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Set-up of a National Training Capacity for Public Administration


The meetings were focused on the collection of the specific data on the target ... with the Beneficiary institution (including CSA FBiH, CSA RS and HR Unit in BD) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Set-up of a National Training Capacity for Public Administration

  • Set-up of a National Training Capacity for Public
    Administration Practitioners View
  • Jacek Krolikowski
  • International Training Centre of the
    International Labour OrganizationItaly, Turin,
    19- 23 November 2007

Rules of participation
  • Ask questions whenever relevant (do not wait
    until the end of the session)
  • Share with the group problems you are facing in
    your work and solutions you are trying to
  • Share your experiences with other participants
  • I am available for questions / consultations
    during the breaks

Source of my experience
  • The whole professional career related to
    education / training
  • Involvement in different training project for
    Western Balkan countries since 1996 (short-term)
  • Management of the big training projects in BiH
    since 2005
  • Civil Service Training Project (2600 civil
    servants trained)
  • European Integration Training Project (1200 civil
    servants planned to be trained)
  • Involvement in development of TNA and National
    Training Strategy for self-governments in Croatia

Plan of the presentation
  • Training Needs Assessment (TNA)
  • National Training Strategy
  • Identification of target groups
  • Preparation of curricula and training materials
  • Training delivery modalities
  • Financing of the training
  • Utilisation of external assistance
  • Building of a sustainable system Training of
    Trainers (TOT)
  • Quality of the training
  • Cooperation with public and private training
  • Evaluation of the training

How topics are presented?
  • Key issues related to given topic
  • Typical problems from the practice
  • Proposed solutions (illustrated by examples from
    the practice)

  • Training Needs Assessment

Introduction key issues
  • Benefits of TNA
  • Rationale for selection of strategic priorities
    in training (not only topics, but also
    methodologies, conditions for effective and
    efficient delivery, different needs of different
    target groups etc.)
  • Beneficiaries of the strategy involved, and their
    opinion taken into consideration
  • Promotion of the strategy development process
  • Possibility to verify common sense knowledge
    about target groups needs
  • Diminishing level of criticism and questioning of
    the strategy
  • Local institutions and Donors have better data to
    plan their policies concerning PA

Introduction key issues
  • Example of TNA methodology - TNA of
  • Croatian self-governments
  • Elements of the TNA process
  • Involvement of different stakeholders view on
    different aspects of the problem
  • Cooperation with LSG association
  • Cooperation with COE (experience in TNA of LSG)
  • Cooperation between international and local
  • Involvement of the different research methods
    (questionnaire, in-depth interviews, phone

Introduction key issues
Introduction key issues
Introduction key issues
  • Areas of TNA example from TNA of Croatian
  • self-governments
  • HRM systems in the institutions
  • Training capacities of local governments and
    training programmes requested
  • Approach to training in LSG
  • Delivery of the services
  • Strategic planning
  • Communication with citizens
  • Cooperation between self-governments
  • Access to information and good practices
  • System of training for self-governments

Typical problems
  • Lack of some important data (Croatia number of
    local civil servants)
  • Poor level of HRM systems in the institutions,
    including needs assessment capacities (low
    awareness of needs)
  • Limited capacities of the Beneficiary / strategy
    management institution in needs assessment on
    national level (dependence from Donor in this
  • Costly and time-consuming process
  • TNA recommendations not used during strategy
    development process

Suggested solutions
  • TNA as a required step in the training strategy
    development process
  • Institutional link TNA developed or at least
    designed by the institution / body responsible
    for strategy preparation
  • Selection of the feasible methodological options
    (even small research may change the view on the
    required intervention)
  • Possible reduction of costs (questionnaire send
    to the institutions with support letter from the
    Minister, focus groups instead of interviews,
    interviews conducted by prepared students as a
    part of practice, cooperation with LSG
    associations etc.)

Suggested solutions
  • Building of the local resources TOT for TNA
    experts that could support HR units in the
    institution to build their TNA capacities
  • Outsourcing of the TNA preparation of the terms
    of reference
  • Practical use of report results of TNA expressed
    in form of specific recommendations related to
    the training system / training strategy

Suggested solutions
  • Example of the TNA undertaken on the level of
  • the training project European Integration
  • Training Project (BiH)
  • Objective
  • The Training Needs Assessment will enable a
    proper understanding of what has been already
    provided and retained, thus allowing the Project
    Team to elaborate training curricula and training
    materials matching the beneficiaries actual

Suggested solutions
  • Methodology
  • The current needs of the target groups were
    assessed with the following methods
  • Series of 13 meetings with key stakeholders
    (organizations, institutions and projects
    involved in the EU accession process and in the
    delivery of the trainings for civil servants,
    especially trainings on European integration
  • The meetings were focused on the collection of
    the specific data on the target groups (their
    level of knowledge on EU, specific needs,
    training received so far etc.) and a review of
    the training curricula and materials already
    developed by international and national actors.

