Conversations on Global Warming: Energy Sunday, April 30, 2006 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 21
About This Presentation

Conversations on Global Warming: Energy Sunday, April 30, 2006


About 3% of the world's proved oil and natural gas reserves. ... The cost of producing synthetic crude oil from Alberta tar sands is about $25 per barrel. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:44
Avg rating:3.0/5.0


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Conversations on Global Warming: Energy Sunday, April 30, 2006

Conversations on Global Warming EnergySunday,
April 30, 2006
  • Phil Malte
  • Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering
  • University of Washington

(No Transcript)
We have a problem!
  • How we use energy has major
  • impacts and consequences.

United States
  • Less than 5 of the worlds population.
  • About 25 of the worlds annual energy use.
  • About 3 of the worlds proved oil and natural
    gas reserves.
  • Per capita energy use double that of most
    industrial nations.

United States
  • 40 Oil
  • 2/3 to transportation
  • ¼ to manufacturing industry
  • 23 Natural Gas
  • multiple uses
  • 23 Coal
  • electricity
  • 8 Nuclear
  • electricity
  • 6 Renewable
  • ½ hydroelectric
  • ½ biomass

Who has the proved reserves?
  • Oil
  • 62 Middle East
  • Natural Gas
  • 40 Middle East
  • 31 Former Soviet Union
  • Coal
  • Land masses of Asia, Eurasia, and North America
  • Coal resource may be 10 times that of
    conventional oil and natural gas

  • The cost of producing oil in Saudi Arabia is
    typically less than 5 per barrel.
  • The cost of producing synthetic crude oil from
    Alberta tar sands is about 25 per barrel.
  • With Alberta tar sands oil included, Canada is in
    second place on the list of nations with proved
    oil reserves.
  • Does Canada have enough natural gas to develop
    its tar sands? 1000 cubic feet of natural gas
    are required to produce one barrel of heavy oil
    (bitumen) from tar sand. Additional energy is
    required to process the bitumen into synthetic
    crude oil for use by oil refineries.

Energy Ratio
  • Measures Energy Content of Fuel compared to
  • Energy Needed to Produce the Fuel
  • Gasoline and Diesel Fuel about 5
  • Corn Ethanol about 1.3. Effectively, corn
    ethanol is largely fossil energy.
  • Biodiesel about 3. Depends on the amount of
    nitrogen fertilizer used to grow the oil seed
    crop and the co-products sold.

Potential Solutions
  • No single one solution
  • Many courses of action picking the ones that
    make the most environmental and economic sense is
  • Big picture diversity of solutions, significant
    reduction in carbon emissions.
  • Solutions
  • Conservation
  • Equipment Efficiency
  • Carbon Sequestration
  • Nuclear Energy??
  • Renewable Energies

Example of Carbon Sequestration with Hydrogen
  • Coal Gasifying Power Plants
  • Coal converted into hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
  • Electricity produced by the heat generated.
  • Hydrogen burned to produce additional
  • Hydrogen sold to other users.
  • Carbon dioxide captured and sequestered
    underground in geologic formations and spent
    fossil fuel reservoirs.
  • Full-scale, full-system demonstration??
  • Cost of system?? Cost of electricity??

Renewable Energies
  • Wind Turbines
  • Solar Thermal Heating and Hot Water
  • Solar Thermal Power Plants
  • Solar Photovoltaics (PV)
  • Bio-Fuels
  • Tidal Turbines and Wave Energy Machines

Wind Turbine Electricity Generation
  • About 20 annual growth rate (world).
  • 50 GW installed capacity (world), compared to
    3000 GW total electrical generation capacity
  • Cost competitive.
  • Interfacing with electrical grid critical.
  • Not without critics.

Solar Thermal for Heating and Domestic Hot Water
  • Seasonal (summer to winter) heating system in
  • Diurnal heating system in Denmark

Solar Thermal Power Plants
  • Solar heated steam for generating electricity.
  • Auxiliary heat from fossil fuel burning.
  • Electricity sold into southern California grid.
  • 0.35 GW capacity.
  • Cost competitive for peak electricity demand on
    hot sunny days.
  • Long trough collectors.

Other Solar Thermal Electric
  • Power Tower
  • Solar Dish

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Generation of Electricity
PV panels produce DC power (UW ME Bldg)
Inverters convert DC to AC power
AC Power is sent to electric grid
Solar PV continued
  • 1 GW installed worldwide
  • 20-30 annual growth rate
  • 20 efficiency at best for commercial PV
  • Limited by
  • Availability of PV-grade silicon
  • Manufacturing capacity
  • Cost
  • Convenient, low maintenance
  • If limitations are overcome, use could take off.

  • Can we grow significant amounts of fuel?
  • Which bio-fuels make environmental and economic
  • Ethanol
  • Ethanol made from crop straw and other cellulosic
    material could significantly improve the energy
  • Biodiesel
  • Vegi Oil plus Methanol make Biodiesel
  • About 100 gallons per acre. 700 million gallons
    diesel used per year in WA.
  • Bio-refineries fed oil formed by thermal
    decomposition of forest residues and wood wastes.
    Produce higher-value fuels and chemicals.

In-Steam Tidal Turbines
  • High current estuaries and rivers
  • UK significantly involved in RDD
  • 10-100 MW power plants appear feasible
  • Major EPRI study due out this spring on US
  • First US demo East River, NY

Wave Energy Machines
  • Several devices have been invented.
  • The device shown, 100-150 meters long, bends as
    it rides the waves, causing rods inside to move,
    driving electric generators.
  • UK RDD.
  • Wave-tidal test center north of Scotland.
  • OSU has established a wave energy research
  • EPRI study released last year.

  • Hope you enjoyed the presentation
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)