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ISLAM AND JUDAISM Ahmed Mirza M.D Naqshbandiya Foundation For Islamic Education(NFIE) Abraham:Father of Jews,Christians&Muslims Abraham means – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Ahmed Mirza M.D
  • Naqshbandiya Foundation For Islamic

AbrahamFather of Jews,ChristiansMuslims
  • Abraham means "Father of Many Nations.He
    believed in One God
  • Jews know this one God as Yahweh or Yehovah, the
    self-Existent or Eternal. Jehovah, the Lord.
  • Muslims know this God as Allah. They say there is
    "No god, but God."
  • Christians know the Sacred One first in Matthew
    123 as Emanuel, "God with Us."

Prophet Abraham in IslamFaith, sacrifice,
commitment and patience
  • Salam (peace) be upon Abraham! Quran (37109).
  • In Islam, Prophet Ibrahim/Abraham is the
    friend of God and the father of Prophets
    (Ismail/Ishmael and Ishaq/Isaac and the
    grandfather of Prophet Yaqub/Jacob). He is also
    one of the ancestors of the Prophet
    Muhammad.PeaceBlessings be upon them

Abrahamic Faiths
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Prophet Abraham in Islam
  • Salat-Prayer Muslims must ask God to send His
    blessings upon Prophet Ibrahim/Abrahamhis Family
    during five daily prayersface towards Kaaba in
    Makkah built by AbrahamIshmael
  • .
  • Hajj-PilgrimageYou must adhere to the
    traditions and rituals (of Hajj), for these have
    come down to you from (your forefather) Ibrahim
    in heritageHadith (Tirmidhi).
  • Eid-ul-Adha The sacrifice is offeredin
    commemoration of the supreme act and spirit of
    sacrifice offered by Prophet Abraham in lieu of
    his son Ismail/Ishmael.

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O God! Send blessings upon Muhammad and upon the
House of Muhammad as You sent blessings upon
Abraham and upon the House of Abraham indeed,
You are praiseworthy and glorious. O God! Bless
Muhammad and the House of Muhammad as You blessed
Abraham and the House of Abraham indeed, You are
praiseworthy and glorious
Abraham in JudaismChristianity
  • Now the LORD said to Abram, "Go from your country
    and your kindred and your father's house to the
    land that I will show you. I will make of you a
    great nation, and I will bless you, and make your
    name great, so that you will be a blessing. I
    will bless those who bless you, and the one who
    curses you I will curse and in you all the
    families of he earth shall be blessed
  • Genesis 121-3 (NRSV)

Golden Age of Jewry in Muslim Spain(711-1496)
  • In the 13th century, nearly 90 of the worlds
    Jewry lived under Muslim rule.  Jews read and
    wrote in Arabic, worked hand in hand with Muslims
    at commercial projects, and even studied the
    Koran in the schools known as madrassas.  Once
    introduced to the great Sufi thinkers, many of
    the more mystically inclined Jews responded to
    the deep piety of their spiritual cousins and
    ingested their ideas

Reviving the Model of Muslim Spain
  • I believe there are three reasons that
    learning about Al-Andalus is crucial to the world
  • 1.The level of civilization that Al-Andalus
    achieved. At a time when the rest of Europe was
    shrouded in the Dark Ages, the Muslim city of
    Cordoba in Al-Andalus was the most advanced city
    on the entire European Continent. In philosophy,
    architecture, mathematics, astronomy, medicine,
    poetry, theology, and numerous other fields of
    human endeavor, medieval Islam was the world's
    most advanced civilization.Three wise
    menAverroes,Maimonides,Thomas Aquinas.

Reviving the Model of Muslim Spain
  • 2.Al-Andalus in particular, and Islamic
    civilization in general, served as both the
    repository of ancient Greek knowledge and
    science, and the transmission point in its
    journey to the Christian-dominated West.