Suggested solutions
  • Methodology
  • Close consultations with the Beneficiary
    institution (including CSA FBiH, CSA RS and HR
    Unit in BD) already experienced in delivery of
    the trainings and with close relations with PA
  • In depth interviews with 10 public administration
    institutions from State level, FBiH and RS. Main
    objective of the interviews was to collect
    opinions of the final beneficiaries
    (institutions) on EU related training in order to
    prepare the most relevant training curricula and
    training materials.

Suggested solutions
  • TNA questions
  • Knowledge of EU integration issues
  • BiH is involved in the process of the European
    integration do you have any information about
  • If yes, is this information sufficient? Explain.
  • If not, what information would you expect?
  • Do you know to what extend process of European
    integration may influence activities performed by
    your institution? Explain.
  • Need for the training on EU integration issues
  • Do you think that your institution would need
    training on EU integration issues?
  • If not, explain why?
  • If yes, what topics should be covered by such
    training? or what would you like to know about

Suggested solutions
  • TNA questions
  • Up to date experience with training on EU related
  • Did the staff of your institution ever
    participated in training on EU related issues?
  • If not, why?
  • If yes, what was subject of the training?
  • How you assess usefulness of this/these
    training/s? Explain.
  • Training methodology
  • What conditions training should fulfil (methods,
    duration, trainers etc.) to be consider by you as
    useful for the staff and institution?
  • What would you expect from training materials?

  • National Training Strategy

Introduction key issues
  • Benefits of the national training strategy
  • Clear sense of direction decision about
    priorities in training taking into consideration
    results of TNA subjects, delivery modalities,
    target groups, timeframe etc.
  • Better allocation of limited resources
  • Increased effectiveness (needs based) and
    efficiency of the training (value for money)
  • Improved coordination between stakeholders /
    donors avoiding overlapped initiatives

Introduction key issues
  • Benefits of the national training strategy
  • Better response to the challenges of rapid
  • Public Administration Reform modern, effective
    and efficient public administration delivering
    high quality services for citizens
  • European integration
  • Decentralisation and other reforms

Introduction key issues
  • Benefits of the national training strategy
  • The Civil Service is undergoing a process of
    continuous change. This change is being driven by
    external influences in the environment in which
    the service operates. These include the European
    Union integration process (). Change is also
    driven by the desire
  • internally to provide
    a modern, effective
  • and efficient quality
    customer service.
  • Government policy on
  • will present new
    challenges and require
  • new responses in
    terms of the delivery of
  • training and
    development, at a civil
  • service level, at
    organisation level and at
  • the level of the
  • Framework for Civil Service Training and
    Development 2004-2008, Centre for
  • Management and Organisation Development

Introduction key issues
  • Typical areas / objectives covered by the
  • training strategies
  • Efficient delivery of the trainings (horizontal /
  • Development of the HRM systems among PA
  • Strengthening of the training quality systems
    (quality standards, accreditation systems)
  • Strengthening of the information and experience
    exchange systems
  • Support to the development of the training market
  • Support to PAR, sectoral reforms,
    decentralisation etc.
  • Increase number of high qualified trainers

Introduction key issues
  • Development of the strategy
  • Three stages of the strategic process
  • process of planning
  • preparation of the strategic document
  • implementation (management) of the strategy
  • Shift of the impact strategic planning versus
    strategic management
  • Work group leadership of the process
  • Involvement of the stakeholders in all stages
    (consultative, supervisory body)

Introduction key issues
  • Typical structure of the strategy
  • Context of the strategy development
  • Background providing rationale for strategic
    objectives (including results of TNA)
  • Vision of the training system
  • Mission of the strategy
  • Key principles of the strategy
  • Strategic objectives
  • Activities

Introduction key issues
  • Typical structures of the strategies (parts
    sometimes neglected)
  • Workplan
  • Outputs
  • Indicators
  • Timeframe
  • Responsible bodies
  • Financing (source of financing, estimated costs)
  • Strategy management framework (institutional
    set-up, strategy management functions including
    monitoring and evaluation)

