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2. The Canon of the Bible


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Title: 2. The Canon of the Bible

2. The Canon of the Bible
  • 2.2 The Canon of the First Testament
  • Sadducees, Qumran, Rabbinic, Greek Bible The
    Christian OT Canon

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • 1.1 Traditionally the Sadducees' canon was
    considered to be limited to the Torah since
    resurrection is not mentioned in the Pentateuch.

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • 1.2 "The idea that the Sadducees (like the
    Samaritans) acknowledged the Pentateuch only as
    holy scripture is based on a misunderstanding
    when Josephus, for example, says that the
    Sadducees admit no observance at all apart from
    the laws he means not the Pentateuch to the
    exclusion of the Prophets and the Writings but
    the written law (of the Pentateuch) to the
    exclusion of the oral law (the Pharisaic
    interpretation and application of the written
    law, which, like the written law itself, was held
    in theory to have been received and handed down
    by Moses). It would be understandable if the
    Sadducees did not accept Daniel which contains
    the most explicit statement of the resurrection
    hope in the whole of the Old Testament." Bruce,

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • 2. Josephus
  • 2.1 "The Sadducees teach that the soul dies along
    with the body, and they observe no tradition
    apart from the written laws. Whenever they
    assume office, however, they submit to the
    formulas of the Pharisees, because the masses
    would not tolerate them otherwise." Ant. 18.16
  • 2.2 "What I would now explain is this, that the
    Pharisees have delivered to the people a great
    many observances by succession fro their fathers,
    which are not written in the

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • law of Moses and for that reason it is that the
    Sadducees reject them and say that we are to
    esteem those observances to be obligatory which
    are in the written word, but are not to observe
    what are derived from the tradition of our
    forefathers." Ant. 13.297

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • 3. Not only the Torah
  • 3.1 "My guess is that Josephus implication that
    the Sadducees rejected anything that was not
    written in the laws of Moses (that is, from Ex.
    12 to the end of Deuteronomy) is an
    overstatement, and that in fact they rejected the
    Pharisaic traditions of the fathers, as well
    as, of course, the special Essene revelations.
    Put another way, they rejected non-biblical
    traditions of which they did not approve,
    especially those that characterized the other
    parties." E. J. Sanders, Judaism Practice
    Belief 63BCE-66BC, 334

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • 3.2 ". . . as the more or less parallel account
    of the Sadducees in Ant. 13.10.6, or 13.297,
    explicitly states, the contrast is not between
    the Laws of Moses and the other books of the
    canon but between the Laws of Moses and oral
    tradition. Josephus elsewhere states that "all
    Jews", presumably including the Sadducees, accept
    the 22 books of the canon (Against Apion 1.8 or
    1.39-43)." Beckwith, The Old Testament Canon . .
    . , 88

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • 3.3 "Based on this text alone, the Sadducees
    could have rejected the Prophets, the Writings,
    and the oral traditions of the Jews." McDonald,
    The Formation of the Christian Biblical Canon, 68

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • 3.4 "It seems . . . that for as long as the
    Temple stood there was no essential disagreement
    among the different Jewish schools about the
    public canon. And if that was so, the very
    rivalry between the schools must have been one of
    the main factors responsible. This rivalry,
    between Pharisees, Sadducees and Essences, had
    first become important about the time of the
    high-priesthood of Jonathan Maccabaeus (152-142
    BC), as a statement to that effect by Josephus
    (Ant. 13.5.9, or 13.171-3) and other evidence
    indicates. From then onwards it is likely, in
    view of the intensity of rivalry, that the canon
    remain unaltered until the suppression of the
    first Jewish revolt and the destruction of the
    Temple in AD 70,

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • as a result of which events the Essenes and
    Sadducees lost most of their influence, and the
    Temple Scriptures were dispersed. Any literature,
    consequently, which is referred to as canonical
    by Pharisaic or Essene writers, or both, during
    the period of just over two centuries preceding
    the destruction, was probably canonical
    throughout the period of all three schools and
    though, when the period had ended, it would have
    been possible for the Pharisees to have added
    further books to the canon, they would hardly
    have thought such action appropriate after the
    canon had remained unchanged for so long. Both
    their traditionalism and their continuing
    veneration for the Temple would have restrained
    them. Certainty, they are

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • not likely to have celebrated their triumph by
    making concessions to Essenism, and it follows
    that any book included in the later form of the
    Pharisaic canon, which is also reckoned canonical
    by Essene writers of the Temple period, is a
    probable part of the common heritage of both
    schools, dating back to the time before their
    longstanding rivalry began." Beckwith, The Old
    Testament Canon . . . , 90-91

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.1 Introduction
  • "The so-called Dead Sea Scrolls, discovered
    between 1947 and 1961 (with perhaps others yet to
    come in), include the scrolls and tens of
    thousands of fragments of scrolls found in the
    eleven caves just N of the Wadi Qumran at the NW
    end of the Dead Sea, as well as others found in
    Judean desert caves (??????????, ??????,
    ????????, ???????) containing literature dating
    between the two Jewish Revolts (70 to 135 CE), in
    the Palace/Fortress at Masada (68-73), and in
    caves in the Wadi ed-Daliyeh SE of Nablus."
    Sanders, "Canon," ABD

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • ". . . manuscripts, albeit fragmentary and
    incomplete, of the books of the Pentateuch, the
    Prophets, especially the Twelve, dating from the
    second century BC, which rule out categorically
    speculations about extremely late additions to
    prophetic works. Indeed it is probable that no
    canonical work postdates the Maccabean age. An
    exception, at least theoretically, may be made in
    the case of the Book of Esther, missing at
    Qumran. More likely, however, Esther was rejected
    by the sectaries, as suggested by H. L. Ginsberg,
    or is missing purely by chance. Ecclesiastes,
    sometimes dated in the second, or even in the
    first century BC, by older scholars, appears in
    one exemplar from Cave IV (4QQoha) which dates
    ca. 175-150

