Man made Disasters - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Man made Disasters

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This presentation is made as school EVS Project to hi-light disasters done by human beings, it throws light on the disaster at Chernobyl formerly in USSR – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Man made Disasters


1
Man Made Diasters
  • A presntation by
  • 7 CVirat Singh Class
  • St, Mary s Convent Inter College, Manak Nagar,
    Lucknow, India

2
The disaster at Chernobyl The worst manmade
disaster in human history
  • By Virat Singh Class 7 C
  • St, Mary s Convent Inter College, Manak Nagar,
    Lucknow, India

3
Where is Chernobyl?
4
Chernobyl
  • Built in 1978-1979
  • Chornobyl

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Background
  • Reaktor Bolshoy Moshehnosty Kipyashiy
  • RBMK, a Russian acronym translated roughly
    means reactor (of) high power (of the) channel
    (type)
  • It was a reactor cooled by water and moderated
    by graphite

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8
RBMK Reactor
9
Fuel assemblies
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11
Reactor Plant Scenario
  • As the reaction occurs, the uranium fuel becomes
    hot
  • The water pumped through the core in pressure
    tubes removes the heat from the fuel
  • The water is then boiled into steam
  • The steam turns the turbines
  • The water is then cooled
  • Then the process repeats

12
The day of disaster
  • 25 April 1986
  • 0100 The preparation for the test
  • 1347 Lowering of the reactor power halted at
    1,600 MWt
  • 1400 The ECCS was isolated
  • 2310 The power reduction resumed

13
26 April 1986
  • 2400 Operation shift change
  • 2428 Power level is now 500 MWt and kept
    decreasing to 30 MWt
  • 2440 The operator withdrew some control rods
  • 0100 Power had risen to 200 MWt
  • 0103 Connecting the fourth main cooling pump to
    the left loop of the system 200 MWt
  • 0107 Connecting the fourth main cooling pump to
    the right of the loop system - this was a
    violation of NOP
  • Continued to next slide

14
26 April 1986
Continued from last slide
  • 0119 Increased feed water flow to the steam
    drums and removed more control rods -violation of
    NOP
  • 0123 The test was started
  • 012310 Automatic rods withdrawn from the core
  • 012321 Two groups of automated control rods
    were back to the core
  • Continued to next slide

15
26 April 1986
Continued from last slide
  • 012330 Power kept increasing
  • 012340 Emergency button pushed
  • 012344 Power is at 300000 MW th
  • 012348 1st thermal explosion
  • 012355 2nd explosion

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19
Human Errors
  • Isolation of the emergency core cooling system
  • Unsafe amount of control rods withdrawn
  • Connection of the four main cooling pumps to the
    right and left of the system

Continued to next slide
20
Human Errors
Continued from last slide
  • The mental model
  • The operator did not have a good mental model of
    the system itself
  • The overconfidence
  • By having an electrical engineer on site for an
    electrical test
  • The confirmation of cues not obtained from the
    system
  • The beta was too high
  • Many signals were missed before the accident

21
Accident Prevention
22
System Analysis
  • Use of graphite as a moderator
  • Lack of a well-built containment structure
  • Inadequate instrumentation and alarms for an
    emergency situation
  • There were no physical controls that prevented
    the operators from operating the reactor in its
    unstable state

23
Summary of Facts
  • April 26, 1986
  • Chernobyl nuclear power plant
  • Operator errors caused a reactor explosion
  • Explosion released 190 tons of radioactive gasses
    into the atmosphere
  • Fire started that lasted 10 days
  • People
  • 7 million people lived in the contaminated areas
    and 3 million of them were children
  • Wind
  • Carried radiation to far distances

24
Far Reaching Radiation
25
Radioactive fallout
26
Direct Casualties
  • 5.5 million people still live in
    contaminated areas
  • 31 people died in 3 months of radiation poisoning
  • 134 emergency workers suffered from acute
    radiation sickness
  • 25,000 rescue workers died since then of diseases
    caused by radiation
  • Cancer afflicts many others
  • Increased birth defects, miscarriages, and
    stillbirths

27
Indirect Casualties
  • By the year 2000 there were 1800 case of thyroid
    cancer in children and adolescent
  • High number of suicide and violent death among
    Firemen, policemen, and other recovery workers

28
Environment Impact
  • Areas still impacted today
  • Soil
  • Ground Water
  • Air
  • Food
  • Crops
  • Livestock

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34
Problems Today
  • The Sarcophagus
  • After the disaster, a huge cement box was built
    around the radioactive material
  • It is falling apart!
  • According to a 2003 report by the Russian Atomic
    Energy Minister, Alexander Rumyantsev, "the
    concrete shell surrounding the Chernobyl nuclear
    reactor is in real danger of collapsing at any
    time."
  • A new Sarcophagus is scheduled to be completed in
    2012

35
Recommendations
  • Have proper Standard Operating Procedures (SOP)
    for both normal and emergency situations
  • Have scheduled trainings and practices for normal
    and emergency situations

Continued to next slide
36
Recommendations
Continued from last slide
  • A reactor expert must be always there on site
  • Any cues from the system must be confirmed by
    operators before making hypothesis or take action
  • An environment of team work must be formed so
    that every body is involved

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38
For viewing this slide show Virat Singh
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