Introduction key issues
  • Typical functions required from strategy
  • management institution
  • Development of the yearly strategy implementation
  • Administrative support for strategic bodies
  • Coordination, consultation and information
    sharing among stakeholders
  • Set-up of the quality measures (standards,
  • Development / outsourcing of the high quality,
    needs based, training curricula and materials in
    the key strategic areas
  • Delivery / outsourcing of the horizontal training
    courses (including e-learning)

Introduction key issues
  • Typical functions required from strategy
  • management institution
  • Delivery of the TOT courses to increase number of
    trainers in the key trainings subjects required
    by the strategy
  • Collection and dissemination of the best
  • Set-up of the resource centre for training
    providers as well as for beneficiaries of the
  • Fundraising
  • Information and promotion
  • Lobbing and advocacy

Introduction key issues
  • Typical functions required from strategy
  • management institution
  • Periodical training needs assessment
  • Monitoring of the strategy implementation
  • Reporting
  • Evaluation
  • Updating of the strategy

Typical problems
  • Access to required data \ lack of data
  • Data concerning target groups (e.g. number of
    staff in particular institutions / self
  • Data concerning training market, unclear prices
  • Coordination between stakeholders during strategy
    preparation and implementation
  • Challenge to coordinate between donors and their
    specific policies
  • Set-up of the consultation / supervisory bodies
    including stakeholders

Typical problems
  • Beneficiary only as a source of the data
  • Strategy prepared by external donor accent on
    the output than on sustainability
  • Poor capacities of the Beneficiary / Lack of
    capacity building programmes for Beneficiaries as
    preparation for strategy development
  • Poor state of HRM systems among institutions Lack
    of support from high level managers in public
    administration institutions
  • Strategy development as interesting exercise-
    just document with no real impact on everyday
  • Poorly developed / donors dominated training
    market (training providers, trainers)

Typical problems
  • Focus of the strategic planning neglecting of
    the implementation part
  • Poorly developed workplan (outputs, indicators,
    timeframes, responsible bodies etc.) or existing
    workplan is not feasible
  • Unclear financial resources (especially if there
    are mixed resources e.g. central budget fees
    paid by institutions / self governments)
  • Unclear leadership during the implementation
    phase is there any strategy management
  • Lack of political will to develop / implement
    strategy and national policies / strategies
  • Poor legal framework for training and development
    (incentives for participants)

Suggested solutions
Suggested solutions
  • Identification of target groups

Introduction key issues
  • Target groups identification should be a part of
  • Typical categories of the target groups
  • Civil servants / employees with specific
    responsibilities / competencies
  • Civil servants / employees from different levels
    of management
  • Civil servants / employees from different type of
    institution (central, local)
  • Specific needs of particular training groups have
    to be taken into consideration when training
    priorities are set-up in the strategy and than
    curricula developed
  • Particular training groups may require not only
    different curricula but also different ways of
    training delivery (e.g. awareness training for
    mangers and competency based for procurement

Typical problems
  • Participation in the training of the lower level
    civil servants depends on managers
  • Unclear internal organisation of the institutions
    and unclear division of responsibilities among
    the staff (following by poorly developed job
    descriptions) problem with identification of
    the specific target groups
  • Adjusting curriculum to the needs of specific
    target groups (content, duration, forms of
    delivery) costly and time-consuming process
    (case of BiH)

Suggested solutions
  • Making managers aware of the benefits of the
    training for specialists
  • Promote benefits from the training for the whole
  • Standard for curriculum should require from
    training organisations / trainers knowledge of
    the needs of the particular target group
  • Involve HR units in the institutions in the
    development and assessment of the curricula
    including identification of the target groups

  • Preparation of curricula and training materials

Introduction key issues
  • Typical structure of the curriculum more than
    just list of the topics
  • Description of the target groups (number,
    position in the institution, previous training
    experience, and level of entry knowledge
    required, needs identified)
  • Objectives (measurable)
  • Content (subject matter)
  • Methodological approach (methodological
    principles, rationale for proposed training
    methods proving links between objectives and
  • Form and role of the training materials
  • Suggested forms of training evaluation
  • Requirements for the trainers (TOR)

Introduction key issues
  • Function of the training materials - Example
  • from European Integration Training Project
  • (BiH)
  • The function of the training materials is the
  • To deliver actual, solid knowledge to the
    participants on issues included in the training
    course curriculum
  • To support the learning process through the
    provision of inspiring sources for discussions
    and reflection,structure for the self-learning
    process and the use of materials in-between the
    training courses and following their completion
  • To provide additional source of information for
    participants (bibliography, websites, CD with the
    key documents etc.)