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • BC. Since the text of the manuscript reveals
    textual development, it is demonstrably not the
    autograph, and hence the date of composition must
    be pushed back into the third century or earlier.
    A second-century BC copy of the canonical Psalter
    (4QPsaa), though fragmentary, indicates that the
    collection of canonical psalms was fixed by
    Maccabean times, bearing out the current tendency
    to date the latest canonical psalms in the
    Persian period." F. M. Cross, The Ancient
    Library of Qumran, 121-22

Hebrew Bible Manuscripts
Hebrew Scrolls According to Caves
2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.2 Biblical Scrolls
  • Some scrolls contain more than one book.
  • 7 copies of Greek biblical scrolls.
  • ". . . the total for the biblical manuscripts is
    202 copies, or about one-quarter of the eight
    hundred manuscripts found at Qumran." VanderKam,
  • 19 other manuscripts found at other Judean desert

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.2 Other Biblical Manuscripts
  • Targums Lev (4Q156) Job (4Q157), (11Q)
  • Tefillin 4Q128-48, 1 - 1Q 3 5Q 1 8Q 4
    more from ?
  • Mezuzot 7 4Q149-55 1 Q8

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.3 Other Manuscripts
  • Tobit 4Aram, 1Heb (4Q196-200)
  • Sirach 2Q18 but 11QPsa had Sirach 51.
  • Letter of Jermiah Baruch 6 (7Q2)
  • 1 Enoch Aram (4Q) 7- the Book of the Watcher
    (chps. 1-36), Book of Dreams (83-90), Epistle of
    Enoch (91-107) 3 Astronomical Book (chps.
    72-82). None contained the Similitudes of Enoch
    (chps. 37-71)

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.3 Other Manuscripts
  • Jubilees 2 1Q 2 2Q 1 Q3 9/10 4Q 1
    11Q. (15/16 total)
  • Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs Testament
    of Naphtali (4Q215) Testament of Judah (3Q7
    4Q484, 538) Testament of Joseph (4Q539),
    Testament of Levi (4Q213-14 1Q21)
  • The Genesis Apocryphon

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.3 Other Manuscripts
  • Noah Text 1Q19 4Q246(?), 534.
  • Jacob Text 4Q537
  • Joseph Text 4Q371-73
  • Qahat Text 4Q542
  • Amram Texts 4Q543-48
  • Moses Texts 1Q22, 29 2Q21 4Q374-75, 376 (?),
    377, 388a, 389, 390
  • Joshua Text 4Q378-79
  • Samuel Text 4Q160 6Q9

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.3 Other Manuscripts
  • David Text 2Q22
  • Jeremiah Texts 4Q383-84(?)
  • Ezekiel Texts 4Q384(?)-90, 391
  • Daniel Texts 4Q242 Prayer of Nabonidus, 243-45,

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.4 Commentaries
  • Habakkuk Commentary (1QpHab)
  • Nahum Commentary (4Q169)
  • Psalm 37 Commentary (4Q171, 173)
  • Florilegium (4Q174) 2 Sam 7 Psa 1, 2
  • Testimonia (4Q175) Deut 5.28-29 18.18-19 Num
    24.15-17 Deut 33.8-11 Josh 6.26
  • Melchizedek Text (11QMelch)
  • Genesis Commentary (4Q252)

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.5 Legal Texts
  • The Damascus Document Cairo Genizah A B
    4Q266-73 5Q12 6Q15.
  • Manual of Discipline 1Q 4Q255-64 5Q11, ?5Q13
    combination of DDMD 4Q265.
  • Temple Scroll (11QTemple)
  • Works of the Torah (4QMMT) 4Q394-99

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.6 Writings for Worship
  • The Cycle of Worship "The first Psalms scroll
    from Cave 11 says that King David composed '52
    songs for the Sabbath offerings". Thus, he wrote
    one for each sabbath in a solar year. Another
    document, which has been called "The Angelic
    Liturgy" or Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice"
    (4QShirShabb), presents thirteen such poems,
    enough to cover one-fourth a year." (8 copies in
    Cave 4, 1 in Cave 11 and 1 at Masada) VanderKam,

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.7 Writings for Worship
  • The Cycle of Worship Calendar Texts (4Q317-30)
  • Poetic Compositions
  • Thanksgiving Hymns (1Q, 4Q427-33) These are 25
    individual psalms of thanksgiving.
  • Other Poems Psalms of Joshua (4Q378-79),
    Apocryphal Psalms (4Q380-81), liturgical works
    (4Q392-93), "my soul, bless (4Q434-38), prayer
    and poetic texts (4Q286-93, 439-56), other
    similar compositions (11Q11, 14-16)

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.8 Eschatological Works
  • (I Enoch Apocalypse of Weeks chps. 91, 93,
    Animal Apocalypse chps. 83-90, Jubilees chps.
    23, Daniel, etc.)
  • The War Rule (1QM, 4Q491-96)
  • Texts about the New Jerusalem "Caves 1, 2, 4,
    5, and 11 have yielded seven copies of a
    composition that describes the New Jerusalem in
    the future.

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.9 Wisdom Texts
  • 4Q184 The adulteress woman
  • 4Q185 become wise and remember the miracles of
  • Other texts that have been categorized as wisdom
    4Q408, 410-13, 415-22, 423-26, 472-76, 525, and
  • 2.6 The Copper Scroll (3Q15)
  • 2.7 Documentary Texts

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.2 Qumran Canon
  • 2.2.1 Threefold Division "And also we have
    written to you that you may have understanding
    in the book of Moses and in the words of the
    prophets, and in David" (4QMMT, C9-10)
  • 2.2.2 Criteria for canon quoted as
    authoritative, worthy of pesher.
  • 2.2.3 The Manual of Discipline (1QS), the
    Damascus Document (CD), the War Rule (1QM), the
    Florilegium (4QFlor), the Testimonia (4QTestim),
    and the Melchizedek text (11QMelch)

