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4.0 People in the Old Testament

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Title: 4.0 People in the Old Testament


1
4.0 People in the Old Testament
  • BIB566/THE566 Old Testament Theology

2
4.0 People
  • 4.1 Anthropology

3
4.0.1 Preliminary Observations
  • 1. Humankind are created beings and therefore are
    limited by the innate weaknesses of a created
    being and their finitude. See Jacob, Edmond,
    Theology of the Old Testament, 151
  • 2. Via a special relationship with God, humankind
    has been giving a higher status than other
    created beings. See Jacob, Edmond, Theology of
    the Old Testament, 152
  • 3. It is important to realize that the Old
    Testament emphasizes the unique individuality and
    solidarity of humankind. See Jacob, Edmond,
    Theology of the Old Testament, 153

4
4.0.2 Anthropological Terms
  • 1. Important General Terms
  • 1.1 )adam ()adamah)
  • 1.1.1 Although this term may indicate an
    individual, it is generally used to indicate the
    collective idea of humankind. Gen 2.7 connects
    the term with the "dust of the ground."
  • 1.2 )ish
  • 1.2.1 The word can be used generally to indicate
    an individual or "husband." Some have suggested
    that the word connotes a strength of will.

5
4.0.2 Anthropological Terms
  • 1.3 )enosh
  • 1.3.1 It is suggested that this word may imply
    "weakness," via its Akkadian cognate, but both
    the Arabic and Ugaritic parallel implies
    "friendly" or "social."
  • 1.4 geber
  • 1.4.1 Strength is indicated in this word, with a
    possible contrast with women and children.

6
4.0.2 Anthropological Terms
  • 2. The Being of Humankind
  • 2.1 nephes 755x (throat, neck, desire, soul,
    life, person, pronouns).
  • Gen 2.7 "he LORD God formed man from the dust of
    the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the
    breath of life and the man became a living being
    (hY"x vp,nltl.).
  • "What does n. mean here? Certainly not soul. n.
    is designed to be seen together with the whole
    form of man, and especially with his breath
    moreover man does not have n. he is n." Wolff,
    Hans Walter, Anthropology of the Old Testament,
    10

7
4.0.2 Anthropological Terms
  • "If we survey the wide context in which the n. of
    man and man as n. can be observed, we see above
    all man marked out as the individual living being
    who has neither acquired, nor can preserve, life
    by himself, but who is eager for life, spurred on
    by vital desire, as the throat (the organ for
    receiving nourishment and for breathing) and the
    neck (as the part of the body which is especially
    at risk) make clear. Although in this way n.
    shows man primarily in his need and desire, that
    includes his emotional excitability and
    vulnerability." Wolff, Hans Walter, Anthropology
    of the Old Testament, 24-5

8
4.0.2 Anthropological Terms
  • 2.2 ba4sa4r 273x 104x it signifies animals
    (flesh, body, relationship, weakness)
  • ". . . b. is the term for something that is
    broadly characteristic of both man (sic) and
    beast." Wolff, Hans Walter, Anthropology of the
    Old Testament, 26
  • ". . . in the Old Testament b. does not only mean
    the powerlessness of the mortal creature but also
    the feebleness of his faithfulness and obedience
    to the will of God. Ethical frailty is added to
    the frailty of the creature." Wolff, Hans
    Walter, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 31

9
4.0.2 Anthropological Terms
  • 2.3 ruah9 378x in Hebrew, 11x in Aramaic)
    (wind, breath, vital powers, spirit(s), feelings,
    will).
  • ". . . r. is to a large extent the term for a
    natural power, the wind, this meaning being
    applicable in no less than 113 out of 389. . . .
    r. more often refers to God (136x) than to men
    (sic), animals and false gods (129x), that is to
    say about 35 of all instances, whereas n. is
    only applied to God in 3 of the cases in which
    it is used, and b. never applies to God at all. .
    . . a theo-anthropological term." Wolff, Hans
    Walter, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 32

10
4.0.2 Anthropological Terms
  • As wind "What we have to remember is that r.,
    particularly as wind, as distinct from hebel or
    ba4s8a4r, generally means a mighty phenomenon
    standing at Yahweh's disposal." Wolff, Hans
    Walter, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 33
  • R. as breath and r. as vital power emphasizes
    that Yahweh is the source.
  • "Man as he is Empowered" "It should be
    remembered that r. stands twice as often for wind
    and for the divine vital power as for man's
    breath, feeling and will. Most of the texts that
    deal with the r. of God or man show God and

11
4.0.2 Anthropological Terms
  • man in a dynamic relationship. That a man as r.
    is living, desires the good acts as authorized
    being none of this proceeds from man himself."
    Wolff, Hans Walter, Anthropology of the Old
    Testament, 39
  • 2.4 le4b(a4b) 858x (heart, feelings, wish,
    reason, decision of will, the 'heart' of God)
  • ". . . in contrast to the other main concepts, it
    is almost exclusively applied to man. Where b.
    refers to animal flesh in more than a third of
    all its instances, l. is only applied to animals
    five times, and four of these are in a comparison
    with the human heart and only once does it

12
4.0.2 Anthropological Terms
  • refer exclusively to animals (Job 41.24). And
    whereas r. is more often applied to God that to
    man, and means the wind in almost a third of its
    instances, there are only 26 mentions of the
    heart of God, 11 of the 'heart of the sea', one
    of the 'heart of heaven' and one of the 'heart'
    of the tree. So there remain 814 passages which
    deal exclusively with the human 'heart' that is
    to say, more than there are for n. as a whole
    (755 instances)." Wolff, Hans Walter,
    Anthropology of the Old Testament, 40
  • "In by far the greatest number of case it is
    intellectual, rational functions that are
    ascribed to the heart i.e., precisely what we
    ascribe to the head and, more exactly, to the
    brain." Wolff, Hans Walter, Anthropology of the
    Old Testament, 46

13
4.1.1 Image of God
  • 1. Important text Gen 1.26-28 5.1-3 9.6.
  • 2. selem besides the above passages s. occurs
    12x 10x as physical representations and 2x with
    an abstract meaning (Pss 39.76, 73.20).
    Westermann argues for the overall meaning of
    "representation."
  • 3. de6mut is an abstract noun which means "to
    be like." Bird argues that it weakens or blurs
    the meaning of s.