Introduction key issues
  • Function of the training materials - Example
  • from European Integration Training Project
  • (BiH)
  • The prepared training materials are based on
  • Content areas covered by the EU training
    programme approved by Council of Ministers
  • Actual, generally accepted concepts taken from EU
    countries theory (existing literature) and
  • Local (BiH) approaches and good practices
  • BiH legal framework
  • EU standards in given area

Introduction key issues
  • Function of the training materials - Example
  • from European Integration Training Project
  • (BiH)
  • The content and the form of the materials was
    adjusted as much as possible to the needs of BiH
    civil servants and took into consideration their
    level of knowledge of EU issues as identified
    during training needs assessment process
  • The knowledge is presented in the operational way
    (procedure descriptions, procedural schemes,
    examples of specific solutions/approaches, etc.)

Typical problems
  • Gap between curriculum and real problems of
    target groups curriculum not adjusted to the
    reality of participants workplace
  • Low capacity of the training organisations /
    trainers in the area of curriculum development
  • Lack of quality standards for curricula and
    training materials curriculum as simple list of
  • Poor quality of the training materials (paste and
    copy approach or universal materials)
  • Limited functions and poor form of the training

Suggested solutions
  • Recognition of the training needs as requirement
    for organisation/ trainers developing curricula
  • Curriculum adjusted to the existing delivery
    framework (number of the days envisaged for the
    course, up to date experience of participants
  • Organisation of the TOT and other courses
    including issues related to curriculum
  • Support to institutions (HR units) capacities
    related to assessment of the training curricula
    and preparation of the terms of references
  • Development of the standards for curricula and
    training materials clear requirements for the
    organisations / trainers and basis for
    performance assessment

Suggested solutions
  • Standards for curricula example from
  • Civil Service Training Programme (BiH)
  • Training curriculum has to base on
  • The general needs identified in the EU System
    Review of Public Administration Institutions
  • Specific needs of the particular training group
    (information included in the Application Forms
    and provided by CSAs staff)
  • Actual, generally accepted concepts / approaches
    taken from best practices from EU countries
  • Local good practices if available

Suggested solutions
  • Training curriculum has to base on
  • Local legal framework and requirements of the PAR
    and European Integration process
  • EU standards in given area of public
  • Modern training methodology, including EU
    standards for adult education and continuous
    professional development

Suggested solutions
  • Curriculum has to be described according to
  • following structure
  • Title of the training course
  • Competencies required from the trainers (local,
  • Target group (needs identified, category of civil
    servants, state or entity level)
  • Duration of the training course (days)
  • Goals of the training course At the conclusion
    of this training participants will know/be able
  • Daily agenda of the course (specific topics,
    methods of delivery, timing)

  • Training delivery modalities

Introduction key issues
  • Typical classroom based training supported by
    traditional methodology might not be efficient if
    real changes in the participants workplaces are
  • Transfer of the knowledge / skills from the
    training situations to the workplace is of
    crucial importance
  • Behavioural changes need more complex approach
    e.g. classroom based training supported by
    methods which require cooperation with HR units
    in the institutions and line managers
  • On-job training
  • Mentoring / Shadowing
  • Peer education (professional forum, in country
    study visits etc.)
  • Best practice programmes / databases
  • E-learning (blended learning)

Typical problems
  • Typical classroom based training prevails over
    more complex approaches (typical Donor approach
    quantitative measures over qualitative)
  • Institutions have limited capacities to introduce
    training measures like on-job training etc.
  • Financial aspect typical classroom based
    training might be cheaper than more complex
    approaches especially from the perspective of
    the donor
  • Lack of standards for training delivery

Suggested solutions
  • Organise TOT on effective training methodology
    (supporting real changes in the institutions)
  • Support institutions (HR units) in implementation
    of the more effective training interventions
  • Promote new approach to training among senior /
    line managers
  • Present benefits of such approach to justify
  • Develop and promote training delivery standards
    as a part of training quality system
  • Organise best practice programmes
  • Organise in-country study visits / open days and
    other forms of peer-learning

Suggested solutions
  • HRM course for specialists example from Civil
  • Service Training Project (BiH)
  • Curriculum covered among others the following
  • Introduction to the background and concept of
    modern Human Resource Management
  • Strategic HRM
  • Typical HRM policy areas and principal HRM
  • Setting standards for HRM
  • Human Resource Planning in terms of
    recruitment, training, and development of people
  • Legal framework for Human Resource Management in
  • Employee Discipline
  • Grievance handling
  • Job Analysis Principles and Methods
  • Recruitment
  • Performance Appraisal
  • Identifying and Meeting Training needs
  • Developing an annual training plan for the