Cited as Authoritative Law
Cited as Authoritative Former Prophets
Cited as Authoritative Later Prophets
Cited as Authoritative Later Prophets
Cited as Authoritative Writings
Cited as Authoritative Writings
2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.2 Qumran Canon
  • 2.2.4 Summary of Citations
  • "All the books of the Law serve as proof texts,
    Isaiah does more than any other book, and other
    prophetic books serve in similar capacity (Ezek,
    Hos, Amos, Mic, Zech, and Mal). The historical
    books are rarely used in such contexts, while the
    shorter prophetic books and most of the Writings
    (other than Psa and Dan, with Prov) do not
    function as sources of proof texts. Surprisingly,
    Jer is not cited as an authority . . . ."
    VanderKam, 152

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.2 Qumran Canon
  • 2.2.5 Commentaries
  • Isaiah (6), Psalms (3), Hosea (2), Micah (2),
    Zephaniah (2), Nahum (1), and Habakkuk (1).
  • 2.2.6 Other Authoritative Books
  • Jubilees (15/16 copies from 5 different caves),
    cited as authoritative in CD and 4Q228
  • ". . . The book is represented on more copies
    than all but five biblical books at Qumran it
    presents itself as divine revelation and
    reference is made to it as an authority in
    perhaps three passages in Qumran literature. In
    addition, several other texts have been called
    "Pseudo-Jubilees" because.

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • they employ Jubilees-like language or concepts
    (4Q225-27). Jubilees, then, has all the traits
    that make a book as authoritative at Qumran
    except the quality of having a commentary based
    on it. Subsequently, the book became canonical
    for some Christian groups, including the
    Abyssinian Church in Ethiopia. The high esteem it
    enjoyed in Ethiopia insured its preservation
    after the original Hebrew and the Greek
    translation based on it had disappeared. One
    complicating fact in the discussion of the status
    of Jubilees at Qumran is that a newly published
    text, 4Q252, shows that Jubilees' chronology of
    the flood was not accepted in all the pertinent
    documents at Qumran. Moreover, some calendrical
    texts set forth the schematic lunar

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • calendar that Jubilees condemns. Consequently,
    while most indicators demonstrate that Jubilees
    was a highly regarded source, not everyone at
    Qumran agreed with all the details in it."
    VanderKam, 154-55

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.2.6 Other Authoritative Books
  • 1 Enoch ". . . If one considers all of these as
    part of one large composition, the number of
    copies is twenty a very high total for any work
    at Qumran. . . . also makes revelatory claims
    for itself throughout. . . ." VanderKam, 155
  • "Qumran literature does not seem to name . . . 1
    Enoch as an inspired or revealed source, unless
    one view Jub 4.17-24 in this capacity. . . . 1
    Enoch's use of the schematic solar and lunar
    calendars served as a model in the calendrical
    texts from Qumran. 1 Enoch became a canonical
    book for a number of early Christians, including
    the writer of the New Testament Epistle of Jude .
    . . ." VanderKam, 155-56

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.2.6 Other Authoritative Books
  • Temple Scroll "It is attested in fewer copies
    than either Jubilees or the various parts of 1
    Enoch two copies from Cave 11 . . . one fragment
    from Cave 4. Nevertheless, the text lays a
    powerful claim to its own inspiration its
    contents are cast as the direct speech of God to
    Moses on Mount Sinai." VanderKam, 156
  • "Yigael Yadin, . . . Has argued convincingly that
    the Temple Scroll was the Essence Torah and equal
    in importance with the traditional Torah, and
    thus was venerated as a holy book in the Essene
    community." McDonald, 72
  • N.B. the use of "I" or "Me" instead of the

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.3 Summaries
  • "The Qumran literature is the only example that
    we have of a Jewish library from the last
    centuries B.C. and the first century A.D. in
    which we can examine the evidence for a
    "canonical" consciousness. The texts prove that
    the books of the Law and Prophets were paid high
    honor there, as were Psalms and Daniel. They show
    little or no evidence that several of the books
    in the later category of the Writings were held
    in such regard. They also demonstrate that other
    books were authoritative Jubilees and parts of 1
    Enoch in particular but also the Temple Scroll
    and probably others such as commentaries. Thus,
    one gets the impression that the Qumranites

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • did not have a closed, precisely defined list of
    books that constituted a Bible or perhaps more
    precisely, we sense that the residents of Qumran
    included in their category of authoritative books
    several works that never became parts of the
    Hebrew Bible. The community certainly believed
    that revelation continued to be given in their
    time." VanderKam, 157
  • "In short, though the books constituting the
    inner core of the collection, viz., the Torah and
    the main prophets, were clearly considered
    authoritative works of Scripture, and their order
    was largely but not fully set, works nearer the
    periphery were still finding their place."
    Ulrich, "The Bible in the Making," 82

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • "We may confidently say, therefore, that the
    'canon' of the Qumran community included the
    Pentateuch, the Prophets, the Psalms (possibly
    with a few supplementary psalms). It also
    included the book of Daniel, who is called
    'Daniel the prophet' (as in Matt. 24 15), and
    probably Job (an Aramaic targum or paraphrase of
    Job was found in Cave 11 at Qumran). . . . But
    what of Tobit, Jubilees and Enoch,36 fragments of
    which were also found at Qumran? . . . . There is
    no evidence which would justify the answer 'Yes'
    on the other hand, we do not know enough to
    return the answer 'No'." Bruce, 39-40

3. Rabbinic Tradition, 90-500CE
  • 3.1 The Primacy of the Torah
  • "The Rabbinic view of the canon singled out the
    Torah for special recognition and authority . . .
    . according to the Talmud, the Torah scrolls
    alone could not be divided (for inheritance
    purposes), even though the rest of the holy books
    could be divided in their appropriate seams and
    under certain conditions. The scrolls of the
    Torah were kept in a separate place from the
    other scrolls of the scriptures and were first in
    the tevah where they were placed in bins and
    bound. By the fifth century they were kept
    separately in the prayer room in an ark behind a
    curtain, a parochet, which recalled the curtain
    in front of the Holy of Holies in the temple."
    McDonald, 75