14
4.1.1 Image of God
  • Gen 1.26 "Then God said, "Let us make humankind
    in our image selem, according to our likeness
    de6mut and let them have dominion over the
    fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air,
    and over the cattle, and over all the wild
    animals of the earth, and over every creeping
    thing that creeps upon the earth."
  • Gen 1.27 "So God created humankind in his image
    selem, in the image selem of God he created
    them male and female he created them."

15
4.1.1 Image of God
  • The pattern of creation and the "let us make. . .
    ."
  • In 1.27, the term ba4ra4) is used 3x.
  • "dominion" is given to humanity
  • N.B. Gen 1.31 "God saw everything that he had
    made, and indeed, it was very good."
  • Gen 9.6 "Whoever sheds the blood of a human, by
    a human shall that person's blood be shed for in
    his own image selem God made humankind."
  • A distinction is being made between animals in
    general and humankind.

16
4.1.1 Image of God
  • The "image of God" gives dignity and worth to
    humanity.
  • Gen 5.1-3 "When God created humankind, he made
    them in the likeness de6mut of God. Male and
    female he created them, and he blessed them and
    named them "Humankind" when they were created.
    When Adam had lived one hundred thirty years, he
    became the father of a son in his likeness
    de6mut, according to his image selem, and
    named him Seth."

17
4.1.1 Image of God
  • "This suggests that the way in which a son
    resembles his father is in some sense analogous
    to the way in which the human is like God. Since
    this passage has made the point that it is both
    male and female who are in the image of God, it
    seems clear that the similarity, while not
    excluding the physical in the broadest sense,
    focuses on capacities such as personality,
    self-determination, and rational thought. It is
    probable that it is the whole person who is in
    the image of God rather than some specific aspect
    of that person to the exclusion of others, and
    this focus on the human being as a whole being is
    consistent with the way humanity is viewed
    throughout the Hebrew Bible." Curtis, Edward,
    Image of God, ABD

18
4.1.1 Image of God
  • 4. Edward Curtis on the "Image of God"
  • "Images were used in both Mesopotamia and Egypt,
    and the literature of those countries provides a
    basis for determining how those people understood
    images. Egyptian texts make it clear that images
    were not meant to depict what a god looked like,
    but represented attempts to describe certain
    qualities or attributes of the deity. The primary
    purpose of the image, though, was not to describe
    the god rather, the image was one of the primary
    places where the god manifested himself. The
    presence of the deity in the statue was magically
    effected through a ceremony called the Opening
    of the Mouth, and perhaps there are reflections
    of this in the description of humanitys creation
    in Genesis 2, where God forms a figure of the man
    out of dust from the ground and then animates
    that figure by breathing life into it. The
    significance of the image did not lie in the way
    it described

19
4.1.1 Image of God
  • or depicted the god (though that was not totally
    unimportant) rather, it lay in the fact that the
    statue was a place where the deity was present
    and manifested himself. Thus, the presence of the
    god and the blessing that accompanied that
    presence were effected through the image. It was
    the function of the image rather than its form
    that constituted its significance." ABD
  • " In both Egypt and Mesopotamia, people were
    sometimes referred to as images of god, and while
    there are occasional exceptions, it was usually
    the king who was referred to in this way. The
    focus for this seems to be Egypt, where,
    beginning with the New Kingdom, there are
    numerous examples of the king described as the
    image of a particular god in contrast to this,
    only five examples are known from Mesopotamia
    (four of which date to the neo-Assyrian period).
    The pharaoh was described in these terms because
    he was believed to be the earthly

20
4.1.1 Image of God
  • manifestation of the deity, and thus he
    functioned on earth exactly as the image
    functioned in the temple. In Mesopotamia, where
    the idea of the deified king made a brief
    appearance in the Ur III period but died out
    thereafter, there was little basis for referring
    to the king in such a way. There are indications
    in Gen 12628 that the image of God
    terminology perhaps had its origins in the royal
    ideology of the ancient Near East. The idea of
    dominion and the idea of subduing are most
    appropriate in the context of kingship. Psalm 8
    uses similar royal terminology in its description
    of humanitys place in the created order, though
    it does not use the term image of God. ABD
  • " It seems likely that the image of God idea was
    introduced into Israel through her contacts with
    Egypt, and the idea was emptied of content that
    was incompatible with Israelite theology and used
    to express the apparently uniquely

21
4.1.1 Image of God
  • Israelite idea that all persons, not just the
    king, occupy a preeminent place in the created
    order. . . . The image of God terminology clearly
    affirms the preeminent position of humanity in
    the created order and declares the dignity and
    worth of man and woman as the special creations
    of God. The ANE background that appears to stand
    behind the biblical idea provides an appropriate
    base for such a declaration about humankind."
    ABD

22
4.1.2 Male Female
  • 1. Gen 1.27 "So God created humankind in his
    image, in the image of God he created them male
    and female he created them."
  • 2. Marriage in the Old Testament
  • 2.1 No known word for "marriage."
  • 2.2 Gen 2.24 "Therefore a man leaves his father
    and his mother and clings to his wife, and they
    become one flesh."
  • 2.3 "The ideal marraige (sic) in OT society was a
    monogamous one, one man for one woman, one woman
    for one man. The creation narrative (Gen 224)
    makes this point with its call to the man to
    forsake his mother and father and cleave unto his

23
4.1.2 Male Female
  • wife (not wives). In fact, there is only one
    illustration of the violation of that pattern in
    primeval history, and that is Lamech (Gen 423).
    A number of laws have been cited (IDB 3 281) as
    support for monogamous marriage Exod 2017
    215 Lev 188, 11, 14, 15, 16, 20 2010 2113
    Num 512 Deut 521 2222. Wisdom Literature
    also provides copious texts in support of
    monogamy Prov 124 1822 1913 219 Eccl
    99 Job 311, 912 Sir 2614." ABD
  • 2.4 The above statements are based on the use of
    the singular )issa, but this is questioned.
    See Exod 20.17 Deut 5.21, etc.