Suggested solutions
  • Methodology of the course
  • 14 days of the training
  • Local and international experts involved
  • Quality of curriculum and materials checked by
    CSA BiH
  • Essay on problems in HRM in their institution
    required from participants
  • Individual assistance offered to participants
    (visits in the institutions or via e-mail)
  • Course accredited at the ILM
  • Most of the participants received ILM
    certificates (fee paid by the project)
  • Study visit in Slovenia on the end of the course

Suggested solutions
  • ILM certificate

Suggested solutions
  • Best practice programme example from
  • Croatia
  • Best practice is an example of action which is
  • Innovative
  • Replicable in new environment
  • Relevant to identified problems
  • "Success story" based on sufficient, reliable
    data (triangulation)
  • Based on evidence from multiple settings (local,
  • Focused more on process then single picture

Suggested solutions
  • Best practice programme basic
  • Information
  • International partner Council of Europe
  • Local partner Union of Association of Towns
    and Association of Municipalities (SEVEZ)
  • Manager Mr. Marko Kovacic
  • Year of implementation 2004

Suggested solutions
  • Steps in programme implementation
  • COE prepared prospectus including general rules
    of the programme
  • Local manager of the programme was selected and
  • Seminar in Zagreb was organised to the
    stakeholders to present principles and rules of
    the programme
  • Local adaptation of the prospectus was prepared
    including information about the programme and
    application form
  • Political support was ensured foreword to
    prospectus was signed by Mr. Antun Palaric, State
    Secretary, Central state Office for Public
    Administration and Philip Blair, Director for
    Co-operation for Local and Regional Democracy,

Suggested solutions
  • To achieve broader involvement of the
    stakeholders and provide supervision / evaluation
    of the programme activities the Steering Board
    was created gathering representatives of
  • European Commission Delegation, OSCE, USAID/Urban
    Institute, Local Democracy Agencies from Sisak
    and Brtonigla, UNPD/ILO and Friedrich Ebert
  • Programme brochure was prepared and published
  • Best practices were collected and assessed
    (Evaluation Panel)
  • Successful self-governments were awarded
  • Best practices were disseminated (open days)

Suggested solutions
  • Categories of eligible best practices
  • Local community leadership
  • Solving the problem of unemployment on local
  • Economic development
  • Communication with client citizens
  • Modernisation of local government management
  • Service provision on local level
  • Providing of pre-school and primary education
  • Social welfare provision
  • Environmental protection
  • Communal waste

Suggested solutions
  • Criteria for best practice eligibility /
  • In order to be eligible for the best practice
    status, the programmes / projects / initiatives
  • be initiated by local authorities (initiative)
  • be relevant to the problem (relevance)
  • prove a new approach to the problems (innovation)
  • demonstrate a record of successful implementation
  • be transferable, i.e. suitable for replication in
    other local authorities (applicability)

Suggested solutions
  • Application form - information on best practice
  • Description of the problem
  • Description of best practice
  • Results of your innovation
  • Support from beneficiaries
  • Budgetary implications
  • The sustainability of your best practice
  • Dissemination of your best practice

Suggested solutions
  • Best practices collection
  • Totally 14 local self-government units (13 towns
    and 1 municipality) submitted 39 applications
  • After preliminary screening of the applications,
    the project manager and the SAVEZ prepared the
    proposal of the shortlisted initiatives to be
    discussed with the members of the Evaluation
    Panel of the Project
  • Winners were appointed and awarded and their best
    practices disseminated

Suggested solutions
  • Examples of the best practices submitted
  • City of Kutina Entrepreneur incubator
  • City of Rovinj - Info Point and Investors'
  • City of Crikvenica "Including the public into
    the budget decision-making process"
  • City of Labin - The City Youth Council
  • City of Osijek - WCA portal, virtual government,
    coverage of sessions
  • City of Rijeka - "Rijeka The Digital City"
  • City of Slatina - The Non-Governmental
    Organizations Centre
  • City of Kutina - The Strategy for disabled

Suggested solutions
  • Members of the Evaluation Panel represented the
  • following institutions
  • Local Government Project, UNDP
  • Department for Local Self-Government, City of
  • Local Government Reform Project, Urban Institute
  • Union of Association of Towns and Association of
  • Ministry of Environmental Protection, Spatial
    Planning and Water Management
  • Department for Local and Regional Self-Government
    System, Central State Office for Administration
  • Department for Supervision of Local
    Self-Government and International Cooperation,
    Central State Office for Administration
  • Newspaper Novi List from Rijeka