3. Rabbinic Tradition, 90-500CE
  • 3.1 b. Baba Bathra 14.14b-15a
  • "Our Rabbis taught The order of the Prophets is,
    Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel,
    Isaiah, and the Twelve Minor Prophets. Let us
    examine this. Hosea came first, as it is written,
    God spake first to Hosea. But did God speak first
    to Hosea? Were there not many prophets between
    Moses and Hosea? R. Johanan, however, has
    explained that what It means is that he was the
    first of the four prophets who prophesied at that
    period, namely, Hosea, Isaiah, Amos and Micah.
    Should not then Hosea come first? Since his
    prophecy is written along with those of Haggai,
    Zechariah and Malachi, and Haggai, Zechariah and
    Malachi came at the end of the prophets, he is

3. Rabbinic Tradition, 90-500CE
  • 3.1 b. Baba Bathra 14.14b-15a
  • reckoned with them. But why should he not be
    written separately and placed first? Since his
    book is so small, it might be lost if copied
    separately. Let us see again. Isaiah was prior
    to Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Then why should not
    Isaiah be placed first? Because the Book of Kings
    ends with a record of destruction and Jeremiah
    speaks throughout of destruction and Ezekiel
    commences with destruction and ends with
    consolation and Isaiah is full of consolation
    therefore we put destruction next to destruction
    and consolation next to consolation. The order of
    the Hagiographa is Ruth, the Book of Psalms, Job,
    Prophets, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs,
    Lamentations, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther,

3. Rabbinic Tradition, 90-500CE
  • 3.1 b. Baba Bathra 14.14b-15a
  • and Chronicles. Now on the view that Job lived in
    the days of Moses, should not the book of Job
    come first? We do not begin with a record of
    suffering. But Ruth also is a record of
    suffering? It is a suffering with a sequel of
    happiness, as R. Johanan said Why was her name
    called Ruth? Because there issued from her David
    who replenished the Holy One, blessed be He, with
    hymns and praises."
  • "Who wrote the Scriptures? Moses wrote his own
    book and the portion of Balaam and Job. Joshua
    wrote the book which bears his name and the
    last eight verses of the Pentateuch. Samuel
    wrote the book which bears his name and the Book
    of Judges and Ruth. David wrote the Book of

3. Rabbinic Tradition, 90-500CE
  • 3.1 b. Baba Bathra 14.14b-15a
  • including in it the work of the elders, namely,
    Adam, Melchizedek, Abraham, Moses, Heman,
    Yeduthun, Asaph, and the three sons of Korah.
    Jeremiah wrote the book which bears his name, the
    Book of Kings, and Lamentations. Hezekiah and his
    colleagues wrote Isaiah, Proverbs, the Song of
    Songs and Ecclesiastes. The Men of the Great
    Assembly wrote Ezekiel, the Twelve Minor
    Prophets, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther. Ezra
    wrote the book that bears his name and the
    genealogies of the Book of Chronicles up to his
    own time. This confirms the opinion of Rab, since
    Rab Judah has said in the name of Rab Ezra did
    not leave Babylon to go up to Eretz Yisrael until
    he had written his own genealogy. Who then

3. Rabbinic Tradition, 90-500CE
  • 3.1 b. Baba Bathra 14.14b-15a
  • finished it the Book of Chronicles? Nehemiah
    the son of Hachaliah."
  • ". . . As a baraita, that is, a tradition from
    the tannaitic period, 70 CE 200 CE. Beckwith
    places it before Josephus and possibly from the
    time of Judas Maccabeus in 164 BCE, but Childs,
    more cautiously, says that it dates no later than
    200 CE." McDonald, 76
  • "For the most part the baraita sections of the
    Talmud originated in the Tannaitic period (I.e.
    pre-A.D. 200) but were not included in the
    collection of Tannaitic traditions, the Mishnah."
    E. E. Ellis, The Old Testament of the Early
    Church, 12

3. Rabbinic Tradition, 90-500CE
  • 3.1 b. Baba Bathra 14.14b-15a
  • "It is significant that the baraita is concerned
    not with the identity of the canonical books but
    with their order. That is, it suggests no
    controversy about the limits of the canon, but it
    may reflect a situation in which there were
    uncertainties or divergent traditions among the
    Jews about the sequence and divisions of the
    canon . . . ." Ellis, 12

3. Rabbinic Tradition, 90-500CE
  • 3.3 Mishnah Yadayim 5.3

3. Rabbinic Tradition, 90-500CE
  • 3.3 Mishnah Yadayim 5.3

3. Rabbinic Tradition, 90-500CE
  • 3.3 Mishnah Yadayim 5.3

3. Rabbinic Tradition, 90-500CE
  • 3.3 Mishnah Yadayim 5.3
  • "From the comments made about Song of Songs and
    Qoheleth . . . it is clear that some dispute and
    question did arise as to their sacred status."
    McDonald, 80
  • 3.4 Recognition of Sirach as "Scripture"
  • Qumran - Sir 6.20-31 (2Q18) Sir 51.13-19, 30
    (11QPsa) Masada Sir 39.27-32 40.10-44.17.
  • "Leiman contends that the book of Sirach was
    venerated among the Tannaim and the Amoraim, but
    it did not receive a canonical status from them.
    When sectarian groups of Jews (Christians?)
    included Sirach in their biblical canons, Rabbi
    Aqiba banned the book from being

3. Rabbinic Tradition, 90-500CE
  • 3.4 Recognition of Sirach as "Scripture"
  • as scripture, which suggests either that Aqiba
    gave only his own private opinion on the status
    of the book or that the portions of Sirach quoted
    as scripture came, not from the book of Sirach,
    but from quotations that were cited from memory
    in the rabbinic traditions formulated before the
    Aqiba ban. Leiman acknowledges that the book was
    also cited as scripture by Simeon b. Shetah from
    the first century BCE." McDonald, 81-82
  • 3.5 The Mishnah Its Use of Scripture
  • Only one tractate of the Mishnah, Aboth, out of
    the 62 tractates has any references to scripture.
    (Tannaim Period 70-200CE)

