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The Islamic Religion


Responsible for spreading idea of the Mahdi-a 'messiah' figure in the Islam faith ... Denies any ideas added to Islam after its first 300 years ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Islamic Religion

The Islamic Religion
  • a brief overview

The Origins
  • Adam
  • -the first man, the first prophet of Allah
  • Abraham
  • -the father of Ishmael and Isaac (amongst
  • Ishmael
  • -the father of the twelve Arabic tribes
  • Isaac
  • -the father of Jacob (also called Israel)
  • -Jacob (Israel) fathered the twelve Jewish tribes

  • Muhammad
  • Born approximately 570 C.E.
  • Mother was a widow from prominent tribe in Mecca
  • Raised by his grandfather, then uncle
  • Traveled with uncles caravan to trade in Syria
  • Influenced by Bahira, a Christian monk
  • Married Khadija, a prominent caravan trader
  • At age 40, received first revelation through
    angel Gabriel
  • --there is one God, Allah, the only god, the
    creator, sustainer, and restorer of the world.   
  • Message ill-received in Mecca by family tribe
  • Fled persecution to fledgling city of Yathrib
  • There he established his reputation as a leader,
    built the first mosque, and united the fragmented
    Arab tribes

The Divine Texts
The QUran
  • Composed in Arabic
  • revealed orally
  • 114 Suras (chapters)
  • -Suras are arranged in order of length from
    longest to shortest. (not chronological)

  • Message of the Quran
  • Fatiha
  • In the name of God, the Merciful, the
    Compassionate. Praise belongs to God, the Lord of
    all Being, the All-merciful, the
    All-Compassionate, the Master of the Day of
    Judgment. Thee only we serve to Thee alone we
    pray for succor. Guide us in the Straight Path,
    the path of those whom Thou hast blessed, not of
    those against whom Thou are wrathful, nor of
    those who are astray. (Q11-7)
  • The Quran is a book of Morals and a Guideline on
    how to live.
  • --to submit to the will of God absolutely and

The Quran as Worship
  • Does not play a significant role in Muslim
    worship as written text
  • -the Muslim worshipper does not read it but
    recites it
  • -Strong emphasis on learning the Quran by heart
  • The core of the Muslim Liturgy is the performance
    of 5 obligatory, daily prayers.
  • -Each prayer is made up of 2 and 4 repetitions
    of Module called Raka which are a succession of
    Physical movement

  • Recitations from the Quran are like their prayer
  • Quran is chanted in 2 different components
  • -Phonetic which is rule bound
  • -Musical Chanting

Key Narratives
  • Adam
  • Abraham and
  • Ishmael
  • Muhammad
  • Moses
  • Jesus

Basic Tenets of Islam
  • There is only one God, Allah, and Muhammad is his
    final prophet.
  • The Quran (Koran) is the holy book of Islam, the
    words of Allah as revealed to his prophet.
  • The Quran remained perfect, preserved by God
    from change

The Five Pillars of Islam
  • Profession of Faith (shahada)
  • -I bear witness that there is no god but Allah
    and that Muhammad is his prophet
  • Prayer (salat)
  • -5 times daily at dawn, noon, midafternoon,
    sunset, and evening
  • Almsgiving (zakat)
  • -Charity and moral obligation to the poor,
    orphans, and widows
  • Fasting (sawm)
  • -Occurs during month of Ramadan, the 9th month
    in the Muslim year
  • Pilgrimage (hajj)
  • -At least once in a lifetime, if physically and
    financially able

Cultural Influences
  • Fight those who believe no in God and the Last
  • and do not forbid what God and His Messenger
  • have forbidden-such men as practice no the
  • religion of truth, being of those who have been
  • the Book-until they pay tribute out of hand
  • and have been humbled. (Quran 929)
  • Spiritual Struggle (Greater Jihad)
  • -Struggle against unbelief and injustice within
    ones own soul
  • -All Muslims are expected to undertake the
    greater jihad
  • Military Struggle (Lesser Jihad)
  • -Incorrectly known as a Holy War
  • -Physical struggle of combat and warfare

Wars Resulting from Jihad
  • Expansion in Byzantium and Persian Empires
  • -(632 A.D.)
  • -Conquest of the two empires were justified by
    righting a wrong
  • -It is wrong for the empires to not be exposed
    to Islamic belief and law
  • The Crusades
  • -(1095-1270 A.D.)
  • -Total of 8 major Crusades
  • -Crusades resulted from the fall of Jerusalem
    into Muslim forces
  • -War justified on the belief that Jerusalem is a
    Holy Land belonging to Muslims (righting a
  • Conflict Between Israelites and Palestinians
  • -(1948-Present)
  • -Conflicts resulting in Muslim efforts to
    reclaim Palestine
  • -Fulfills both criteria for a just war (righting
    a wrong and defending the Islamic people and

