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Six Forces That Drive Emerging Technologies


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Title: Six Forces That Drive Emerging Technologies

McLuhans Laws of Media and the Six Prominent
Forces that Drive Emerging Technologies Transfor
mation to a 21st Century Technology Emerging
Technologies, Course 8848Dr. David
Thornburg Walden UniversityAlison
ParkerSummer 2012
Technology comes in..
Technology goes out!
  • The Blackboard/Chalkboard fully emerged and was
    present in most classrooms. It was utilized in
    classrooms across America since 1935. However,
    it is now an obsolete technology and was replaced
    first by the overhead projector and then the Dry
    Erase Board.

The Overhead Projector reigned supreme
for three decades as it was a partner with the
Blackboard that made presentation of printed
information available for small or large groups
of learners in a classroom.
Tetrad for Overhead Projector
  • But soon enough the Smart Board booted out the
    Overhead Projector then the Dry Erase Board.

Tetrad for the Smart Board
Qualitative Research Interviews
Decision Maker Ms. Cohen Role Assistant Principal
Technology End User Mr. Levy Role Teacher
Interview Questions
  • Interview Questions with a Decision
    Maker/Assistant Principal
  • Demographics
  • What is your name, title and amount of years
    youve been leading in education, specifically
    educational technology?
  • Observations of the use of the Obsolete
  • Describe the use of the Overhead Projector by you
    and teachers.
  • What reasons impacted the decision to store the
    Overhead Projector and possibly choose a newer
  • In terms of cost, what costs were associated with
    the purchase and upkeep of the Overhead
  • Emerged Technology
  • How did our school become aware of the Smart
  • What about the Smart Board appealed to our
  • Why was the decision made to purchase Smart
  • In terms of cost, what costs were associated with
    the purchase and maintenance of the Smart Boards?
  • When were the Smart Boards purchased? How many
    were purchased and for whom?
  • What supports if any, were put in place to assist
    teachers with shifting from Overhead Projectors
    to Smart Boards?
  • In terms of technology integration, whats the
    expectation for Smart Bard use in teacher
    observations/curriculum instruction?
  • Have teachers embraced this tool? Do they use
    them for their intended use? Why? Why not?
  • Have students embraced this tool? Why? Why not?
  • What surprised you the most with this paradigm
  • Has the Smart Board lived up to its name or has
    it just been yet another trend and big waste of
    time and money in our budget?

Audio taping of An Assistant Principal
Telephone Interview with an
Elementary School Teacher1. What is your name,
title and amount of years youve been teaching?
Im Mr. Levy. Im a 4th grade teacher that
wears two hats, teacher and tech guy since we
dont officially have one. I have been teaching
for 9 years. 2. Describe the use of the
Overhead Projector by you/other teachers. In
your use of this technology, what
works/worked/didnt work/doesnt work? Why? How
many teachers in our school still use this
technology? LOL.Parker are you kidding me?
Nobody uses this dinosaur anymore! Its from the
Stone Ages. I used it in my first year of
teaching and since have been in schools that only
have SmartBoards. At that time everybody used it
for reading and modeling ideas for the writing
process. I used it mainly for math and science
for displaying images and for teaching
fractions/decimals/division/multiplication with
arrays to my students.3. How did you become
aware of the Smart Board?A colleague of mine got
one for his 5th grade class and I went to his
school/class to check it out. It was the coolest
gadget Id ever seen. 4. Upon your
introduction of the Smart Board was
training/professional development provided for
teachers? Well, in Sept. of 2009 Smart Tech
trainers came to our school and did some
introductory workshops with us and again in Sept.
2010, but most of what I learned came from self
exploration. And thats why I go around from
room to room on my prep periods helping teachers
with tech support and modeling /finding lessons
from Smart Exchange. 5. What seems to be the
overall perception of the Smart Board and its
intended use? Initially it was like a big fat
fad and everybody jumped on the bandwagon and was
excited to use the month of Sept.
Overhead Projectors were removed by the custodial
staff and the principal mandated the use of the
SmartBoard across the curriculum. However, then
it wasnt deemed a fun gadget was
deemed a fat nuisance teachers didnt feel
confident implementing any further than the
writing and drawing tools. In terms of using it
for interactive and engaging lessons only about
one teacher per grade does that, so about 6 of
us. Not many teachers have used their Clickers
yet. I cant believe that we got them in 2009
and they are still in their original packaging
boxes collecting dust in teachers closets. But
hopefully I will get the tech position and be
able to transition to the full time Technology
Teacher and get us up to speed!6. Do you think
the Smart Board is just a trendy tool in
education or do you predict that it will be
around for 10 to 20 more years? I predict it
will be around in 20 years. Its bigcostly,
esp. the bulbs, but we havent fully explored it
yet. I think with time American teachers will
move along in exploration and fully implement all
the features because education is going touch
interactive.7. In terms of the school budget,
do you think the Smart Board was worth the
investment? Why? Why not? Absolutely! The
kids love it and it makes learning loads of
Evolutionary Technology Force 1 whereby one
technology develops and transforms into another
improving the way we learn.
  • 1800s teachers used the mini slate board for one
    on one learning
  • 1935 teachers used the Blackboard, a larger
    version of the mini slate board
  • which more students had access to/could see
    at one time.
  • 1962 teachers used the Carousel Slide Projector
    to show slides and
  • and educational pictures
  • Mid 1960s teachers engaged learners using the
    Overhead Projector
  • Mid 1990s teachers utilized the Dry Erase Board
  • 1991 Advent of the SmartBoard , a tool that
    simplifies the use of both the Dry
  • Erase Board and the Overhead Projector by
    adding the modality of touch with
  • the use of a computer