3. Rabbinic Tradition, 90-500CE
  • 3.5 The Mishnah Its Use of Scripture
  • N.B. the contrast with the NT and its use of
    quotes of the OT.
  • 3.6 Outside Books (R. Aqiba, 130s CE)
  • But the following have no share in the world to
    come he who maintains that the resurrection is
    not intimated in the Torah, or that the Torah was
    not divinely revealed, and an Epicurean. R. Akiba
    (110-135) adds one who reads the outside books,
    and one who whispers a charm over a wound and
    recites I will not bring upon you any of the
    diseases that I brought upon the Egyptians, for I
    the Lord am your healer (Exod 15.26) . . . . m.
    Sanh. 10.1)

3. Rabbinic Tradition, 90-500CE
  • 3.7 Cairo Geniza (882 CE 1890)
  • "Among what was found were copies of the
    Apocrypha, the Pseudepigrapha, and versions of
    the Bible in Aramaic, Hebrew, and Arabic. There
    are also a number of boxes of the Talmud
    (Yerushalmi). The total number of fragments found
    in Cairo are estimated to be over 200,000.
    Fragments of the Damascus Document, which was
    also found at Qumran, a Hebrew text of Sirach,
    and Aquila's Greek translation of the Bible were
    discovered." McDonald, 84
  • Geniza "withdrawn"

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.1 Name
  • "The name of the Septuagint derives from the
    legend that 72 (70) elders translated the
    Pentateuch into Greek. In the second century C.E.
    this tradition was extended to all the
    translated books of the Bible, and finally the
    name 'Septuaginta' referred to all the books
    contained in the canon of the Greek Bible,
    including books that are not translations of an
    original Semitic text." Tov, The Septuagint,
  • "Ancient sources mention 72,70 or 5 translators
    of the Pentateuch. The main tradition-which is
    found in rabbinic, Jewish-Hellenistic and
    Christian sources - mentions 72 or 70 elders,
    and only a few sources (e.g. Avot de-Rabbi Natan
    B 37, 94f.) mention 5

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.1 Name
  • translators. The numbers 70 and 72 are probably
    legendary and the precise relationship between
    them is unclear. Possibly the original tradition
    referred to 72 translators (6 elders from each
    tribe as mentioned in the Epistle of Aristeas)
    and this number was then rounded off to 70."
    Tov, 161
  • "Greek. In order to distinguish between the two
    usages of the word, the collection of
    Jewish-Greek Scripture is generally called the
    'Septuagint', while the first translation of the
    Bible is often named 'the Old Greek
    (translation)'." Tov, 161
  • "The canon of the Septuagint contains three types
    of books a) A Greek translation of the 24

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.1 Name
  • books of the Hebrew Bib1e.b) A Greek translation
    of books not included in the Hebrew canon. c)
    Books written in Greek as the Wisdom of Solomon
    and the Additions to Daniel and Esther. The
    latter two groups together form the so-called
    Apocrypha." Tov, 162

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.2 Date Origin
  • "The Greek translation of the scriptures was made
    available from time to time in the third and
    second centuries BC (say during the century
    250-150 BC). The law, comprising the five books
    of Moses, was the first part of the scriptures to
    appear in a Greek version the reading of the law
    was essential to synagogue worship, and it was
    important that what was read should be
    intelligible to the congregation. At first,
    perhaps, the law was read in Hebrew, as it was
    back home in Palestine, and someone was appointed
    to give an oral translation in Greek. But as time
    went on a written Greek version was provided, so
    that it could be read directly." Bruce, 43-44

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.2 Date Origin
  • "A major undertaking to translate the law of
    Moses took place in Alexandria, Egypt, sometime
    during the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (ca.
    285-246 BCE). According to the Letter of Aristeas
    (ca. 130-170 BCE), a legendary account of the
    event, King Ptolemy II wanted to have a copy of
    the law of Moses for his library and took
    remarkable steps to insure the integrity of the
    translation itself. Although no one today takes
    seriously everything in this composition and
    anachronistic account, it is probably fair to say
    that the translation of the Greek scriptures
    began during the Egyptian reign of Ptolemy II
    over Palestine, when relations were very positive
    between Alexandria

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.2 Date Origin
  • and Jerusalem and good Hebrew manuscripts and
    capable Jewish scholarship to help with the
    project were easily obtainable." McDonald, 85-86

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.2 Date Origin
  • "Only a few data are known concerning the time of
    composition of the translations contained in the
    canon of the 'LXX'. According to the Epistle of
    Aristeas the Pentateuch was translated in the
    third century B.C.E. this seems plausible in the
    light of the early date of some papyri of the
    Pentateuch (middle or end second century B.C.E.).
    The books of the Prophets and Hagiographa were
    translated after the Pentateuch, since in them
    extensive use is made of its vocabulary and it is
    often quoted. As for the terminus ad quem, since
    the grandson of Ben Sira knew the translation of
    the books of the Prophets and part of the
    Hagiographa (132 or 116 B.C.E., according to

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.2 Date Origin
  • computations), these translations were probably
    finished before the first century B.C.E. Most of
    the books may have been translated at an early
    stage (beginning second century B.C.E. or
    earlier)." Tov, 162
  • "One may note that the following books are quoted
    in early sources Chronicles is quoted by
    Eupolemus (middle second century B.C.E.) and Job
    by Pseudo-Aristeas (beginning first century
    B.C.E.). Additionally, Isaiah contains allusions
    to historical occurrences which indicate that it
    was translated in the middle of the second
    century B.C.E." Tov, 162

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.3 Position within Judaism Christianity
  • Letter of Aristeas "When the work was completed,
    Demetrius collected together the Jewish
    population in the place where the translation had
    been made, and read it over to all, in the
    presence of the translators, who met with a great
    reception also from the people, because of the
    great benefits which they had conferred upon
    them. They bestowed warm praise upon Demetrius
    too, and urged him to have the whole law
    transcribed and present a copy to their leaders.
    After the books had been read, the priests and
    the elders of the translators and the Jewish
    community and the leaders of the people stood up
    and said, that since so excellent and sacred and
    accurate a translation had

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.3 Position within Judaism Christianity
  • been made, it was only right that it should
    remain as it was, and no alteration should be
    made in it. And when the whole company expressed
    their approval, they bade the pronounce a curse
    in accordance with their custom upon anyone who
    should make any alteration either by adding
    anything or changing in any way whatever any of
    the words which had been written or making any
    omission. This was a very wise precaution to
    ensure that the book might be preserved for all
    the future time unchanged." APOT, 2.83-84