Three wise menAverroes,Maimonides,Thomas
Aquinas. Jacob
Reviving the Model of Muslim Spain
  • 3.The culture of Al-Andalus is now justly
    celebrated for the extent that religious
    pluralism and tolerance were hallmarks of this
    most glorious age, as manifested in Islam's
    respect for ahl al-kitab, the "People of the
  • Three wise men Averroes,Maimonides, and Thomas
    Aquinas, Bender

Golden Age of Jewry in Muslim Spain(711-1496)
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  • Averoes, Maimonides, and Aquinas lived during a
    time of unprecedented and reciprocal spiritual
    intellectual and cultural exchange between Islam,
    Judaism, and Christianity, specially during the
    so called Golden Age of Muslim Spain that
    continues to inspire, both by its high level of
    civilization and its tolerance.

Three wise men Averroes.
  • Ibn Rushd,Averroes, was born in Cordoba,
    Spain in1126 and died in 1198. He is without
    question the greatest mind produced by Islamic
    civilization in Al-Andalus. As a young man, Ibn
    Rushd already excelled in theology, religious
    law, astronomy, literature, mathematics, music,
    zoology, medicine and philosophy.
  • Three wise men Averroes, Moses Maimonides,
    and Thomas Aquinas.
    Jacob Bender

Three wise men Averroes
  • It is in the field of philosophy, however,
    that Ibn Rushd left an indelible mark upon the
    intellectual history of Western civilization. In
    the year 1169, Ibn Rushd was asked by the Caliph
    to undertake new and up-to-date Arabic
    translations and commentaries of the works of
    Aristotle. Ibn Rushd's commentaries on Aristotle
    have had an immense impact upon both Christian
    and Jewish philosophy for hundreds of years.
  • Three wise men Averroes, Moses
    Maimonides, and Thomas Aquinas.
    Jacob Bender

Moses Maimonides (1135-1204)
  • Visionary thinkerProlific author,Wrote on topics
    ranging from physics to Jewish Law, theology to
    politics, psychology to Biblical exegesis, and
    from philosophy to medicine. Rich and complex in
    their own right, Maimonides' writings must,
    however, be understood within their 12th-13th
    century Spanish Muslim context,of the works of
    three of the most well-known Islamic thinkers,
    al-Farabi (ca. 870-950), Avicenna (Ibn Sina)
    (980-1037) and Averroes (Ibn Rushd) (1126-1198).
  • The Influence of Islamic Thought on Maimonides
    Stanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyJun 30, 2005

Moses Maimonides Ibn Rushd
  • Born 12 years after Ibn Rushd.
  • Most important Jewish thinker in the last 2,000
  • Both were born in Cordoba in Al-Andalus
  • Both became philosopher/theologians
  • Both became interpreters of Aristotle
  • Both harmonized the reason with the revelations
  • Both became jurists of ShariahHalakhah
  • Both lived part of their lives in Fez in Morocco
  • Both became court physicians, Ibn Rushd to the
    Caliph of Cordoba, Rabbi Musa to the great
    Salah-ah-Din in Egypt.

Moses Maimonides
  • Shining example of the Muslim-Christian-Jewish
    symbiosis that went on for 800 years and was
    ultimately extinguished by the Spanish
    Inquisition in 1478. Jews at that time fled to
    the only country that would allow them an asylum,
    the Ottoman Empire where they celebrated 500
    years of prosperity

Moses Maimonides 13 principles of faith
Gods Existence God's unity God'sSpirituality
and Incorporeality God's Eternity God alone
should be the object of worship Relevation
through God's Prophets The preeminence of Moses
among the Prophets God's law given on Mount
Sinai The immutability of theTorah as God's Law
God's foreknowledge of human actions Reward of
good and retribution of evil The coming of the
Jewish Messiah The Resurrection of the dead
Three Wise MenThomas Aquinas
  • Born near Naples,Italy in1225,is the most
    important and influential Christian philosopher
    of the Middle Ages. His masterpiece, the Summa
    Theologiae, is widely considered the most
    comprehensive exploration of philosophy and
    theology in the entire history of Christianity.
    And like Ibn Rushd and Rabbi Musa before him, as
    was primarily concerned with finding a way of
    incorporating Aristotle's rationalism into
    Christian theology.