24
4.1.2 Male Female
  • 2.5 "Indeed, the OT is replete with illustrations
    of polygamous marriages. To be more precise, it
    tells of instances of polygyny (one husband, more
    than one wife), but no instance of polyandry (one
    wife, more than one husband). . . . It is clear
    that in most of the above-cited instances
    polygyny was a major contributor to problems in
    the household. . . . " ABD
  • 3. Relationship of Love
  • 3.1 "The love relationship between man and woman
    plays by no means an unimportant role even in the
    legal texts . . . ." Wolff, 169

25
4.1.2 Male Female
  • 3.2 Prov 5.18-20 31.10-31
  • 3.3 Song of Songs
  • 4. The Disorders of Love
  • 4.1 The problem of possible cult prostitution in
    Hosea (4.13f. 2.2-13)
  • 4.2 "Loose woman" Prov 5.2-5 7.4-27
  • 4.3 Lev 18ff.
  • 4.4 Homosexuality Lev 18.22 Bestiality Lev
    18.23 Cross dressing Deut 22.5
  • 4.5 ". . . the Old Testament is perfectly frank
    about the varied disorders and threats to man in
    his status as created being, and to the love
    relationship founded on that status. It describes
    these

26
4.1.2 Male Female
  • disturbances as clearly as it describes the
    rapture of the whole union of love. It is always
    a disturbance in the relationship to God which
    shows itself in different ways in the
    disturbances within the common life of man and
    woman. In the exclusiveness of the love that is
    required of them, nothing less is at stake than
    the wholeness of the love conferred on them at
    their creation." Wolff, 176

27
4.1.3 H9esed
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Occurs over 250x
  • 1.2 Modern studies begins with that of Glueck
  • Glueck (1927 3) summarized the meaning of h9esed
    in its secular usage as conduct in accord with a
    mutual relationship of rights and duties he
    also emphasized the mutual or reciprocal and the
    obligatory character of the term in its religious
    usage for persons in relation to each other and
    to God (Glueck 1927 34). Glueck did view Gods
    h9esed as a gift, rather than as a right, yet the
    mutuality of the relationship between God and the
    recipient of h9esed remained central to his

28
4.1.3 H9esed
  • analysis (1927 52). More recent scholarship has
    questioned and largely abandoned Gluecks
    emphasis on rights and duties as quasi-legal or
    traditional-cultural categories within which the
    term should be interpreted, and has greatly
    modified his understanding of mutuality by
    deemphasizing reciprocity. Nonetheless, Gluecks
    emphasis on the centrality of a relationship
    between the parties within which h9esed is
    offered and received remains a basic and lasting
    contribution." Sakenfeld, ABD

29
4.1.3 H9esed
  • 1.3 Three Important Factors
  • 1.3.1 First, h9esed is not associated with
    inanimate objects or concepts (contrast love
    lthb of silver or righteousness) it always
    involves persons.
  • 1.3.2 Second, h9esed is requested of or done for
    another with whom one is already in relationship
    the term does not appear in contexts where no
    relationship between the parties has been
    established.
  • 1.3.3 Third, h9esed in its most basic form is a
    specific action, but from a series of such
    actions the term may also be abstracted to refer
    to an attitude that is given concrete shape in
    such actions.

30
4.1.3 H9esed
  • 2. Secular Usage
  • 2.1 h9esed between individuals
  • 2.1.1 h9esed in intimately personal
    relationships, usually familial (Gen 20.13
    24.49 47.29 Ruth 3.10 2 Sam 3.8 16.17)
  • First, the help of another is essential the
    person in need cannot perform the action.
  • Second, help itself is essential the needy
    persons situation will turn drastically for the
    worse if help is not received.
  • Third, the circumstances dictate that one person
    is uniquely able to provide the needed
    assistance there is no ready alternative if help
    is not forthcoming from this source.

31
4.1.3 H9esed
  • Fourth, the person in need has no control over
    the decision of the person who is in a position
    to help, and there are no legal sanctions for
    failure to provide help often no one else will
    even know of a negative decision. The potential
    helper must make a free moral decision, based
    essentially on commitment to the needy person
    within the relationship. While self-interest
    might occasionally encourage a positive response,
    the term h9esed focuses the rationale for action
    on commitment to the other, not on advantage to
    the actor.

32
4.1.3 H9esed
  • 2.1.2 h9esed in Secondary, Non-intimate
    Relationships (Gen 40.14 1 Kgs 20.31 Jos
    2.12-14 Gen 21.23 2 Sam 10.1-2)
  • In these narratives the person requesting h9esed
    is careful to show that the relationship between
    the parties is in good repair, sometimes by
    pointing to an act of h9esed done by the
    suppliant on a prior occasion when the relative
    circumstances of need of the parties were
    reversed. This overt emphasis on the quality of
    the relationship stands in contrast to the
    narratives featuring intimate personal ties,
    where requests for h9esed are simply made and no
    reason for compliance is proposed the requests
    in such cases are based on the very nature of the
    relationship, which need not be mentioned.

33
4.1.3 H9esed
  • In the secondary relationships there is more
    frequently a potential for self-interest in an
    actors willingness to offer h9esed(although the
    focus remains on commitment to the other) and in
    some of the examples the strength or even
    existence of a prior relationship between the
    parties has been disputed.
  • The central features of critical situational
    need, unique opportunity to assist, and freedom
    of decision are common to h9esed in both intimate
    and secondary relationships.

34
4.1.3 H9esed
  • 3. Theological Usage God's h9esed
  • 3.1 "Israel understood God to be committed to the
    community in covenant relationship as the One who
    provided for all needs, yet One also always free
    and uncoercible. The Hebrew term h9esed compactly
    incorporates all three of these dimensions
    (commitment, provision for need, freedom) in a
    single word. This shorthand theological claim is
    given various emphases, however, in different
    streams of OT literature."
  • 3.2 "Key aspects of the concrete manifestations
    of Gods h9esed(ranging from maintaining the
    created order to provision of descendants,
    sustenance, land, leadership, and especially
    forgiveness) . . . ."

35
4.1.3 H9esed
  • 3.3 "These are reinforced and supplemented by
    attention to the many references to divine h9esed
    in the psalter (over 70 times scattered through
    over 45 psalms). Most frequently associated with
    h9esed is a plea for deliverance from enemies
    (e.g., Ps 177 14312) or thanksgiving for such
    deliverance (e.g., Ps 1382)."
  • 3.4 "For individuals as much as for the community
    corporately, Gods forgiveness as an act of
    h\esed that continues the divine-human
    relationship is foundational to life itself and
    undergirds all other manifestations of h9esed."