Suggested solutions
  • What did not work?
  • Problem with funds for relevant awards for
    successful self-governments
  • Poor sustainability - lack of continuation after
    COE stopped financing
  • Resistance from Donors to support next stages of
    the programme even if costs were rather limited

Suggested solutions
  • The importance of e-learning Irish example
  • E-learning can bring classroom learning to the
    workstation. It allows large numbers of staff to
    be trained and it can also provide a cost
    effective means of overcoming geographical
    dispersal of staff. However, e-learning is most
    effective if combined with classroom learning, or
    if structured in such a way as to allow learners
    to interact in a stimulating way with both tutors
    and other learners.
  • Conditions access to broadband Internet, basic
    IT literacy, cultural change

  • Financing of the training

Introduction key issues
  • Centralised, decentralised and mixed systems of
  • Different Donors frameworks in Western Balkans
    (EU, USAID, UNDP, SIDA etc.)
  • Training is commonly funded in two ways
  • training funds are decentralised, i.e. they are
    allocated to the budget of the employing
    institution which manages the funds for training
    of its staff and "pays" the training institution
    executing the
  • training and training funds are centralised,
    i.e. they are allocated to the civil service
    commission or to training institutions. Thus, the
    training is carried out free of charge for the
    employing institution, if the salary paid to the
    public servant while he is on training is
  • Public Service Training Systems in OECD
    countries, SIGMA Papers No 16

Typical problems
  • Lack of awareness concerning benefits of training
    institutions do not want to pay
  • Lack of financing by central government
  • Lack of finances for training among PA
    institutions lack of motivation to create
    internal training plans and HRM systems
    (exception self-governments)
  • Financial dependence from Donors
  • Lack of stable / long term funding makes training
    strategy questionable

Suggested solutions
  • Lobbing and promoting benefits of training in
    dynamic environment (PA reform, decentralisation,
    EU accession)
  • Cooperate with HR units responsible for training
    in the institutions supporting them in looking
    for resources
  • Actively influence Donor strategies and increase
    level of coordination between Donors
  • Increase fundraising capacities of the

  • Utilisation
    of external assistance

Introduction key issues
  • Different donors different policies and
  • Benefits of the decentralised systems (DIS)
  • Issue of coordination among Donors community
  • Relevance of the assistance to the beneficiary
    capacities and needs
  • Issue of donors dominated training market

Typical problems
  • Depending on donors assistance difficulty to
    develop own strategy / policies and overlapping
  • Donors focus on short-term outputs rather than
    sustainability of the initiatives
  • Lack of coordination between donors (example
    agreement on PAR Fund in BiH)
  • Problem of the free training (trade off no
    quality no complains)
  • Insufficient capacity of the institutions to
    absorb assistance

Suggested solutions
  • Actively express needs / opinions in front of
  • Require from the Donors to adjust approaches to
    the capacity of the institution
  • Put accent on capacity building and
    sustainability rather than acceptance of ready
    to use solutions proposed by donors
  • Introduce forms of coordination between donors
    (example LGM in Macedonia)
  • Make training programmes attractive set-up some
    requirements for participating institutions

  • Building of a sustainable system Training of
    Trainers (TOT)

Introduction key issues
  • Typical TOT course training methodology
  • and knowledge of specific technical subject
  • TOT course example from Western Balkans
  • Course planned in the following sequence
  • Training on methodology
  • Training on the HRM
  • Development of the one day specific course on HRM
    by participants
  • Delivery of the course by participants supervised
    by trainers
  • Individual feed-back session
  • Reflection session for the whole group
  • Session on professional development plan
  • Institutional set-up o the trainers future
    relations with training centre

Introduction key issues
  • Topics of the TOT course methodological module
  • Typical steps in the training course development
  • Contact with the Client
  • Vision of the training expressed by the Client
  • Contract with the Client
  • Training needs assessment (TNA)
  • Main principles of selected teaching / learning
  • Practical application of the theories during
    different phases of the training course
  • Training delivery modalities
  • Designing training curriculum
  • Design of the training methodology
  • Development of the training agenda
  • Preparation of the training materials
  • Design of the course logistics and technical

Introduction key issues
  • Topics of the TOT course methodological module
  • Selection of the participants
  • Training group dynamics
  • Open communication as a part of the learning
    environment learning as a social process
  • Before the training checking up logistics and
    technical standards
  • Starting the training course
  • Review of the key training methods strengths and
    weaknesses in particular training context
  • Support motivation for learning
  • Closing the course