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.3 Position within Judaism Christianity
  • "Originally the LXX was a Jewish translation, and
    hence was quoted by Jewish historians (Demetrius,
    Eupolemus, Artapanus, Josephus), poets (Ezekiel)
    and philosophers (Philo). Especially the
    Pentateuch was also used in the synagogue
    service. However, at the end of the first century
    C.E. many Jews ceased to use the LXX because the
    early Christians had adopted it as their own
    translation, and by then it was considered a
    Christian translation. This explains the negative
    attitude of many Rabbis towards the LXX, which is
    reflected inter alia in Massekhet Soferim 17 "It
    happened that five elders translated the
    Pentateuch into Greek for King Ptolemy. That day
    was as hard for

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.3 Position within Judaism Christianity
  • Israel as the day the calf was made, because the
    Pentateuch could not be translated properly."
    Tov, 163
  • ". . . within Judaism the LXX was never esteemed
    as much as in Christianity, because the Jews
    possessed an inspired Hebrew Bible, while to most
    of the Christians the LXX was the only sacred
    source of the OT and to some of them it was their
    main source. At an early stage the belief
    developed that this translation was divinely
    inspired and hence the way was open for several
    Church Fathers to claim that the LXX reflected
    the words of God more precisely than the Hebrew
    Bible." Tov, 163

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.4 A Broader Canon
  • The Alexandrian Canon Debate
  • "The biggest problem with the theory of the
    Alexandrian canon is that there are no lists or
    collections one can look to in order to see what
    books comprise it. . . . Long ago E. Reuss
    concluded that we know nothing about the LXX
    before the time when the church made extensive
    use of it." McDonald, 91
  • "Another problem . . . It has not been shown
    conclusively that the Alexandrian Jews or the
    other Jews of the Dispersion were any more likely
    to adopt other writings as sacred scripture than
    were the Jews of Palestine in the two centuries
    BCE and

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.4 A Broader Canon
  • The Alexandrian Canon Debate
  • the first century CE. Further, there is no
    evidence as yet that shows the existence of a
    different canon of scriptures in Alexandria than
    in Palestine from the second century to BCE to
    the second century CE." McDonald, 91
  • "The reason for thinking that they did, and that
    it was a more comprehensive canon that that
    acknowledged in Palestine, is that Greek-speaking
    Christians, who naturally took over the Greek Old
    Testament which was already in existence, took
    over the Greek version of a number of other books
    and gave some measure of scriptural status to
    them also." Bruce, 43

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.4 A Broader Canon
  • Additions Additions to Daniel (Song of the Three
    Children, Susanna, and Bel and the Dragon)
    Additions to Esther Additions to Ezra (I.e., the
    material added in 1 Esdras) Additions to
    Jeremiah (the Epistle and Baruch) Tobit Judith
    Sirach Wisdom.

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.4 Septuagint Order
  • "The order of books in copies of the Septuagint
    which have come down to us differs from the
    traditional order of the Hebrew Bible, and lies
    behind the conventional order of the Christian
    Old Testament. The law, comprising the five books
    of Moses, comes first in both traditions it is
    followed by the historical books, poetical and
    wisdom books, and the books of the prophets. As
    with the Hebrew Bible, so with the Septuagint,
    the order of books is more fluid when they are
    copied on separate scrolls than when they are
    bound together in codices. But there is no reason
    to think that the Christian scribes who first
    copied the Septuagint into codices devised a new
    sequence for its contents is more likely that
    they took over the

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.4 Septuagint Order
  • sequence along with the text itself. It has been
    held indeed that the Septuagint order represents
    an early Palestinian order of the books in the
    Hebrew Bible, contemporary with, and possibly
    even antedating, the Hebrew order which became
    traditional." Bruce, 47
  • "After the Pentateuch, the second division of the
    Septuagint corresponds largely with the Former
    Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, but Ruth is
    inserted (in keeping with its dramatic date)
    between Judges and 1 Samuel, and the books of
    Samuel and Kings (called in the Septuagint the
    four books of Kingdoms or Reigns) are followed by
    the books of Chronicles (called Paraleipomena,
    'things left over'), 1 Esdras (a variant Greek
    edition of the history from 2 Chron. 35l to Neh.

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.4 Septuagint Order
  • 813), 2 Esdras (our Ezra-Nehemiah), Esther,
    Judith and Tobit. Judith and Tobit are not
    included in the Hebrew Bible Esther in the
    Septuagint is a considerably expanded edition of
    the Hebrew Esther. The third division contains
    the poetical and wisdom books Psalms, Proverbs,
    Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Job, Wisdom and
    Ecclesiasticus (the book of Jeshua ben Sira). Of
    these, Wisdom (originally written in Greek) and
    Ecclesiasticus (originally written in Hebrew) are
    not found in the Hebrew Bible. An additional
    psalm (Ps. 151, known in Hebrew at Qumran) is
    appended to the Psalter. As for the fourth
    division (the prophetical books), the twelve
    minor prophets precede the others in the early

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.4 Septuagint Order
  • manuscripts (notably the Sinaitic, Vatican and
    Alexandrine codices). Jeremiah is followed not
    only by Lamentations but also by the book of
    Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah,neither of
    which is in the Hebrew Bible. Daniel is amplified
    by two stories not in the Hebrew text- the
    History of Susanna, which is put at the
    beginning, and the story of Bel and the Dragon,
    which is added at the end- while a prayer of
    confession and a canticle of praise to God
    Benedicite omnia opera) are put in the mouths of
    Daniels three friends in the fiery furnace, so
    that 68 verses are inserted between verses 23 and
    24 of chapter 3. The books of Maccabees- two,
    three or four in number - form a sort of appendix
    to the Septuagint they do not belong to any of
    its main divisions." Bruce, 47-48