36
4.1.3 H9esed
  • 4. Theological Usage Human h9esed to God and
    Neighbor.
  • 4.1 Micah 6.8 "He has told you, O mortal, what
    is good and what does the LORD require of you
    but to do justice, and to love kindness (h9esed),
    and to walk humbly with your God?"
  • 4.2 Hosea 221 Eng219 41 64, 6 1012
    127
  • "In Hosea h9esed is used as a summary term for
    Israels carrying through on covenant commitment
    both to exclusive worship of the LORD and to
    communal justice that is, h\esed represents the
    entire decalogue in a single word. By using
    h9esed for what Israel does for God, Hosea is
    able to emphasize that observance of the

37
4.1.3 H9esed
  • decalogue is not just something that God
    commands, but is more importantly what God
    desires or asks from Israel. Even though God is
    powerful and Israel dependent, h9esed is
    nevertheless an attitude and action that Israel
    is somehow free to offer or to withhold. Divine
    judgment might coerce such behavior, but
    judgment by its nature cannot produce the free
    and willing behavior and commitment that is
    essential to h9esed. Thus in speaking of
    Israels h9esed to God, Hosea is able to convey
    both the freedom of Israel within the covenant
    relationship and also the deep and urgent desire
    of God for Israels free response. Sakenfeld,
    Katharine, Faithfulness in Action Loyality in
    Biblical Persective, 1985 Sakenfeld, Love in
    the O.T., Anchor Bible Dictionary

38
4.1.4 Sin
  • 1. Introduction
  • Although it is not difficult to find passages
    that deal with sin in the Old Testament, it is
    nevertheless difficult to find passages that
    define sin. Some Old Testament Theologians have
    attempted to construct their OT Theologies with
    sin and the forgiveness of sins as the center.
  • 2. Terms that are used
  • 2.1 "Like Hittite, Sumerian, and Akkadian
    literature, Israelite literature draws upon a
    rich thesaurus for terminology relating to sin.
    One may count over fifty words for sin in
    biblical Hebrew, if specific as well as generic
    terms are isolated. The plethora of Hebrew terms
    and their ubiquitous presence in

39
4.1.4 Sin
  • the Hebrew Bible testify to the fact that sin
    was a dominate concern of the Israelite
    theologians. Indeed, their highlighting of human
    failure, deficiency, or offense in the cultic,
    ethical, and moral spheres constitutes a central
    theme of OT theology." Cover, "Sin, Sinners
    (OT)," ABD
  • 2.2 aj'x' (h9a4tta4)) Trespass go astray miss
    the mark. (595x) ". . . denotes the negative
    result, or failure, of an action or behavior."
    (Knierim, 425)
  • 2.3 vP' (pa4s6a() to rebel, transgression -
    active sense as a noun, rebellion or revolt.
    (135x) ". . . points to the nature of an act
    itself within social and intenational relations
    (as in Amos 1-2). It is therefore, also a legal
    word for crime." (Knierim, 425)

40
4.1.4 Sin
  • 2.4 hw"' ((awa) ("to become/be guilty")
    points to the course of negative conditions from
    the beginning of an action to its final result."
    (Knierim, 425)
  • 2.5 !wlta' ()a4wen) to distort iniquity i.e.,
    motion verb bend, veer, go aside form the right
    way usually with the agents awareness of the
    culpability of his/her action. (229x)
  • 2.6 lm' (ma4(al) un-dutifully,
    unfaithfulness deceit.
  • 2.7 hgv' (s6a4gah) error unintentional
    transgression.

41
4.1.4 Sin
  • 2.8 smx' (ha4mas8) ". . . ("to act violently")
    points to the violent nature of an act."
    (Knierim, 425)
  • 2.9 va' ()a4sam) ". . . ("to become subject to
    the obligation of guilt") points to the
    consequences of a state of guilt." (Knierim, 426)
  • 2.10 lbn" (na4bal) ". . . ("to be foolish" or
    "to act foolishly") refers to an act or behavior
    with deadly consequences because it rips the
    fabric of communal relations to pieces,
    particularly in the realm of sexual mores (e.g.,
    Genesis 34 Judges 19-20 2 Sam 13), but also in
    other respects where foolishness is the opposite
    of wisdom (Proverbs). The meaning of this word
    reaches much deeper than the

42
4.1.4 Sin
  • modern meaning of the same word. Its depth
    reflects taboo-based values. The same can be said
    for words such as hb'eAT ("abomination") or
    hM'zI ("shame"). The Old Testament, and not only
    Far Eastern cultures, speaks of shame! Guilt and
    shame are not mutually exclusive aspects in the
    Old Testament. Nor is shame only a psychological
    condition in the Old Testament ("to be ashamed").
    It is also an objective ("shameful") condition.
    These words point especially to the violated
    taboos of the cultic realm. amej' ("to be/become
    unclean") has a similar function."

43
4.1.4 Sin
  • 2.11 r (ra() ". . . ("bad," "evil") is the
    opposite of bAj ("good"). r points to the most
    encompassing meaning of sin. Again, the weight of
    what is considered bad or evil corresponds to the
    English word "evil" much more than the English
    word "bad." (Knierim, 426)
  • "The root rs6( signifies criminal wrongdoing or
    wickedness the substantival adjective ra4s6a4(
    is a common word used collectively for the
    wicked. Ethical and moral badness are designated
    by the root r(( various forms of the root
    indicate 'evil, distress, injury, misery,
    calamity.'" (Cover, ABD)

44
4.1.4 Sin
  • 3. Sin in the Primeval History Westermann,
    Elements of Old Testament Theology, 118-125
  • 3.1 Relationship with God Gen 3
  • 3.2 Relationship with Community Gen 4
    (Fratricide)
  • 3.3 Relationship with Parents Gen 920-27
  • 3.4 Collective Sin Gen 6.1-4 11.1-9
  • Characteristics of Primeval Sin
  • 1. Sinful nature of humankind presupposed.
  • 2. Sin verses Crime religion and politics are
    not divided in OT
  • 3. Gen 8.21 Gods relationship with people in
    spite of their inclination to evil.

45
4.1.4 Sin
  • 4. Sin in the History of God's People
  • 4.1 Exod 32-34
  • 4.2 Num 13-14
  • 4.3 2 Sam 11-12
  • 5. Summary of Sin in the Old Testament
  • 5.1 Sin is that which separates humankind from
    God.
  • 5.2 Three Basic Structures
  • 5.2.1 Moral the breaking of laws commandments.
  • 5.2.2 That which depicts the weakness, i.e.,
    flesh.
  • 5.2.3 Relational separation from God.