Three wise men Averroes,Maimonides,Thomas
Jacob Bender
Rabbi Abraham Maimonides (1186-1237)
  • Eminent exponent of the medieval Jewish-Sufi
    synthesis,compiled treatise Kifayat ul-'Abidin
    the compendium for those who serve God
    advocated an ideal of sublime piety based on a
    discipline of mystical communion,recommended Sufi
    practices, solitary contemplation and dhikr,
    repetitions of the divine names.
  • SourcesEliezer Segal

Rabbi Abraham Maimonides (1186-1237)
  • Abraham grew up in a truly multi-cultural world,
    where Moslems, Jews and even Christians
    interacted in one of the most accepting societies
    in the history of man. Unlike our current epoch,
    when the voices of hatred speak far louder than
    those of friendship, medieval Egypt was a place
    of mutual respect, protective laws and
    surprisingly strong and positive relations
    between the religions. It was also a time and
    place rife with Sufis and Sufi thought - and
    Jewish libraries often contained books by such
    masters as al-Ghazali, as-Suhrawardi and
    al-Hallaj, all dutifully transcribed into the
    blocky Hebrew script of the local Jewish
    population. Sufis and Jews knew each other, read
    each other's books and even compared notes on
    spirituality and the quest for divine union with
    God. Tom Block

Kifayat ul-'Abidin the compendium for those who
serve God Abraham Maimonides
  • Mystical masterpiece,2500-pages, first three
    chapters re-hashing his father's thought and laws
    ,fourth section spelled out in minute detail the
    tariqa,the Sufi Path, including sincerity, mercy,
    generosity, gentleness, humility, faith,
    contentedness, abstinence, mortification and
    solitude. He also mentions that upon successful
    completion of the "path" and the achievement of
    divine union with God,the seeker is to wear the
    Sufi garb. He himself, wore Sufi Khirqah implying
    that he had not only followed the Sufi Way, but
    had completed it!The Kifaya, had already spread
    to distant lands in his own lifetime, taking with
    it his ideas on Sufism

Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (1058-1111)
  • al Ghazali played a similar role to Islam as did
    Maimonides to Judaism aligning mystical and more
    orthodox streams, allowing these two impulses to
    coexist within the same religion. Quoted time and
    again in Jewish tracts,his treatises have been
    found copied out into Hebrew in medieval Jewish
    libraries, and his ideas are sprinkled throughout
    medieval Jewish texts.

Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (1058-1111)
  • Al-Ghazalis influence on Jewish mysticism was
    far reaching,Jewish mystics,Moses Maimonides
    (12th century), Abraham he-Hasid (13th century),
    Obadyah Maimonides (13th century), Judah Halevi
    (12th century), Abraham Ibn Hasdai (13th century)
    up to the Kabbalist Abraham Gavison of Tlemcen
    (17th century) specifically quoted the Sufi
    master in their own exegesis of Jewish life and
    law.Rabbi Gavison stated I have translated the
    poetry of this sage, for even though he be not of
    the children of Israel, it is accepted that the
    pious of the gentiles have a share in the world
    to come and surely heaven will not withhold from
    him the reward of his faith.

Solomon Ibn Gabirol (b.1020).
  • Personified the interweaving of Judaism and
    Islam.He assimilated ideas from Sufis Ikhwan
    as-Safa, to such an extent that after the
    Bible,it was his primary source of inspiration!He
    also followed the teachings of Sufi mystic Ibn
    Masarra (883-931), who had introduced Sufism to
  • Three things remind me of You,
  • the heavens
  • who are a witness to Your name
  • the earth
  • which expands my thought
  • and is the thing on which I stand
  • and the musing of my heart
  • when I look within.

