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Early World Civilizations


Iliad, was his famous epic poem, describing the Trojan War. ... Greeks attributed human qualities such as love, hate, and jealousy. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early World Civilizations

Early World Civilizations Classical Greece2000
B.C.-300 B.C.
  • Chapter 5

Villages Grow into Cities
  • People settled into communities based on
  • Domesticated animals and the invention of new
    tools-hoes, sickles, and plow sticks-made farming
  • Economic changes-irrigation systems and the sail
    and wheel allowed trade to flourish.
  • Social changes-religion, people worshipped many
    gods rain, wind, etc.
  • First civilization-Sumer, located in Mesopotamia,
    modern Iraq.

5 Characteristics of a CivilizationEvery
civilization must have these characteristics to
be considered a civilization
  • Centers of Population (cities)
  • Complex Institutions
  • Advanced Technology
  • Specialization
  • Written Language (record keeping)

Cities, Specialization, Institutions
  • Cities-large group of people center for trade
  • Specialization-development of skills in a
    specific kind of work. Ex. traders, govt.
    officials, priests.
  • Institutions-a long-lasting pattern of
    organization in a community. Ex. Govt. religion,
  • Record keeping-keeping track of tax collections,
    laws, storage of grain, calendar, rituals,
    accounts of debts and payments, was important to
  • Technology-new tools/techniques are needed to
    solve problems in civilizations. Ex. ox-drawn
    plows, irrigation systems, potters wheel, bronze

Geography of Greece
  • A mountainous peninsula jutting out into the
    Mediterranean Sea.
  • Greece consists of about 2,000 islands.
  • The Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and Black Sea were
    important routes.
  • These sail ways linked Greece.
  • Sea travel and trade were important because
    Greece lacked natural resources, like timber,
    metals, and farmland.

  • Mountains divided the land into regions.
  • Instead of one single govt., the Greeks
    developed small, ind. communities within each
    little valley and its surrounding mountains.
  • Transportation was difficult, land was stony,
    only a small portion of the land was arable.
  • Greece could never support a large population.
  • The Greeks began to push for new colonies
    because of the desire for living space,
    grasslands, and farmland.

The Mycenaeans
  • The Mycenaeans settled on the Greek mainland
    around 2000 B.C.
  • Mycenae was located in S. Greece.
  • A warrior king ruled the surrounding villages and
  • These kings dominated Greece from about 1600 to
    1100 B.C.

The Minoans
  • They lived on the island of Crete.
  • Contact was made with the Mycenaeans and they
    soon saw the value in seaborne trade.
  • The Mycenaeans adopted the Minoan writing system,
    religious practices, art, politics, and

The Trojan War
  • During the 1200s B.C., the Mycenaeans fought a
    ten year battle against Troy, a city-state in
  • The Greek army besieged and destroyed Troy.
  • These battles b/w Greece and Troy were known as
    the Trojan Wars.
  • After the Trojan Wars, the Mycenaean civilization

The Dorians
  • The Dorians moved into the war-torn countryside.
  • These people were far less advanced than the
  • The economy collapsed and trade came to a
  • The art of writing seems to be lost during the
    Dorian age.

Epics of Homer
  • The greatest storyteller according the Greek
    tradition, was a blind man named Homer.
  • He composed epics, narrative poems celebrating
    heroic deeds.
  • Iliad, was his famous epic poem, describing the
    Trojan War.
  • The heroes of the Iliad were warriors Achilles
    of Greece and Hector of Troy.

  • The Greeks developed myths, traditional stories,
    about their gods.
  • Greeks attributed human qualities such as love,
    hate, and jealousy.
  • Zeus was the ruler of the gods.
  • Hera was Zeus wife.
  • Athena, goddess of wisdom, was Zeus daughter.
  • To name a few.

Warring City-States
  • By 750 B.C. the city-state, or polis, was the
    fundamental political unit in Greece.
  • A polis was made up of a city and its surrounding
  • They could range anywhere b/w 50 and 500 square
  • They roughly housed 10,000 residents.
  • An acropolis was where citizens gathered to
    discuss govt.

Political Structure
  • City-states had many different forms of govt.
  • In some, a single person, or king, ruled known as
    a monarchy.
  • Some adopted a aristocracy, a govt. ruled by a
    small group of noble, landowning families.
  • Others formed a oligarchy, a govt. ruled by a
    few powerful people.

  • Powerful individuals usually nobles or other
    wealthy citizens, sometimes seized control of the
    govt. by appealing to the common people for
  • These rulers were called tyrants.
  • They were looked upon as leaders who would work
    for the interests of the ordinary people.