46
4.1.5 Forgiveness
  • 1. ". . . the Old Testament not only is familiar
    with sin and guilt but also can tell about
    repentance, forgiveness and atonement, and even
    forgiveness without the appearance of a
    corresponding terminology." Preuss, Horst
    Dietrich, Old Testament Theology, Volume 2, 178
  • 2. Terms
  • 2.1 na4s8a4) "to bear, take away" when used with
    (a4won h9t)
  • Substitution idea Exod 28.38 Num 14.33 Ezek
    4.4-6 Isa 53.6

47
4.1.5 Forgiveness
  • 2.2 sa4lah (46x) "forgive/forgiveness"
  • "The term occurs neither in secular nor in
    expressing forgiveness between human beings."
    Preuss, Horst Dietrich, Old Testament Theology,
    Volume 2, 179
  • "The promise of forgiveness primarily has its
    place in prophetic (conditional as well as
    unconditional) promises of salvation to Israel /
    Judah / Jerusalem (Jer 5.1 31.34 33.8 36.3
    50.20)." Preuss, Horst Dietrich, Old Testament
    Theology, Volume 2, 179

48
4.1.5 Forgiveness
  • 3. Redeem, Redeemer Redemption
  • 3.1 A Legal Conceptualization of God's Saving
    Action
  • The legal process of redemption provides the
    biblical writers with one of their basic images
    for describing Gods saving activity toward
    man.. Dentan, IDB, IV, 21
  • The idea common to these three forms of
    redemption is that of substitution man gives
    something in order to receive another thing in
    its place when sin is concerned, man exchanges
    sin for a new life. Jacob, Theology of the Old
    Testament, 294

49
4.1.5 Forgiveness
  • 3.2 Terms
  • 3.2.1 hdp (padah)

50
4.1.4 Sin
  • 1. Introduction
  • Although it is not difficult to find passages
    that deal with sin in the Old Testament, it is
    nevertheless difficult to find passages that
    define sin. Some Old Testament Theologians have
    attempted to construct their OT Theologies with
    sin and the forgiveness of sins as the center.
  • 2. Terms that are used
  • 2.1 "Like Hittite, Sumerian, and Akkadian
    literature, Israelite literature draws upon a
    rich thesaurus for terminology relating to sin.
    One may count over fifty words for sin in
    biblical Hebrew, if specific as well as generic
    terms are isolated. The plethora of Hebrew terms
    and their ubiquitous presence in

51
4.1.4 Sin
  • the Hebrew Bible testify to the fact that sin
    was a dominate concern of the Israelite
    theologians. Indeed, their highlighting of human
    failure, deficiency, or offense in the cultic,
    ethical, and moral spheres constitutes a central
    theme of OT theology." Cover, "Sin, Sinners
    (OT)," ABD
  • 2.2 aj'x' (h9a4tta4)) Trespass go astray miss
    the mark. (595x) ". . . denotes the negative
    result, or failure, of an action or behavior."
    (Knierim, 425)
  • 2.3 vP' (pa4s6a() to rebel, transgression -
    active sense as a noun, rebellion or revolt.
    (135x) ". . . points to the nature of an act
    itself within social and intenational relations
    (as in Amos 1-2). It is therefore, also a legal
    word for crime." (Knierim, 425)

52
4.1.4 Sin
  • 2.4 hw"' ((awa) ("to become/be guilty")
    points to the course of negative conditions from
    the beginning of an action to its final result."
    (Knierim, 425)
  • 2.5 !wlta' ()a4wen) to distort iniquity i.e.,
    motion verb bend, veer, go aside form the right
    way usually with the agents awareness of the
    culpability of his/her action. (229x)
  • 2.6 lm' (ma4(al) un-dutifully,
    unfaithfulness deceit.
  • 2.7 hgv' (s6a4gah) error unintentional
    transgression.

53
4.1.4 Sin
  • 2.8 smx' (ha4mas8) ". . . ("to act violently")
    points to the violent nature of an act."
    (Knierim, 425)
  • 2.9 va' ()a4sam) ". . . ("to become subject to
    the obligation of guilt") points to the
    consequences of a state of guilt." (Knierim, 426)
  • 2.10 lbn" (na4bal) ". . . ("to be foolish" or
    "to act foolishly") refers to an act or behavior
    with deadly consequences because it rips the
    fabric of communal relations to pieces,
    particularly in the realm of sexual mores (e.g.,
    Genesis 34 Judges 19-20 2 Sam 13), but also in
    other respects where foolishness is the opposite
    of wisdom (Proverbs). The meaning of this word
    reaches much deeper than the

54
4.1.4 Sin
  • modern meaning of the same word. Its depth
    reflects taboo-based values. The same can be said
    for words such as hb'eAT ("abomination") or
    hM'zI ("shame"). The Old Testament, and not only
    Far Eastern cultures, speaks of shame! Guilt and
    shame are not mutually exclusive aspects in the
    Old Testament. Nor is shame only a psychological
    condition in the Old Testament ("to be ashamed").
    It is also an objective ("shameful") condition.
    These words point especially to the violated
    taboos of the cultic realm. amej' ("to be/become
    unclean") has a similar function."

55
4.1.4 Sin
  • 2.11 r (ra() ". . . ("bad," "evil") is the
    opposite of bAj ("good"). r points to the most
    encompassing meaning of sin. Again, the weight of
    what is considered bad or evil corresponds to the
    English word "evil" much more than the English
    word "bad." (Knierim, 426)
  • "The root rs6( signifies criminal wrongdoing or
    wickedness the substantival adjective ra4s6a4(
    is a common word used collectively for the
    wicked. Ethical and moral badness are designated
    by the root r(( various forms of the root
    indicate 'evil, distress, injury, misery,
    calamity.'" (Cover, ABD)

56
4.1.4 Sin
  • 3. Sin in the Primeval History Westermann,
    Elements of Old Testament Theology, 118-125
  • 3.1 Relationship with God Gen 3
  • 3.2 Relationship with Community Gen 4
    (Fratricide)
  • 3.3 Relationship with Parents Gen 920-27
  • 3.4 Collective Sin Gen 6.1-4 11.1-9
  • Characteristics of Primeval Sin
  • 1. Sinful nature of humankind presupposed.
  • 2. Sin verses Crime religion and politics are
    not divided in OT
  • 3. Gen 8.21 Gods relationship with people in
    spite of their inclination to evil.

57
4.1.4 Sin
  • 4. Sin in the History of God's People
  • 4.1 Exod 32-34
  • 4.2 Num 13-14
  • 4.3 2 Sam 11-12
  • 5. Summary of Sin in the Old Testament
  • 5.1 Sin is that which separates humankind from
    God.
  • 5.2 Three Basic Structures
  • 5.2.1 Moral the breaking of laws commandments.
  • 5.2.2 That which depicts the weakness, i.e.,
    flesh.
  • 5.2.3 Relational separation from God.