  Statue of Solomon Ibn Gabirol in a park in
Málaga, Spain
Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi (1165-1240)
  • Ibn ArabiIbn Gabirol,were the two great
    followers of Sufi mystic Ibn Masarra (883-931) .
    Where al-Ghazali was known as the Renovator of
    Islam, Ibn Arabi was the Distiller, taking 500
    fertile years of Sufi thought,and creating a
    unified vision of Islamic mysticism, influencing
    virtually all of Islamic spirituality that
    postdated his fertile life span and much of
    Jewish mysticism, as well.

Abraham Abulafia(1240-1291)
  • In addition to Abulafias belief in the ability
    to commune completely with God, he borrowed much
    of what is today commonly thought of as
    particularly Jewish mystical prayer from the
    Muslim mystics called the Science of the
    Letters. This system, based in a complicated
    series of chants, breathing techniques, movements
    of the head, and special clothing, had very
    little to do with the traditional laws of
    Judaism.  Many of these same ideas and rites,
    however, could be found in the Sufi practice of
    that time.Abulafia imported the emotional aspects
    of Sufism into Kabbalistic practice
    Shalom/Salaam, Tom Block

Abraham Abulafia
  • The gentle melding of Sufism with Judaism
    produced a period of tremendous fertility in the
    Jewish religion some have even claimed it to be
    the most productive and creative epoch in the
    entire history of Jewish mysticism.   After the
    Sufi influence was digested, a few hundred years
    after Abraham Abulafias death, the face of
    Jewish worship itself had changed, with
    reverberations reaching deep into the inner
    sanctum of the Jewish Kabbalah and down to the
    Baal Shem Tovs Hasidism.  Even today,
    contemporary Jewish adepts in Jerusalem, Europe
    and even Brooklyn worship in ways that are more
    reminiscent of Sufism than earlier, pre-medieval
    Jewish spirituality
  • Shalom/Salaam,Tom Block

A Sufi-Jewish DialoguePhilosophy and Mysticism
in Bahya ibn Paquda's Duties of the HeartDiana
  • Written in eleventh-century Muslim Spain , Bahya
    Ibn Paquda's Duties of the Heart is a profound
    guidebook of Jewish spirituality.Diana Lobel
    explores the full extent to which Duties of the
    Heart marks the flowering of the "Jewish-Muslim
  • Bahya a maverick who integrated abstract
    negative theology, devotion to the inner life,
    and an intimate relationship with a personal
    God,steeped in Islamic traditions represents a
    genuine bridge between religious cultures. He
    brings together, as well, a rationalist,
    philosophical approach and a strain of Sufi
    mysticism, paving the way for the integration of
    philosophy and spirituality in the thought of
    Moses Maimonides.

Kitab al-hidayah ila faraid al-qulub (Guidance
to the Duties of the Heart) Bahya Ibn Paquda's
Ten Principles
  • 1.Sincere profession of the oneness of God
    (ikhlas al-tawhid)
  • 2.Consideration for all created beings
    (al-i'tibar bilmakhluqin)
  • 3.Obedience to God (ta'at Allah),
  • 4.Abandonment(tamakkul,the principle of giving
    oneself entirely to Him)
  • 5.Sincerity of action (ikhlas)
  • 6.Humility (tawadu')
  • 7.Repentance (tawba)
  • 8.Constant examination of one's conscience
  • 9.Abstinence and asceticism (zuhd)
  • 10.Love of God (mahabba)

  • Jewish mysticism,
  • developing during 12th to 17th AD  
  • The Zohar (Book of Splendor)
  • a mystical interpretation of the Torah
  • God as ultimate reality,
  • God as the Boundless is En Sof,
    transcendent,beyond all human comprehension
  • Ten emanations (sefirot) come from En Sof,
  • Ten forms of God's presence in creation