  • Spice trading in Europe. Asia, and Africa
  • -Led to the revolutionary form of establishing
    direct trading
  • -Formerly, all trades were performed locally
  • -Provided a peaceful way to spread Islamic
    beliefs and values
  • -Most successful in southeast Asia, central Asia
    and China, and sub-Saharan Africa.
  • -Profitable Industry
  • -Spices were only cultivated in Arab lands, were
    easy to trade over large distances, and used to
    preserve food
  • -Financed military bases among trade routes
  • -Spice-trading was a form of prestige
  • -Muhammads first wife was a spice-trading widow.
    Her wealth and prestige may be the driving
    factor of the acceptance of Islamic religion and

Women in Islam
  • Viewed as equal to men
  • Keep their wealth as their own
  • Not subordinated by the patriarchy
  • Opportunity for leadership and education
  • The Act of covering from head to toe
  • O Prophet, tell your wives and daughters and the
    believing women that
  • they should cast their outer garments over their
    bodies (when abroad) so
  • that they should be known and not molested
    (Quran 3359)
  • Spousal abuse
  • Divorce acceptable
  • Muhammads teaching on women obscured

Appeals of Islam
  • The story of Umar ibn Al-Khattab
  • The Jewish-Arab truce
  • Islam continues to spread even today
  • Support groups and community services
  • Political action
  • Every Muslim counts

  • A common misconception
  • Many believe that Muslims hold the Quran one
    hand and a sword in the other and will try to
    force their religion on others.
  • The Quran specifically states
  • There is no forcing anyone into this way of
    life. (Quran 2254).

  • Islam affirms the traditions of other religious
  • --Say we believe in God and what has been
    revealed to us and what was revealed to Abraham,
    Ismail, Isaac, Jacob, and the tribes, and in what
    was given to Moses, Jesus, and the prophets from
    their Lord. We make not distinction between one
    and another among them and to Him do we all
    submit (Quran 384).
  • No separation of church and state.
  • Muslims believe the ideal government is one that
    enforces Islamic law.
  • Direct relationship with God.
  • Everyone is born with a clean slate and
    perfection is not expected.
  • However, mans reason for being is to worship God
    and God alone.

The Sects of Islam
  • The early schisms
  • Kharijis
  • -the first schism in the Islamic tradition
  • -withdrew support from caliphs
  • -strict adherence to the sunna, the ways and
    examples of Muhammad
  • -typified by rural life and withdrawal from
    Islamic political structures
  • Sunni (from the helpers in Medina)
  • -85 of Muslims
  • -Muslim caliphs need not be descended from
  • Shiite (from the emigrants in Mecca)
  • -10 of Muslims
  • -Muslim caliphs directly descended from Muhammad
    and Ali (Ali was the last)
  • -deny the first three original caliphs and the
    traditions instituted by them
  • -popular amongst non-Arab Muslims who feared
    they were held in lower esteem

  • Other fringe groups
  • Ithnasheris
  • -majority sect of Shiites
  • Ismailis
  • -smaller sect of Shiites with sub-sects
  • Druze Bohras Nizari Ismailis (the subsects of
    the Ismaili Shiites)
  • As with Christianity there are many divisions in
    the Islamic faith
  • Sufi
  • -Follow mystical interpretations of Islamic
    doctrines and practice
  • -Basic tenet Muslims can transcend the
    physical body to become one with Allah
  • -important movement in the spread of the
    Islamic faith
  • -Like Buddhism, relies on various teachers to
    train groups of followers
  • -Responsible for spreading idea of the
    Mahdi-a messiah figure in the Islam faith

  • Other fringe groups
  • Wahhabism
  • Began in 17th century by Muhammad ibn al-Wahhabi
  • A reform movement to answer an Islamic revival of
  • Denies any ideas added to Islam after its first
    300 years
  • Claims any Muslim who does not follow their
    strict doctrines is not really a Muslim
  • Justified use of violent force in protecting
    Islamic societies from Westernization
  • Adopted as official religion of the Saudi Royal
  • Centered in Saudi Arabia and the Arabian
  • Becoming popular today as an answer to
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