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World geography


World geography Chapter 1 Globalization and World Regions Different and similar world If you compared places, you would find what the different is. what the common is. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World geography

World geography
  • Chapter 1
  • Globalization and World Regions

Different and similar world
  • If you compared places, you would find
  • what the different is.
  • what the common is.

?? Xiongnu
??? Germanic
Roman Emperor, Leo I
Chinese food
Italian Food
English food (Fired! Fired! Fired!)
Turkish food (Donser Kebap ???)
Taipei City
Different and Changing Worlds
  • Political, economic, and social experience and
    expectations are rapidly change nowadays.
  • The physical shape of world isnt change.
  • But connecting among people bring places closer
    as cooperation, competition, and conflict with
    other peoples become more intense.

  • The 911 event alerted Americans government
  • You can not dominate another county arbitrarily
  • Whats different from Muslims and Americans?
  • Environment ? Society, Economics, Politics
  • Oil ? Economics ? Political Power ? Cultural
    decline, poverty, belief conflict ? reaction

4 geographic levels to see Earth
  • Global
  • views from spacecraft show the contrasts between
    continental land areas and ocean waters.
  • Major World regions
  • are whole or large parts of continents and are
    the division used in this text for the regional
  • Countries
  • are the building blocks of major world regions.
  • Local regions
  • are parts of countries and the places where many
    individuals voice their concerns.

Globalization vs. Localization
  • Globalization
  • Globalization is increasing level of
    interconnections among people throughout the
  • The speed and intensity of globalization, in
    terms of world trade and the flow of financial
    investments, increased markedly in the 1990s.

Globalization vs. Localization
  • Localization is both response to and the outcome
    of globalization.
  • On the one hand, global exchanges and flows of
    information, ideas, people, money, and technology
    move us toward worldwide political solutions,
    economic exchanges, cultural attitudes, and
    environmental concerns.
  • On the other, localization focuses on distinctive
    identities of places or people in regions,
    countries, or local areas.

Facets of Globalization
  • Increasing connections take place through
    intensified flows of ideas, goods, and people
  • Ideas, technologies, and diseases
  • Goods from many place of manufacture
  • People migrations for work, political asylum,
    family consolidation, and long-distance tourism
  • The spread of images and message through the
    media of TV, film, the Internet and print.

Facets of Localization
  • Local voice remain loud in our consciousness and
    ensure that global trends are often far from
    being fulfilled.
  • Political nationalism maintains separation
    countries and of groups within countries. Ex.
    Basque, Aceh

Facets of Localization
  • Despite globalization force, many local customs
    and practices preserve local identities. Ex. Pop
  • Changes and intensification of ideologies,
    especially religious or political beliefs. Ex.
  • Religious difference among Christian, Muslim,
    Jewish, Buddhist, and Hindu countries continue to
    be signification.
  • Demonstrators resist the visible economic
    penetration of countries around the world by
    global media and corporations such as CNN, the
    Murdoch group, McDonalds, Starbuck, Toyota, and

Figure 1.3
Despite of globalization, the World remained
  • Political activity Countries Act
  • 1950-1991 Cold war
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) vs.
    Soviet Union
  • Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
    vs. Communist governments
  • Southern Africa Development Coordination (SADCC)
    vs. apartheid
  • UN become a world-wide level arbitrator
  • Inside vs. Outside

Economic Activities Global Trends
  • The numbers people living on lt 1 per day
  • 900 m (85)(1820)?1.4 b (30)(1980)? 1.2 b
  • In the 1990s, the uneven spread of expanding
    global economic activities caused group of
    countries to enter into or revive regional
    economic agreements, mainly through trade.
  • European Union (EU)
  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
  • Mercosur (southern South America)
  • Association of South East Asian Countries
  • South Africa Development conference
  • US, the countries of western Europe and Japan
    Controlled nearly all the investment,
    production, and consumption of goods.
  • China, India and Brazil increased their
  • Wealthier people vs. Poorer people

Cultural Activities Major Regions, Local Voice
  • One world culture? Did these wiped out the local
    cultural difference
  • Cocacola-ization of eating and drinking habits
  • the spread of Western TV, movies, pop music
  • global markets for some consumer goods
  • Ex. India
  • Western cultural norms
  • democracy, individual ,and human rights
  • Materialism, consumerism, and superficial value

