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Meditative States of Consciousness


Yoga meditation. mantra (words of significance) mandala (images of significance) ... karma yoga. full attention to everyday activity. Theories of Meditation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Meditative States of Consciousness

Meditative States of Consciousness
Types of Meditation
  • Concentrative meditation
  • Emphasis on limited attentional focus
  • Mindfulness meditation
  • Emphasis on heightened attentiveness
  • Common Goal
  • Break down habitual modes of thinking

Concentrative Meditation
  • Buddhist traditions
  • Zen meditation
  • koan, a riddle that is used to focus thought
  • satori, sudden alteration of awareness
  • Hindu traditions
  • Yoga meditation
  • mantra (words of significance)
  • mandala (images of significance)
  • Transcendental Meditation
  • Muslim traditions
  • Sufi meditation

A Story
  • One day a man of the people said to the Zen
    master Ikkyu Master, will you please write for
    me some maxims of the highest wisdom?
  • Ikkyu immediately took his brush and wrote
  • Is that all?, asked the man.Will you not add
  • Ikkyu took his brush and rapidly wrote
    Attention. Attention.
  • Well, said the man, I really dont see
    anything deep or subtle in what you are saying.
  • Ikkyu took his brush and wrote three times
    Attention. Attention. Attention.
  • Angry, the man demanded, What does that word
    attention mean, anyway?
  • Ikkyu said gently, Attention means attention.

Elements of Zen
  • Erect sitting posture
  • Focus on breathing
  • Concentration of mind

Elements of Yoga
  • Control of body
  • muscle control
  • autonomic control
  • Release of energy
  • chakras

Types of Yoga
  • Bikram (hot) yoga
  • yogic exercises done in a heated room
  • Hatha yoga
  • Kundalini yoga
  • Tantric yoga

Elements of Sufism
  • The spiritual path (tariqah) of Islam
  • Seeks to apprehend divine reality
  • esoteric branch of Islam

Mindfulness Meditation
  • Shikan-taza
  • opening up awareness
  • rightmindedness
  • acute consciousness of current activity
  • The Witness in yoga
  • observe oneself as if you were an other
  • karma yoga
  • full attention to everyday activity

Theories of Meditation
  • Deikman (1971) Ornstein (1986)
  • active mode
  • analytic, sequential, discursive
  • receptive mode
  • intuitive, timeless, direct experience
  • deautomatization
  • stop shifting between modes
  • perceive without habitual constraints

Theories of Meditation Welwood
  • 4 Levels of Awareness
  • situational ground
  • preconscious awareness
  • personal ground
  • awareness of individualized environment
  • transpersonal ground
  • basic ground
  • awareness of object as the environment
  • Meditation diffuses information so as to uncover
    basic ground

Theories of Meditation Washburn
  • 3 levels of awareness
  • defocalization
  • loss of selective focus of attention
  • reduction of intensity threshold for awareness
  • possible to be aware of less noticeable things
  • immobilization of psychic operations
  • motionless attention to experience

Meditation and Physiology
  • Meditation has measurable effects on bodily
  • Most effects of meditation are not clearly
    different from other activities, like relaxation
  • Some practiced meditators can change autonomic

Mystical Experiences
  • Ineffable
  • Noetic
  • Transient
  • Passive
  • Real
  • Unusual perception

Significance of Mystical States
  • Authoritative
  • truth of mystical experience transcends reason
    and logic
  • Revelatory Insularity
  • No obligation on part of nonmystic to accept the
    mystics revelation
  • Alternate Source of Belief
  • Revelation provides a basis for belief other than
    ordinary experience
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