies the canonical text in
    detailed exegesis, and seeks to do justice to the
    witness of both testaments in the light of its
    subject matter who is Jesus Christ. Childs,
    BTONT, 78

O. T. Theology Recent History
  • Evangelical Contributions
  • Geerhardus Vos, Biblical Theology, 1948
  • J. Barton Payne, The Theology of the Older
    Testament, 1962
  • Gerhard Hasel, Old Testament Theology Basic
    Issues in the Current Debate, 1972
  • William Dyrness, Themes in Old Testament
    Theology, 1977
  • Walter Kaiser, Toward an Old Testament
  • Ralph L. Smith, Old Testament Theology, 1993
  • Paul House, Old Testament Theology, 1998gt

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