58
4.2 Israel
  • 4.2.0 Election in the Old Testament
  • 4.2.1 The Exodus Event Israel's Exodus
    Community Identity
  • 4.2.2 Suzerainty Treaty as Metaphor
  • 4.2.3 Father / Son Metaphor
  • 4.2.4 Husband / Wife Metaphor

59
4.2.0 Election in the Old Testament
  • "In looking over the entire Old Testament, what
    is central to the election of the nation are the
    exodus from Egypt and the choosing of the early
    ancestors. These are the two components of
    election to which later developing understandings
    return and on which expanding "election
    traditions" are developed." Preuss, OTT, I, 35
  • "When seeking the motives of election, one
    discovers that the Old Testament continues to be
    remarkably reserved (cf. perhaps only Deuteronomy
    7 and 9.1-6). Why YHWH called Abraham is not
    stated. Israel was not better than other nations,
    and YHWH apparently chooses

60
4.2.0 Election in the Old Testament
  • differently than human beings do (e.g., Lot
    Genesis 13). Because YHWH loved his people and
    wished to keep the oath he had given to the
    ancestors, he chose his people (Deut 7.8). The
    reasons for this election, however, are found
    only in YHWH himself. Israel can only testify in
    thankfulness to its election. YHWH "found" his
    people like grapes in the wilderness (Hos 9.10).
    The Old Testament cannot and does not desire to
    say more than this." Preuss, OTT, I, 37-8
  • "The Hebrew word bh9r is the key word for our
    concept "YHWH chose out" (bh9r) this one people
    from all the peoples and "set it apart" (qdws)
    as his

61
4.2.0 Election in the Old Testament
  • own, bestowing upon it a "unique value" (sglh)."
    Patrick, "Election (Old Testament)," ABD

62
4.2.1 The Exodus Event Israel's Exodus
Community Identity
  • 1. The Exodus Event
  • The Exodus as recorded in Exod 13.17-14.31.
  • Celebrated in Exod 15.1-21
  • Preamble to the Decalogue Exod 20.2 Deut 5.6
  • Hos 11.1-4 12.9 13.4 "Israel knew its God Yhwh
    as "Yhwh from the land of Egypt"
  • Psalm 114

63
4.2.1 The Exodus Event Israel's Exodus
Community Identity
  • 2. Definition of Israel
  • The term "Israel" occurs 2,514x
  • "El/God is reliable/upright, trustworthy" if
    the verb is ya4sar
  • "El/God rules" if the verb is s8a4rar
  • "El/God struggles/fights if the verb is s8a4ra

64
4.2.1 The Exodus Event Israel's Exodus
Community Identity
  • 3. People Important Terms
  • "People" goy "A goy exists when 'a human
    group comes together on the basis of lineage,
    language, land, worship, law, and military
    affairs, and is separated from entities standing
    on the outside.' External factors in the
    formation and continuing characterization of a
    'people' are primary consideration in their
    designation as a goy." Preuss, OTT, I, 50
  • "People" (am ". . . Presents an understanding
    of a human group in terms that are more internal
    than external. This word perhaps originally
    designated

65
4.2.1 The Exodus Event Israel's Exodus
Community Identity
  • the father's brother and the, later, referred to
    the male relatives and ancestors within the
    extended family. The term then came to refer to a
    league of men. This included all males who were
    able to bear arms, the full citizens of the legal
    and cultic community . . . . Later was expanded
    to include women and children." Preuss, OTT, I,
    50-51
  • Covenant formula (am yahweh Hos 1.9 2.25.
  • 4. Assembly Congregation
  • Assembly qa4ha4l "Israel is called Yahweh's
    qa4ha4l primarily in Deuteronomy (Deut 5.22
    9.10 10.4 23.2-9 31.30). The term qa4ha4l
    generally means "assembly" or "congregation."
    However, in certain

66
4.2.1 The Exodus Event Israel's Exodus
Community Identity
  • OT contexts that have theological relevance, the
    term primarily designated the "community" of Yhwh
    into which one could or could not enter."
    Preuss, OTT, I, 54
  • Congregation (e4da ". . . denotes . . . An
    attribute that describes the character of the
    sons of Israel, while qa4ha4l continues to keep
    its technical meaning of a present assembly."
    Preuss, OTT, I, 55
  • "The terms qa4ha4l and (e4da point . . . to the
    interaction and association of people and
    community in the OT's understanding of Israel."
    Preuss, OTT, I, 55

67
4.2.1 The Exodus Event Israel's Exodus
Community Identity
  • 5. The Development of a Concept of Community
  • 5.1 Tribal Period
  • 5.1.1 Paternal family units that were then
    included in a larger family
  • 5.1.2 Patriarchal structure with women defined as
    male property rights
  • 5.1.3 Contra-Urban Monarchy Pattern, therefore
    small time farmers pastoral life styles.
  • 5.1.4 Yahwehistic Theocracy
  • 5.1.5 Syncretistic with Baalism

68
4.2.1 The Exodus Event Israel's Exodus
Community Identity
  • 5.2 Monarchy
  • 5.2.1 Special, divine status to the king
  • 5.2.2 Hierarchical structure in society
  • 5.2.3 Centralization of Cult
  • 5.3 Prophetic Community
  • 5.3.1 King was not considered above the moral
    standards, I.e., the Law.
  • 5.3.2 All members of the community were equal and
    the leadership of the nation was to provide
    protect the poor and the weak.

69
4.2.1 The Exodus Event Israel's Exodus
Community Identity
  • 5.3.3 Social order was not natural via myths, but
    based on God's deliverance from slavery.
  • 5.3.4 Cult was not beyond time in a heavenly
    order, but was subservient to mandates of
    compassion and justice.
  • 5.4 Exile
  • 5.4.1 Ezekiel 40-48
  • 5.5 Second Temple Era
  • 5.5.1 No King, Priest Prophets dominate with
    the Priest winning out in the end.

70
4.2.2 Suzerainty Treaty as Metaphor
  • 1. ANE treaty forms have significantly impacted
    Israel's understanding of their unique
    relationship with Yhweh.
  • 2. General Characteristics of the ANE Treaty
    Form
  • 2.1 Two basic types International Domestic.
    The International is divided into "Parity" and
    "Suzerain-Vassal" types.
  • 2.2 These treaties were guaranteed by the gods
    with oath statements and possible rituals
  • 2.3 Those that are on parity status use such
    terms as "brother," "peace," "love," while
    suzerain-vassal types used "father/son,"
    "lord/servant."