Introduction key issues
  • Topics of the TOT course methodological module
  • Post training support
  • Objectives and types of evaluation from the point
    of view of trainers
  • Simple evaluation methods for short training
  • Ethical rules related to evaluationTopics
    sometimes ignored
  • Typical competencies expected from the trainers
  • Stages in trainers professional development
  • Ethical rules for trainers

Typical problems
  • Poor quality of the TOT courses
  • Limited number / low quality of local experts
    available international donors more attractive
    for them
  • Unclear legal status of the trainers (especially
    practitioners working in public administration
  • Lack of quality standards / accreditation systems
    for trainers
  • Poor status of trainers professional associations

Typical problems
  • TOT programmes shortage example from
  • BiH
  • Poor design of the programme (greater emphasis
    on subject matter rather that development of
    skills) created further problems in the
    development of training resource. The structure
    of the programme did not include rounds of
    practice for the new trainers.
  • The graduates of the TOT programmes have
    emphasised that the most useful programmes were
    those that provided them with opportunity to
    deliver actual training seminars outside of the
    classroom. Only such an approach helped to
    maintain the motivation of the trainees to
    complete the course and later on to continue to
    act as trainers.

Typical problems
  • No institutional space of the trainers has been
    created so far (including lack of trainers
    professional association).
  • Lack legal framework for the actual
    implementation of the TOT. For example, it is
    not clear how civil servants could participate in
    TOT programmes and be active trainers in the
  • Many training organisations continue to rely on
    donor funding and international experts paid from
    the funds of these projects. This both distorts
    the training unit costs and raises fees of the
    local experts to the level that cannot be matched
    and sustained by BiH public sector institutions.
  • Civil Service Training in the context of
    Public Administration Reform, and Assessment of
    Local, National, Regional and International
    Training Capacity in relation to Civil Service
    needs in BiH, UNDP 2004

Suggested solutions
  • Organise / require from donor / high quality TOT
  • Training based on modern methodology focus on
  • Supervised practice / co-training and feed-back
  • Reflection on practice
  • Planning of the professional development
  • Support groups and other forms of support
  • Building network of trainers long term approach
    (what if donors leave ?)
  • Select good practitioners enable them new
    career as trainers
  • Support professional development of the trainers
    professional forum, associations etc.
  • Support / develop trainers accreditation system
  • Set-up standards for trainers
  • Develop accreditation procedure
  • Issue certificate
  • Promote system among PA institutions and training

  • Quality of the training

Introduction key issues
  • Elements of framework for quality assurance
  • Standards (training providers, trainers, training
  • Accreditation body
  • Accreditation / certification process /
  • Certificates
  • Promotion of the system among training providers,
    trainers and public administration institutions

Introduction key issues
Introduction key issues
  • Typical goals of accreditation system
  • Inform the public that individuals who have
    achieved certification have demonstrated a
    particular degree of knowledge and skill
  • Offer title protection, as only those who are
    certified may use a particular title
  • Enhance the reputation and positive public image
    of a profession while seeking to protect the
    public from incompetent practitioners
  • Develop benchmark of excellence upon which new
    knowledge, methods and technology can be
    systematically integrated into the professional
  • Enable clients to distinguish between effective
    and ineffective performance
  • Enable practitioners to assess their ability,
    focus their professional development efforts, and
    recognize their capability

Introduction key issues
Introduction key issues
  • Typical standards for accreditation of the
    training providers
  • Area of activity following the national / other
  • Up to date experience in the training (number of
    projects, years of activity)
  • Institutional stability (income, staff)
  • Possibility to ensure technical requirements
    e.g. computers, training rooms etc.
  • Positive results of the projects evaluation
  • Recommendations from the clients
  • Internal system of the quality provision
    competencies of the trainers, standards of the
    training courses evaluation, staff development
    and assessment systems etc.
  • Internal code of ethics

Introduction key issues
  • Accreditation of the trainers - formal standards
  • Education and professional training
  • Number of trainings delivered (including courses
    longer than e.g. 200 hours)
  • Number of trainings delivered under supervision /
    training course supervised by member of
    Accreditation Body
  • Positive evaluation of trainings performed
  • Recommendations from other trainers (supervisors)
    and / or institutions
  • Awards and other special achievements
  • Number of publications or training programmes /
    materials developed

Typical problems
  • The quality aspect of the training (including
    accreditation) usually ignored by Donors
  • Quantitative indicators prevails over qualitative
    (number of trainings versus sustainability)
  • Low capacity of the local training institutions
    to manage accreditation (case of BiH)
  • Cost of accreditation system (if going behind
    simply formal requirements) especially is
    accreditation internationally recognized
  • Low prestige of the system
  • small training market lack of quality
    requirements no pressure to keep quality
  • high competition from other systems (e.g.
    post-graduate studies, internationally recognized
    organizations etc.)