4. The Greek Bible
  • 4.4 Septuagint Order
  • Pentateuch Gen, Exod, Lev, Num, Deut.
  • Historical Books Josh, Judg, Ruth, 1-4 Kings, 1
    Esdras, 2 Esdras, Esther, Judith, Tobit.
  • Poetic Wisdom Pss, Prov, Ecc, Song of Sol,
    Job, Wisdom, Ecclus.
  • Prophetic The Twelve, Isa, Jer (Baruch, Lam,
    Ep. Jer), Ezek, Dan (Sus, Bel and Dragon).
  • Maccabees 1-4

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 1. "Early Christian writings reveal no trace of
    friction with other Jewish groups about which
    books carried divine authority. This remains the
    case in the second century even in Justin's
    Dialogue with Trypho the Jew, where any such
    divergence might be expected to surface."
  • 2. "When the later Diaspora, now mainly gentile,
    church was uncertain about the precise extent of
    the Old Testament books, it sought an answer from
    Jewish or Jewish-Christian communities in
  • 3. "In what has been termed 'the crisis of the
    Old Testament canon,' the second-century church
    raised questions, in fact, not about the
    authority of the Old Testament but about its
    interpretation and

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 4. "the heretic Marcion, who rejected the Old
    Testament, represented an aberration in Christian
    practice that was uncharacteristic even of the
    heretical movements."
  • 5. "Admittedly, parts of the church later gave
    canonical status to certain Jewish apocryphal
    books. But this appears to have been the
    outgrowth of a popular and unreflective use of
    these writings, a case of custom triumphing over
    judgement." Ellis, 6-7

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.2 Eastern Church Fathers
  • 1. Justin Martyr
  • "The story of the origin of the Septuagint, as
    told in the Letter of Avisteas, is summarized by
    Justin Martyr (c AD 16O), who evidently regards
    the Septuagint version as the only reliable text
    of the Old Testament. Where it differs from the
    Hebrew text, as read and interpreted by the Jews,
    the Jews (he says) have corrupted the text so as
    to obscure the scriptures' plain prophetic
    testimony to Jesus as the Christ. He tells how
    the compositions of the prophets were read in the
    weekly meetings of Christians along with the
    memoirs of the apostles the memoirs of the
    apostles indicated the lines along which the
    prophets words were to be understood." Bruce,

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.2 Eastern Church Fathers
  • 2. Melito of Sardis (ca 170)
  • "These are their names five books of Moses,
    Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus, Deuteronomy,
    Joshua the son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, four books
    of Kingdom, two books of Chronicles, the Psalms
    of David, the Proverbs of Solomon and his Wisdom,
    Ecclesiastes, the Songs of Songs, Job, the
    prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, the Twelve in a single
    book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras."
  • ". . . Lamentations under Jeremiah and identifies
    Ezra-Nehemiah as Esdras Solomon's Wisdom is in
    all likelihood an alternative designation for
    Proverbs. If so, this list conforms to the
    present Old Testament with the exception of
    Esther, which was apparently omitted, either by
    accident or by design." Ellis, 11

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.2 Eastern Church Fathers
  • 3. Origen (ca 185-254)
  • "Origen's chief contribution to Old Testament
    studies was the compilation called the Hexapla.
    This was an edition of the Old Testament which
    exhibited side by side in six vertical columns
    (1) the Hebrew text, (2) the Hebrew text
    transcribed into Greek letters, (3) Aquilas
    Greek version, (4) Symmachuss Greek version, (5)
    the Septuagint, (6) Theodotions Greek version.
    For certain books two and even three other Greek
    versions were added in further columns. Origen
    paid special attention to the Septuagint column
    his aim was to present as accurate an edition of
    this version as was possible." Bruce, 73

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.2 Eastern Church Fathers
  • 3. Origen (ca 185-254)
  • "He proceeds to give the titles in Greek,
    followed by a transliteration of the Hebrew
    names 'Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers,
    Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges-Ruth, Kingdoms (1,
    2), Kingdoms (3, 4), Chronicles (1, 2), Esdras
    (1, 2), Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of
    Songs, Isaiah, Jeremiah-Lamentations-Letter,
    Daniel, Ezekiel, Job, Esther.' In conclusion
    Origen states, 'And outside of these are the
    Maccabees, which are entitled Sarbethsabaniel"
    Ellis, 13

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.2 Eastern Church Fathers
  • 3. Origen (ca 185-254) vs. Julius Africanus
  • "Origen was aware of and reported the biblical
    canon of the Jews, but he did not reject the use
    of deuterocanonical literature for himself or in
    the churches, nor did he limit the OT scriptures
    to that twenty-two-book list. . . . Origen . . .
    Argues that there were many things in the Greek
    Bible that were not in the Hebrew scriptures, but
    that the church could not be expected to give
    them all up! . . . . Origen argued that the
    churches should use Tobit and Judith even though
    the Jews did not. . . . He encouraged the reading
    of some of the apocryphal books, including the
    Maccabees, and he included within his canon of OT
    scriptures the Letter or Epistle of Jeremiah . .
    . ." McDonald, 110

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.2 Eastern Church Fathers
  • 4. Canon of Laodicea (AD 363)
  • "Canon 59 lays it down that no psalms composed
    by private individuals or any uncanonical
    (akanonista) books may be read in church, but
    only the canonical books (kanonika) of the New
    and Old Testament.' Canon 60 (the last of the
    series) then enumerates those canonical books.
    But the genuineness of Canon 60 is open to doubt
    it is probably indebted to the canon of
    Athanasius and other lists. It follows Athanasius
    closely, except that Ruth is attached to Judges .
    . . and Esther follows immediately . . . ."
    Bruce, 80

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.2 Eastern Church Fathers
  • 5. Cyril of Jerusalem (ca 350)
  • "Cyril of Jerusalem, like Athanasius, has a
    twenty-two-book canon in which he refers to the
    LXX scriptures ("which were translated by the
    seventy-two interpreters") and he combines with
    Jeremiah both Baruch and the Epistle of
    Jeremiah." McDonald, 111
  • 6. Gregory of Nazianzus (ca. 370)
  • "Gregory of Nazianzus made a list of canonical
    books that conformed to the twenty-two-letter
    Hebrew alphabet. He omitted Esther and divided
    Judges and Ruth in order to keep the same number
    of books." McDonald, 111