71
4.2.2 Suzerainty Treaty as Metaphor
  • 2.4 Keeping Breaking a Treaty The language
    that is used include "guarding," "remembering,"
    versus "breaking," "transgressing," "forgetting,"
    "erasing," "sinning against," etc.

72
4.2.2 Suzerainty Treaty as Metaphor
  • 3. The Form in General
  • PREAMBLE (These are the words...). Deut 1.1-5
    These are the words which Moses addressed to all
    Israel...
  • HISTORICAL PROLOGUE (Baltzer antecedent
    history, i.e., events leading to and forming the
    basis of the treaty). Deut 1.6-4.49.
  • GENERAL STIPULATIONS (Baltzer statement of
    substance concerning the future relationship,
    which (1) is intimately related to the antecedent
    history, and (2) summarizes the purpose of the
    specific stipulations). Deut 5-11.

73
4.2.2 Suzerainty Treaty as Metaphor
  • SPECIFIC STIPULATIONS. Deut 12-26.
  • DIVINE WITNESSES various deities are called to
    witness the treaty. See Deut 30.19 31.19
    32.1-43. Possibly including provisions for the
    continuity of covenant and a successor for Moses.
  • BLESSINGS AND CURSES relating respectively to
    the maintenance or breach of the covenant. Deut
    27-28. Possibly including all of 27-30 as curses
    and blessings, with exhortation.

74
4.2.3 Father / Son Metaphor
  • Isaiah 1.2-3
  • Cosmic Law Suit
  • Mic 6.1-2 Ps 50.4 Deut 4.26 32.
  • As a Covenant Lawsuit i) Witnesses are summoned
    (1.2a) ii) The chief litigant is announced
    (1.2b) iii) His charges are given in brief
    (1.2c-3) iv) The accused is named (1.3c).
  • Rebellious Son Deut 21.18-21
  • Hosea 11.1-4

75
4.2.4 Husband / Wife Metaphor
  • Hosea 1-3
  • Hoseas Call and His Family (1.2-2.3 1.1-11)
  • God and the Wife (2.4-25 2.1-23)
  • Restoration (3.1-5)
  • Ezekiel 16.1-63
  • Ezekiel 23.1-49 Oholah Oholibah

76
4.3 Nations
  • 4.3.1 Oracles Against the Nations
  • 4.3.2 Universal Rule of God Missions

77
4.3.1 Oracles Against the Nations
  • 4.3 Nations

78
1. Major collections of OAN
  • Isaiah 13-23
  • Jer 46-51
  • Ezek 25-32
  • Amos 1-2

79
2. War Oracles and their Transformation
  • 1. Early Period
  • 1.1 Pre-monarchical Period Num 22-24, especially
    24.15-24 (Ex 17.16 Num 10.35-36 Josh 10.12-13
    Jud 1.1-2 Jud 4-5 18.5-6 20.18, 23, 26-28)
  • 1.2 9th Century Israel 1 Kgs 20.13-15, 28 2 Kgs
    3.16-19
  • 2. Amos 1-2 5.18-20

80
3. Isaiah, Nahum, Zephaniah
  • 1. Isaiah 13-23 (esp. 7.7-9 10.27c-34 14.28-32
    17.1-6)
  • 2. Zeph 2.1-15
  • 3. Obadiah 1b-6a
  • 4. Nahum (esp. 1.2-8 2.2 2.14-34)

81
4. Habakkuk and Jeremiah
  • Jeremiah 46-51 Christensen's divisions
  • 1. Jeremianic
  • 1.1 1st Against Egypt 46.2-12
  • 1.2 2nd Against Egypt 46.13-24
  • 1.3 Philistia 47.1-7
  • 1.4 Qedar 49.28-33
  • 1.5 Elam 49.34-39

82
4. Habakkuk and Jeremiah
  • 2. Archaic OAN
  • 2.1 Moab 48.1-44
  • 2.2 Ammon 49.1-6
  • 2.3 Edom 49.7-22
  • 2.4 Aram 49.23-27
  • 3. Early Apocalyptic
  • 3.1 1st Against Babylon 50.1-46
  • 3.2 2nd Against Babylon 51.1-40

83
5. Ezekiel, Zechariah and Joel
  • 1. Ezekiel 25-32 38-39
  • 2. Zechariah 9.1-17
  • 3. Joel 4.9-17

84
6. Psalms
  • 1. War Oracles used 12 58? 60 74 79 80 83
    85 90 94.1-11 123 126 137
  • 2. Ps 83.2-19
  • 3. Ps 60.3-14 (cf. 108.6-13)

85
7. Purpose of the Isaianic OAN
  • 1. "Delitzsch is undoubtedly correct when he sees
    these chapters as following naturally upon the
    vision of Immanuel as ruler of the kingdoms.
    Young is also correct when he observes that the
    thought is generally an expansion of 10.5-34 with
    its attack upon the pride of Assyria. But perhaps
    Erlandsson gives the most perceptive key when he
    comments that these oracles are not so much an
    announcement of doom upon the nations as they are
    an announcement of salvation to Israel if she
    would trust her Lord." Oswalt, Ibid., 298

86
8. Purpose of the Isaianic OAN
  • 2. "Furthermore, the section continues the
    treatment of pride which appears in the first
    chapters of the book. It is the arrogance of the
    nations that will finally bring them down (13.11,
    19 14.11 16.6 23.9). Because they have exalted
    themselves in the face of God, creating gods in
    their image (2.6-22 17.7-11), they will not
    endure. Permanence is only an expression of a
    relationship with the one permanent Being in the
    universe." Oswalt, Ibid., 299

87
Hamborg, G. R., Reasons for Judgement in the
Oracles Against the Nations of the Prophet
Isaiah, VT XXXI, 2 (1981)
  • G. Purpose of the Isaianic OAN

88
Corrections
  • 1. First, it is clear that the OAN form an
    integral part of Isaiahs message of judgement on
    Israel. Any treatment of the OAN which studies
    them in isolation is therefore deficient.
  • 2. Secondly, and following on from this, any
    presentation of the theology of the prophet
    Isaiah which fails to make reference to his OAN
    is equally deficient.
  • 3. Thirdly, it is manifestly incorrect to suggest
    that Isaiahs OAN functions as a form of
    salvation prophecy for Israel. Nothing could be
    further from the truth.