Suggested solutions
  • Require quality measures from donors
  • Start with promotion of the training quality
    among institutions (explain definitions,
    demonstrate examples of quality systems etc.)
  • Set-up system for accreditation of the training
    programmes (standards, steps of the process,
    accreditation body, certificate etc.)
  • Cooperate with other stakeholders to set-up
    accreditation system for trainers
  • Try to find co-financing to diminish costs of
  • Promote accreditation systems among stakeholders

  • Cooperation with public and private training

Introduction key issues
  • Typical categories of the training providers
    (public, private, NGOs, donors)
  • Cooperation between training providers especially
    required in Western Balkans (limited resources)
  • Forms of cooperation between training providers
    from different sectors
  • Outsourcing by public providers
  • Professional forum for all providers
  • Common accreditation requirements for providers
    from all sectors
  • Cooperation of the public institutions with
    trainers associations, self-governments
    associations and academic institutions

Typical problems
  • Training strategy developed by public institution
    without coordination with other providers (weak
    tradition to cooperate between the sectors)
  • Lack of coordination / cooperation between
    sectors (public, private, NGOs) in training
  • Weak private / NGO sector
  • Private providers not interested in training for
    public administration

Suggested solutions
  • Include representatives of all sectors in to
    strategy coordination / supervisory bodies
  • Initiate coordination platforms for all sectors
  • Support training market (information, experience
    exchange, TOT, promotion of the training quality
  • Increase institutional capacity in outsourcing of
    the training delivery
  • Adequate promotion of the outsourced training

  • Evaluation of the training

Introduction key issues
  • Types of evaluation
  • Stage of the strategy / project implementation
    current - mid-term - final
  • Type of the activity evaluated strategy, project
    / activity, particular training event
  • The way evaluation results influence
    implementation of the strategy / project
    corrections of the current activities
    improvement of the initiatives planned in the
  • Time perspective evaluation of the immediate and
    long term results / changes

Introduction key issues
  • Objectives of evaluation
  • Mid-term evaluation objective example from
  • Civil Service Training Project (BiH)
  • Main objective of the evaluation is to review
    CSTP progress and propose alternations to project
    design during the remaining period of
    implementation (till 30 January 2007) as well as
    recommendation for the future projects supporting
    PAR process and addressed to the BiH civil

Introduction key issues
  • Specific objectives
  • general assessment of the adjustment of the
    projects design to Bosnian environment
  • identification of possible actions to be
    undertaken before the end of the project in order
    to strengthen the sustainability
  • identification of resources produced by CSTP that
    can be used for future activities
  • assessment of the influence of CSTP on the public
    administration sector
  • evaluation of the local capacity for training
  • analysis of demand / supply relationship and
    constraints in the public administration training

Introduction key issues
  • Methods used
  • Analysis of the projects documents
  • 10 individual in-depth interviews with CSA, Team
    Leader, EC, UNDP, PAR Coordinator, trainers (14
  • 22 individual in-depth interviews with training
  • Survey on representative sample of trainees (200
    telephone interviews)

Introduction key issues
  • Basic evaluation criteria
  • Relevance - the extent to which the objectives of
    CSTP are consistent with beneficiaries
    requirements, countrys needs, partners and
    donors policies
  • Effectiveness the extent to which CSTP
    objectives were achieved, or are expected to be
  • Efficiency - a measure of how economically
    resources/inputs (funds, expertise, time, etc.)
    are converted to results
  • Impact - long-term effects produced by CSTP
  • Sustainability - the continuation of benefits
    from CSTP after the program has been completed.
    The probability of continued long-term benefits

Typical problems
  • Low capacity of the institutions to perform or
    outsource evaluation
  • Quantitative methods prevailing over qualitative
  • Results of evaluation not used to correct current
    activities and longer-term strategic plans
  • Focus on current evaluation forms distributed
    after training

Suggested solutions
  • Create institutional capacity to perform or
    outsource evaluation
  • Organisation of the training on evaluation
  • Collection of the resources (guidebooks on
    evaluation methodology, sample reports and terms
    of references for outsourcing of the evaluation
  • Change approach to the current evaluation
    (interviews with participants and their managers,
    trainers exit reports etc.)
  • Requirement to use result of evaluation when
    correct strategy / planning for the next year
    (rationale for decisions)

  • Thank you for your attention!
  • Jacek Krolikowski
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