Civilizations (World Cultures)
  • Figure 1.6

Environmental issues at varied scales
  • Earth is marked by a variety of natural
    environments that create differences among
  • Natural environments affects human events at
    global, world regional, country, and local
  • world regional, country, or local scales
    Prediction of hurricanelike storms, effects of
    acid rain, and damage from river floods and
    volcanic eruptions
  • global scale global warming, El Nino, the ozone
    hole over Antarctica, and the destruction of
    tropical rain forests
  • Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1992), Kyoto, Japan

What is geography about?
  • Geography is study of
  • where and how human and natural feature and
    events (political, economic, cultural, and
    environmental) are distributed on Earths
  • the relationships among them,
  • how their distributions change over time,
  • and how those features and relationships affect
    human lives.

Subject matter
  • The tensions among globalization, localization,
    and the continuing significance of country
    governments provide a basis changes and move
    toward either greater interdependence or
  • Thus, geographers compare places and assess the
    interactions among them at different levels of
    geographic scale.

Geographic methods
  • Location
  • Place
  • Human/Environment interaction
  • Movement
  • Region

First, geography is about place
  • Place might be a
  • Individual place
  • Small town
  • Large city
  • Rural area
  • Another state
  • Another country
  • Place might be perceived as points on a map or as
    large area.
  • However, they all have different relationships to
    each other in terms of location, direction,
    distance, and size.

Latitude and Longitude
  • Figure 1.8

Distance and Direction
Meridian and parallel is the basic of time,
distance and direction
Map and Scale
Size of Scale Representative Franction (RF)
Large Scale 125,000 or larger Medium
Scale 11,000,000 to 125,000 Small Scale
11,000,000 or smaller
Next, geography is about explaining the
difference among place
  • The two basic geographic concepts of place and
    location are combined in three main approaches to
    geographic information gathering and explaining
  • Regional geography
  • A region is a area of Earths surface with
    similarities within and between defined areas, or
    regions, of the world.
  • Spatial analysis
  • Human-environment relationship

Regions and Globalization
  • Regions are defined by
  • A high degree of uniformity
  • Limited variability
  • More-or-less lasting boundaries
  • Regional boundaries may include physical
    features, political boundaries, or economic

Regions dynamic features
  • Regions are also dynamic geographic entities that
    have distinctive internal and external flow
    patterns of such phenomena as people, goods, and
  • Nodes are key features of regions, being specific
    places from which flows begin or through which of
    a set of nodes may define the boundary of a

Flow feature
  • Flows within and among
  • regions include population migrations
  • information from the media, Internet, or
  • movements of money
  • technology innovations in manufacturing process,
    information processing, or new transportation
  • and ideology through political and regions within
    world regions

The flows of geographic levels
  • The dynamic elements of such flows within and
    among regions affect the prominence
  • of regions within a countries
  • of countries within world regions
  • of world regions within the global system

The characteristics of flows
  • The variety of these flows is generated by
  • path
  • speed
  • direction and the different relationship to
    social structure imposed by governments and other
  • Breaks or interruptions in the flows may result
    in social problem such as
  • inequities,
  • injustices,
  • and underresourced livelihoods at the local level.

Changes in dynamic regions
  • People create regions
  • Regions shape peoples activities
  • People remake regions
  • Regions interact with other regions
  • Regions are used by those in power

Major world regions
  • Europe
  • Russia and Neighboring Countries
  • East Asia
  • Southern Asia and South Pacific
  • South Asia
  • North Africa and Southwestern Asia
  • Africa South of the Sahara
  • Latin America
  • North America

Figure 1.11
Development of world regions
  • Early history (about 5000 B.C)
  • Settle Farming
  • City-State and Empires (2500-1000 B.C.)
  • Trading Empires and Classical Civilizations
    (1000 B.C.- A.D.600)
  • Disruptions, Migrations, and Feudalism (A.D. 600
    - 1450)
  • The modern, globalizing world
  • Explorations and colonies ( around A.D. 1450)
  • Industrialization (mid-1700s)
  • Globalization, Countries, and Protectionism
    (1450- early 1800s)

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