Rhymes of History Force 2 whereby the
technology rekindles some affect or impact from
the distance past.
  • The Overhead Projector rekindled the closeness,
    proximity and intimacy between the instructor and
    the student that was once evident in small school
    houses when students teachers used the mini
    slates for learning. This intimacy and closeness
    was stripped away by the use of the big
  • The Smartboard rekindled the use of the finger
    as a tool for writing and the use of more
    embedded images as a mode of communication of
    ideas and thoughts in our content.

Science Fiction Force 3 whereby inventions
are based on the imaginations of inventors.
  • Our earliest inventors were mankind from
    prehistoric time whereby they used chalk
    dust/particles, occurring in their natural form
    for communicating on cave walls. Societal needs
    and the imagination encouraged inventions.
  • In the 1800s teachers needed a tool for their
    large blackboards since class size had increased
    significantly. This tool was chalk. One might
    suggest that scientists and/or inventors/educators
    cooked up the idea of a tool you could write
    with in many colors and erase when needed. The
    pen or creative pen (a tool in Smart Notebook
    software) are two features that resemble the
    chalk of the past. The idea of colored text grew
    from the imagination or idea of colored chalk.

Disruptive Technologies Force4 whereby a
new technology with equivalent functionalities as
its predecessor comes along and completely wipes
out the old technology by providing increased
efficiency/lowering costs/newer benefits. This
newer technology changes the way we do
business/get tasks done/teach.
  • The Overhead Projector knocked out the
  • The Dry Erase Board replaced the Overhead
  • And at 300 pm, the SmartBoard met the Dry Erase
  • in the school yard and punched its lights
    out! Pow!!!

Increasing Returns Force 5 whereby two
technological innovations hit the market at about
the same time, one gets locked in and embraced
by consumers while the other is driven into
  • Both the Carousel Slide Projector and the
    Overhead Projector emerged around the same time.
    The field of education ditched the Slide
    Projector, purchased more Overhead Projectors and
    as such the Slide Projector is extinct as a tool
    in American classrooms.
  • Both the Dry Erase Board and the SmartBoard
    emerged about the same time. The Smartboard was
    embraced in the USA as well as globally making it
    stand out amongst the competitors who are now
    largely extinct both in the world of business and
    education. It must be stated that although these
    SmartBoard are present in K-12 classrooms they
    may or may not be fully integrated.

Red Queens Force 6 Whereby two technologies
suddenly move forward far above other competitors
as they compete with each other.
  • There are several Interactive White Boards on the
  • Smartboard Promethean
  • Numonics
  • Polyvision
  • Mimio
  • Ebeam
  • However, there exists a quiet educational
    technological war between Smart Promethean
    going on, leaving all the other brands left in
    the dust.

Speculation on the Future of SmartBoard
  • http//

What is next? According to the 2012, Horizon
Report on New and Emerging technologies, mobile
apps. I predict that America will have a mobile
tablet for every learner. It will rekindle small
groups working together on a task at the same
level as well as the tool from the distant past,
the mini slate board. This will enhance
differentiated instruction. In addition,
Educational Apps will dominate the industry on
tablet devices where learners will get an
enhanced learning experience as the Apps embed
Learning Analytics to provide more readily
available data to strengthen data driven
instruction, student engagement and student
achievement. The Apps will serve as Game Based
Learning Tools to meet the need to play that
children crave. How long do you think it will
take this emerging technology to end up in the
supply closet? Neverwe dont have space for
these massive boards.What kind of technology
might obsolete the current emerging technology?
Perhaps the Smart Table with Apps for small
group/individualized learning.
  • Future Educational Technology Trends

ReferencesGoogle Images were copied and
pasted from Education,
Inc. (2009). Emerging and future technology.
Baltimore, MD Author.NMC Horizon Report 2012
Higher Education Edition, downloaded, August,
2012 from You Tube http//
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations
(5th ed.). New York, NY Free Press.
Appendix Permission Slips from Interviewees
(No Transcript)
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