  • Athenian reformers moved toward democracy, rule
    by the people.
  • Citizens participated directly in political
    decision making.
  • In 621 B.C. a nobleman named Draco, developed a
    legal code based on the idea that all Athenians,
    rich or poor, were equal under law.
  • In 500 B.C. the Athenian leader Cleisthenes
    created the Council of Five Hundred.
  • This body proposed laws and counseled the
  • Only free adult male property owners born in
    Athens were citizens.
  • Women, slaves, and foreigners had few rights.

  • Only the sons of wealthy families received formal
  • Prepared boys to be good citizens.
  • Girls were educated at home by their mothers.
  • They learned child-rearing, weaving cloth,
    preparing meals, managing the household, and
    other skills that made them a good wife.

  • Located in S. Greece.
  • Sparta was cut off from the rest of Greece.
  • Sparta was a military state.
  • Spartans conquered the Messenians and turned
    them into helots, peasants forced to stay on the
    land they worked.
  • Sparta became a strong city-state.

Spartas Govt.
  • Several branches.
  • Assembly, all Spartan citizens, elected officials
    and voted on issues.
  • Council of Elders, 30 older citizens, proposed
  • 5 elected officials carried out the laws passed
    by the assembly.
  • 2 kings ruled over Spartas military forces.

Sparta Daily Life
  • Sparta had the most powerful army in Greece.
  • Spartans valued duty, strength, and discipline,
    over freedom, individuality, beauty, and
  • Daily life centered on military training, such
    training produced tough and resourceful soldiers.
  • Spartan girls received some military training and
    they ran, wrestled, and played sports.

Fighting Style
  • Bronze to iron weapons made a new kind of army.
    Everyone took part.
  • Foot soldiers, called hoplites, stood side by
    side, holding a spear in one hand and a shield in
  • This formation was known as a phalanx.
  • Most powerful fighting force in the ancient

Persian Wars
  • The Persian Wars were fought between Greece and
  • Began in Ionia, on the coast of Anatolia.
  • Greece was settled there first.
  • Around 546 B.C. the Persians conquered the area.
  • Athens sent ships and men to their aid.
  • Darius the Great, defeated the Greeks and vowed
    to destroy all of Athens.
  • The Persians sailed across the Aegean Sea w/ a
    fleet of 25,000 men and landed at Marathon.
  • The Persians were destroyed.

Persian Wars
  • In 480 B.C. Dariuss son Xerxes, assembled a
    force to destroy Athens.
  • Greeces city-states did not work together.
  • When Xerxes came to a narrow mountain pass at
    Thermopylae, 7,000 Greeks, including 300 Spartans
    were waiting for him.
  • For 3 days the Greeks stopped the Persians.
  • A traitor told the Persians about a secret path
    around the pass.
  • The Persians then easily defeated the Greeks.
  • Xerxes then set fire to Athens.

Persian Wars
  • In 479 B.C. the Greeks defeated the Persians at
    the Battle of Plataea.
  • Several Greek city-states then formed an alliance
    known as the Delian League.
  • With the victory at Plataea, the Greeks ended the
    threat of future attacks from the Persians.
  • Greek city states felt a new sense of confidence.
  • Athens basked in the victory of the Persians.
  • These city-states became provinces of an Athenian

  • Pericles, ruler of Athens during its golden age.
  • He increased the of public officials who were
    paid salaries.
  • Even the poorest citizen could serve if elected
    or chosen by lot.
  • More citizen engaged in self-govt.
  • Direct democracy, a form of govt. in which
    citizens rule directly and not through

Athenian Empire
  • He made the Athens navy the strongest in the
  • He glorified Athens by persuading the assembly to
    vote huge sums of the leagues money to buy gold,
    ivory, and marble.
  • Pericles was the mastermind behind the
  • A temple built to honor Athena, goddess of wisdom
    and protector of Athens.
  • Sculptors of the time period wanted to portray
    ideal beauty, not realism.
  • Their values of harmony, order, balance, and
    proportion became the standard of what is
    classical art.

  • The Greeks invented drama and built the first
    known theatres.
  • Civic pride and a tribute to the gods.
  • The plays were about leadership, justice, and the
    duties owed to the gods.
  • Tragedy, a serious drama about common themes
    love, hate, war, and betrayal.
  • A tragic flaw usually excessive pride, caused the
    heros downfall.
  • Comedy, contained scenes filled with slapstick
    situations and crude humor.
  • Playwrights made fun of politics and respected
    people and ideas of the time.

