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(The Third Agricultural Revolution) And Biotechnology THE

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(The Third Agricultural Revolution) And Biotechnology THE GREEN REVOLUTION THOMAS MALTHUS 19th century economist Believed that because population grows geometrically ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: (The Third Agricultural Revolution) And Biotechnology THE


1
THE GREEN REVOLUTION
  • (The Third Agricultural Revolution)
  • And Biotechnology

2
THOMAS MALTHUS
  • 19th century economist
  • Believed that because population grows
    geometrically and food production arithmetically
    famine was inevitable.
  • Slowing the growth of population was the only
    possibility to prevent starvation

History (so far) has proven Malthus wrong . . .
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5
INCREASE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION PER CAPITA
6
GREEN REVOLUTION
A complex of improvements which greatly increased
agricultural production
  • Adoption of new, improved varieties of grains
  • Application of better agricultural techniques
  • Irrigation
  • Mechanization
  • Use of fertilizer
  • Use of pesticides
  • Since 1950s
  • Greatest effect felt in LDCs
  • Agricultural output outpaced population growth
    even without adding additional cropland

7
Principal Beneficiaries of the Green Revolution
  • RICE
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Korea
  • Indonesia
  • WHEAT
  • Mexico
  • Egypt
  • Turkey
  • BOTH
  • India
  • China
  • Pakistan

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9
Golden RiceTHE GREAT YELLOW HOPE
  • In 1982, the Rockefeller Foundation funded
    research into rice varieties to promote global
    health
  • Nutritionally enhanced rice
  • Used a daffodil gene
  • Rice now produces beta-carotene
  • The body converts beta-carotene to vitamin A
  • Blindness in LDCs is caused by vitamin A
    deficiencies
  • Time Magazine declares This rice could save a
    million kids a year.
  • Greenpeace acknowledged Golden rice is a moral
    challenge to our position.

10
Golden RiceTHE GREAT YELLOW HYPE
  • An 11 year-old child would need to eat 15 pounds
    of golden rice a day to satisfy the minimum daily
    requirement of vitamin A
  • Conversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A requires
    fat and protein in the diet (these are lacking in
    LDCs)
  • Asians may not want to eat golden rice they
    prefer white rice over the more nutrient rich
    brown rice which has always existed
  • Education to push golden rice costs money why
    not just hand out vitamin A?
  • Golden rice cost more than 100 million to
    develop it is just a PR stunt for genetically
    altered foods

11

Green Revolutionbenefits
  • Core exports high-yield miracle seeds
  • Needed oil-based fertilizers, pesticides
  • Asian rice crop up 66 in 1965-85
  • Favored areas with good soil, weather

12
Green Revolution

13

Green Revolutiondrawbacks
  • Favored farmers who could afford seeds,
  • inputs, machines, irrigation
  • Indebted farmers lost land, moved to cities
  • New monocrops lacked resistance to
    disease/pests
  • Environmental contamination, erosion
  • Oriented to export cash crops, not domestic food

14
Biotechnology Using organisms to
  • Make or modify products
  • Improve plants or animals
  • Develop new microorganisms
  • Crossing natural divides between species
  • Not just crossbreeding

15
Genetic Engineering
16
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)
Consumer concerns began in Europe, now in U.S.
too
17
FRANKENFOODS
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21
Biotechnologybenefits in agriculture
  • Increase yields
  • Increase pest resistance
  • Grow crops in new areas

22
Biotechnologydrawbacks in agriculture
  • High costs (available to few)
  • Monocrops have less tolerance to disease
  • Possible health effects
  • Contamination of wild crops (superweeds)
  • Corporate patents on life forms

23
Bovine GrowthHormone (BGH)
24
Starlink corn
25
Cloning
First calf cloned in Wisconsin, 1997. Many
clones die of complications. Ethical
and economic conflicts
26

27

San Francisco Farmers Market
28

Minneapolis airport flower stand
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