  • Divine Will generates Wisdom and Intelligence
  • Wisdom and Intelligence generates Grace/Love and
  • the union of Grace/Love and Power produces Beauty
  • from Grace, Power, Beauty springs the natural
  • other emanations Sovereignty, Glory/Presence or
    Shekina, Community or Knessetl, human beings are
    imbued with something from all of God's

Daniel Pearl Foundation
  • The Daniel Pearl Foundation was formed in
    memory of journalist Daniel Pearl to further the
    ideals that inspired Daniel's life and work. The
    foundation's mission is to promote cross-cultural
    understanding through journalism, music, and
    innovative communications

The Daniel Pearl FoundationJudea Pearl
  • We hope our impact would take effect on both
    the symbolic and substantive dimensions.
    Symbolically, we wish to demonstrate that even
    the hardest issues underlying Jewish-Muslim
    tensions could be discussed in a civil, friendly
    and respectful manner. Substantively, we wish to
    remind people of the common principles that
    underlie the two Abrahamic traditions, to
    understand the mechanism of the golden age when
    the two societies thrived as friendly neighbors
    and, most importantly, to explore how these
    commonalities can help us shape a future of peace
    and understanding. Fostering Muslim-Jewish
  • Judea Pearl and Akbar Ahmed discuss their
    message of reconciliation at Duke University,
    February 25, 2005

The Daniel Pearl FoundationAkbar Ahmed
  • I hope that what sticks with them is the
    common humanity that binds us, transcends all
    other loyalties, ethnic, political, ideological.
    Our roots go back to a common idea, to the
    patriarch Abraham. The number one idea Muslims
    and Jews share is that there is an omnipotent
    God. They both have Holy Books they believe in
    an afterlife, in doing good and avoiding evil and
    that the 10 commandments guide society. This is a
    very, very strong common base, unfortunately, it
    isn't often known. Fostering Muslim-Jewish
  • Judea Pearl and Akbar Ahmed discuss their
    message of reconciliation at Duke University,
    February 25, 2005

(No Transcript)
ConclusionThree Wise MenJacob Bender
  • I believe that some eight hundred years after
    they lived, Ibn Rushd the Muslim, Rabbi Musa the
    Jew, and Thomas Aquinas the Christian can still
    all enter both our hearts and minds if we let
    them. Their words, and their life stories, can
    both inform and inspire us about some of the
    greatest issues confronting us at the beginning
    of this new century the relationship between
    religion and the state, between faith and
    science, between reason and revelation the
    dangers of political extremism and the courage
    it often takes to oppose injustice and search for

ConclusionThree Wise MenJacob Bender
  • By reading and interpreting their writings, we
    can discover that we, Muslims, Jews and
    Christians, are all Ibnu Ibrahim, the children of
    Abraham, PBUH. We can discover that in the
    struggle to create a more just and peaceful
    world, we may perhaps have more in common with
    those in other traditions who share our values of
    justice than with the more extreme followers
    within our own religious families.

Three wise men Averroes, Moses Maimonides, and
Thomas Aquinas. Jacob Bender
  • Just as our three wise men were not afraid to
    challenge prevailing opinion within their own
    religious community in the Middle Ages, so today
    I believe we must also be willing to openly
    criticize our co-religionists when they engage in
    extremism and intolerance. Thus Muslim religious
    leaders around the world condemned the Taliban's
    destruction of the ancient Buddhist statues in
    Afghanistan and the 9/11 terror attacks by
    Al-Qaeda. Thus many Christian ministers in the US
    denounced the bigoted attacks on Islam by
    Reverends Pat Robertson, Jerry Fallwell and
    Franklin Graham And thus many Jews, like myself,
    have for decades supported the right of the
    Palestinian people to an independent state and
    condemned Israel's brutal occupation with its
    assassinations, house demolitions, closures, and
    illegal settlement policy

Three wise men Averroes, Moses Maimonides, and
Thomas Aquinas. Jacob Bender
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