Peloponnesian War
  • The Peloponnesian War was b/w Athens and Sparta.
  • Sparta declared war on Athens in 431 B.C.
  • Many Greek city-states views Athens with
    hostility because of the power they were gaining.
  • Sparta swept through Greece, burning the Athenian
    food supply, so Pericles pulled the residents
    inside the city walls.
  • A plague swept through the city (Athens) killing
    1/3 of the population.
  • In 421 B.C. the 2 sides signed a truce.
  • The truce did not last long, in 415 B.C. they
    went to war again.
  • And finally in 404 B.C. the Athenians

  • Great thinkers, determined to seek the truth were
    called philosophers, lover of wisdom.
  • Their philosophy was based on 2 assumptions.
  • The universe (land, sky, sea) is put together in
    an orderly way and subject to unchanging law.
  • People understand these laws through logic and
  • The Sophists, questioned peoples unexamined
    beliefs and ideas about justice and other
    traditional values.

Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
  • Socrates, believed that absolute standards did
    exist for truth and justice.
  • He was brought to trial for corrupting the youth
    and neglecting the gods.
  • Drank poison and killed himself.
  • Plato, a student of Socrates, wrote the Republic,
    his vision of a perfectly governed society.
  • The person with the greatest insight and
    intellect from the ruling class would be chosen
  • Aristotle, questioned nature of the world and
    human belief, thought, and knowledge.
  • He applied his method to problems in the fields
    of psychology, physics, and biology.

Philip II
  • Philip II, was king of Macedonia, a brilliant
    general and politician, located north of Greece.
  • Rough terrain and cold climate.
  • The Greeks looked down on the Macedonians as
  • The Macedonians became a well-trained army under
    Philip II.
  • Philip decided to wage war against Athens.
  • Demosthenes, an Athenian orator, tried to warn
    the Greeks of the threat Philip II posed. He
    urged them to unite. They didnt.
  • He defeated the Greeks at the battle of
    Chaeronea, this defeat ended Greek independence.
  • Philip planned to invade Persia next. He was
    stabbed to death by a guardsman in 336 B.C.
  • Alexander the Great, Philips son declared
    himself king.

  • He was 20 years old when he became king.
  • He learned science, geography, and literature,
    from Aristotle.
  • The city-state of Thebes tired to rebel against
    him, however, he quickly put the rebellion down,
    and destroyed the city.
  • The idea of rebellion quickly disappeared.

Invasion of Persia
  • In 334 B.C. he led 35,000 troops to Persia.
  • His forces met Darius III's forces at the
    Granicus River.
  • Alexanders army broke through the lines and
    charged right for Darius, he fled and so did his
  • Alexander won a sure victory.
  • Darius tried to negotiate a peace, but Alexander
    rejected the offer and announced his plan to
    conquer the entire Persian empire.

Invasion of Persia
  • Alexander marched in Egypt, the people there
    welcomed him.
  • He founded the city of Alexandria.
  • Darius again assembled another massive army of
    250,000 men to meet Alexander.
  • They met at Gaugamela, the Persian line crumbled
    again and Darius fled.
  • This victory ended Persia's power.
  • Alexanders army then conquered Babylon, Susa,
    and Persepolis.
  • These cities yielded huge treasure.

  • Alexander was more interested in expanding then
  • He pursued Darius but he was already dead.
  • He continued east, across the desert wastes and
    mountains of central Asia.
  • He hoped to reach the farthest edge of the
  • In 326 B.C. he reached India, his army had been
    fighting for 11 years and marched for more than
    11,000 miles.
  • His soldiers were exhausted and wanted to go
  • He decided to unify his empire, but he never got
    the chance.
  • He died in 323 B.C., he was only 32.
  • His Macedonian generals took control of the
    territory Alexander conquered and they governed
    with complete power.
  • A cultural impact. Persian Dress and customs were
    brought into Greek society.

Hellenistic Culture
  • Because of Alexander, Greek culture blended with
    Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences.
  • This blending became known as Hellenistic
  • The Egyptian city of Alexandria became the major
    center for Hellenistic civilization.
  • Trade ships helped spread ideas, because the city
    was located on the Nile.
  • A diverse population.
  • Alexandria was known for its museum and library.

Science and Technology
  • Alexandrian scholars provided most of the
    scientific knowledge available to the west.
  • Euclid, was a highly regarded mathematician who
    taught at Alexandria.
  • His books, Elements, contained 465 carefully
    presented geometry propositions and proofs.
  • Archimedes, studied at Alexandria.
  • Estimated the value of pi, the ratio of the
    circumference of a circle to its diameter.
    Explained the law of the lever.
  • He invented the Archimedes screw, a device that
    raised water from the ground and the compound
    pulley to lift heavy objects.

Realism in Sculpture
  • Sculpture flourished during the Hellenistic age.
  • The Colossus of Rhodes, a bronze statue standing
    more than 100 ft. high.
  • Hellenistic sculptors created more natural works.
  • They were free to explore new subjects, carving
    ordinary people.
  • By 150 B.C. the Hellenistic world was in decline.
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