89
Corrections
  • 4. Fourthly, the study contributes to our
    understanding of Isaiahs view of history, in
    which Yahweh does indeed control the destinies of
    all the nations, but for the furtherance of his
    aims with regard to Israel rather than for any
    other reasons.
  • 5. Fifthly, in the relatively few instances where
    Isaiah does give a reason for judgement against a
    foreign nation, it is often the sin of pride or
    hybris. This concept of the hybris of nations is
    one which should be included in a study of
    prophetic theology. It is also a concept which
    could be of theological significance for our own
    day.

90
Reasons for Judgment
  • 1. In a number of instances (19.1-15 18.1-6
    14.28-32 15-16) Isaiah announces judgement on a
    foreign nation because of Judahs possible
    reliance on or alliance with the nation, and not
    for any sin of the nation itself. In addition he
    was doubtless a sufficiently realistic person to
    know that Assyrian punishment on Israel would
    inevitably affect Israels neighbours. There is
    thus a sense in which for Isaiah, the nations
    were no more than pawns in the game Yahwehs
    dealings with Israel.It could perhaps be noted at
    this point that, were any of the oracles against
    Babylon to turn out to be Isaianic, they would
    fit in with the pattern already discovered, since
    there clearly were times in Isaiahs career when
    Judah and Babylon were in alliance (see Isa
    39.1-8)

91
Reasons for Judgment
  • 2. The main sin of the nations is pride or
    hybris. In 15-16 Isaiah may be using an older
    poem which accuses Moab of pride. Isaiah himself
    accuses Tyre of pride (23.1-12, especially 23.9),
    and in this instance it refers particularly to
    Tyres wealth. Assyria is accused of hybris
    (38.22-29 10.5-19)
  • 3. Action against Israel is hinted at as a reason
    for judgement in 14.25b, with reference to the
    Assyrians and action against Judah in 17.1-6,
    9-11 with reference to the Syro-Ephraimite
    alliance of 734.

92
Reasons for Judgment
  • 4. It is noteworthy that even if one accepts only
    a more limited selection of these OAN as deriving
    from Isaiah, such as those accepted by Fohrer p.
    402 (10.5-15 14.24-27 14.28-32 17.1-6 18 20)
    still these three types of reason for judgement
    all appear.

93
4.3.2 Universal Rule of God Missions
  • 4.3 Nations

94
4.3.2.1 The Redaction of the book of the Twelve
95
Redactional Theology of the Twelve
  • A. First Edition
  • 1. Hosea, Amos, Micah, Nahum, Zephaniah and
    Obadiah.
  • 2. "The cultural setting for such a production
    would have been the preaching and liturgical
    prayers as developed in the assemblies of the
    Jews in exile. The mood in such gatherings varied
    from resigned acceptance and regret in the early
    years to hope and determination, even optimism,
    as time went by." Collins, The Mantle of Elijah
    The Redaction Criticism of the Prophetical Books,
    62
  • 3. Dated between 587-538 BCE

96
Redactional Theology of the Twelve
  • B. Second Edition
  • 1. Haggai, Zechariah (1-8) Zephaniah expansion
    (3.9-20), Jonah and possibly Joel
  • 2. "It was especially aimed at maintaining
    enthusiasm for the great undertaking, which was
    apparently in danger of being bogged down in
    frustration and apathy. The setting for these
    developments was presumably that of the prayers
    and reflections associated with religious
    gatherings, but by this time these were located
    firmly around the temple construction in
    Jerusalem." Collins, ibid., 63
  • 3. Dated Between 520-515 BCE

97
Redactional Theology of the Twelve
  • C. Third Edition
  • a. Joel (if not already included), Habakkuk
    (which had its own redactional history), Malachi
    and some "eschatological additions to other
    sections especially Zephaniah.
  • b. "Reading between the lines of the various
    biblical texts relevant to this period
    (especially Malachi), we get the impression that
    enthusiasm for the religious aspects of the
    restored national life had become the faith of a
    minority who increasingly thought of themselves
    as a beleaguered band of the righteous in the
    midst of a nation of unfaithful sinners. Hope in

98
Redactional Theology of the Twelve
  • the future became combined with pessimism about
    the present and produced a king of
    "eschatological" thinking, which affected The
    Twelve.... The result was further revision of the
    book that was more agonizingly introspective in
    its questions, more wildly optimistic in it
    visions of the future and more bitterly resentful
    of the enemy within and without." Collins,
    ibid., 64
  • c. Dated middle of the fifth century BCE

99
Redactional Theology of the Twelve
  • D. Final Edition
  • Zechariah 9-14 and the appendices to Malachi
    (Mal. 4.4-6).

100
Theology of the Redacted Twelve
  • "The principal themes of the whole book are those
    of covenant-election, fidelity and infidelity,
    fertility and infertility, turning and returning,
    the justice of God and the mercy of God, the
    kingship of God, the place of his dwelling
    (Temple / Mt. Zion), the nations as enemies, the
    nations as allies. For the post-exilic audience
    the message of The Twelve was primarily
    theological. At the same time the book also
    embodies a strongly political and ideological
    element in its vision of the future the ideal
    Israel is to be the restored Judah, a
    religious-political state in which all citizens
    will recognize the authority of the Lord, live
    according to his Law and give priority to the
    right and acceptable

101
Theology of the Redacted Twelve
  • worship of the Lord in his temple in the holy
    city free from all defilement. The book is
    ambiguous in its international views, especially
    as to whether or not the nations will ever attain
    sufficient freedom from defilement to permit them
    to participate in this religious-political
    system, but any role envisioned for the nations
    in The Twelve is definitely subordinate."
  • Terence Collins. The Scroll of the Twelve,
    The Mantel of Elijah The Redaction Criticism of
    the Prophetical Books, Sheffield Academic Press,
    1993, 65

102
Theology of the Redacted Twelve
  • It appears that the books are ordered as they
    are so that the main points of the prophetic
    message will be highlighted. In fact, the Twelve
    are structured in a way that demonstrates that
    the sin of Israel and the nations, the punishment
    of the sin, and the restoration of both from that
    sin. These three emphases represent the heart of
    the content of the prophetic genre. The Twelves
    external structure therefore reflects its
    literary type.
  • Paul R. House. The Unity of The Twelve,
    Sheffield, The Almond Press, 1990, 68

103
Principles of Organization Hosea
  • A. Hos 1-3
  • 1. Chapters 1-3 were fashioned into a unit,
    possibly at an early stage in the transmission of
    the poetry, and were positioned as an opening to
    the Hosea collection. In this
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