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.2 Eastern Church Fathers
  • 7. Epiphanius (ca 320-400)
  • ". . . Bishop of Salamis . . . twenty-two-book
    list of canonical writings . . . . His list
    parallels the current Protestant OT canon, which
    also depended on the twenty-two Hebrew alphabet.
    . . . Although he excluded them, he clearly
    favored Wisdom and Sirach, which he said are
    "helpful and useful but are not included in the
    number of the recognized." McDonald, 112

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.2 Eastern Church Fathers
  • 8. Theodore of Mopsuesta (392-428)
  • "Some of his views on the canonicity of Old
    Testament books were regarded as dangerously
    radical. In his commentary on Job he denies the
    'higher inspiration' of Proverbs and
    Ecclesiastes. Of the Song of Songs he had no
    great opinion at all." Bruce, 81

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.2 Eastern Church Fathers
  • 9. Conclusion
  • ". . . Among the fourth-century writers of Asia
    Minor, Palestine and Egypt the scholarly
    judgement of the Eastern church is intelligible
    and relatively consistent, and it rests upon
    appeal to ancient Christian tradition. It is
    divided only on the sequence and numbering of the
    books and on the inclusion of Esther, which were
    points at issue already in Judaism. It departs
    from the rabbinic determinations only with
    respect to the Septuagint additions to Jeremiah
    and (apparently) to other books, seemingly
    content to follow the conviction of earlier
    Christian scholars . . . that the masoretic

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.2 Eastern Church Fathers
  • 9. Conclusion
  • rather than the Septuagint text was defective. At
    the same time these writers were quite prepared
    to recognize certain extra-canonical works as a
    second rank of holy books, to cite them
    authoritatively and to include them in the same
    volume with canonical scripture. In this matter
    also they followed ancient practice. However,
    while they were able to differentiate the two
    kinds of holy books, the popular mind
    increasingly mixed and confused them." Ellis,

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.3 Western Church Fathers
  • 1. Introduction
  • "The church in the West produced no list of Old
    Testament canonical books before the fourth
    century. . . ." Ellis, 24
  • "Until Jerome produced a new translation of the
    Old Testament from the Hebrew text at the end of
    the fourth century, the Latin Old Testament was a
    rendering of the Septuagint, including the
    'Septuagintal plus'. There was little if anything
    to indicate to readers of the Old Latin version
    that the 'Septuagintal plus' stood on a different
    footing from the rest of the Old Testament."
    Bruce, 83-84

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.3 Western Church Fathers
  • 2. Tertullian
  • "His Old Testament was evidently co-extensive
    with the Septuagint (including the Septuagint
    plus) indeed, in one place he implies that it
    might justifiably be extended beyond the limits
    of the Septuagint." Bruce, 84
  • "The Apocalypse of Ezra (4 Ezra) was never
    included in the Septuagint for this reason its
    Greek text has not survived). But Tertullian
    knows and accepts its account of Ezras restoring
    the sacred scriptures of Israel which had been
    destroyed at the time of the Babylonian conquest.
    Another work which found no place in the
    Septuagint was the composite apocalyptic work
    called 1 Enoch. . . . Tertullian approved of it
    and would have been willing to see it included in
    the ancient instrumentum." Bruce, 85

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.3 Western Church Fathers
  • 3. Hilary of Poitiers (ca 315-367)
  • "Hilary of Poitiers appears to follow Origen's
    example, but adds two extra books to his canon,
    namely Tobit and Judith, in order to make a
    twenty-four-book biblical canon, which he
    believed followed the Hebrew alphabet. He joins
    Cyprian and Ambrose in combining the Epistle of
    Jeremiah with Jeremiah and Lamentations and
    citing them as having been written by Jeremiah."
    McDonald, 112-113

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.3 Western Church Fathers
  • 4. Jerome (342-420)
  • Vulgate "Jerome began his great work of
    biblical translation with a Latin rendering from
    the Septuagint but became convinced, largely by
    the use of Origen's Hexapla and his own knowledge
    of Hebrew, that the extant Greek version, no less
    than the Latin, suffered from many inaccuracies.
    Like Cyril, he still viewed the original work of
    the Septuagint as inspired but decided soon after
    his return to the East to start afresh with a
    translation directly from the Hebrew text, whose
    reliability he apparently did not question."
    Ellis, 30

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.3 Western Church Fathers
  • 4. Jerome (342-420)
  • Prologue to Samuel Kings (A. D. 390) "This
    prologue to the Scriptures may serve as a kind of
    helmeted preface for all the books that we have
    rendered from Hebrew into Latin in order that we
    all may know that whatever is outside these is
    to be set apart among the apocrypha. Accordingly,
    the book of Wisdom, commonly ascribed to
    Solomon, and the book of Jesus son of Sirach and
    Judith and Tobit and the Shepherd are not in the
  • Prologue to 'the Three books of Solomon"As the
    church reads the books of Tobit and Judith and
    the Maccabees but does not receive the among the

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.3 Western Church Fathers
  • 4. Jerome (342-420)
  • canonical scriptures, so also it reads these two
    volumes of Ben Sira and Wisdom for the
    edification of the people but not as authority
    for the confirmation of doctrine."
  • "In this prologue to Jeremiah Jerome points out
    that he has not included the book of Baruch in
    his version of the major prophet because it is
    neither read nor recognized among the Hebrews . .
    . . In the prologue to his version of Daniel he
    points out that the current Greek form of that
    book is not the original work of the Seventy but
    Theodotions version- I do not know why, he
    adds (but if he had

5. Determination of the Canon
  • 5.3 Western Church Fathers
  • 4. Jerome (342-420)
  • compared it with the Hebrew and Aramaic text he
    would have discovered why). Among the Hebrews,
    he says, the book of Daniel contains neither the
    history of Susanna nor the hymn of the three
    young men nor the fables of Bel and the dragon,
    but he has appended them to his translation of
    the book, he adds, lest among the uninstructed
    we should seem to have lopped off a considerable
    part of the volume." Bruce, 92
  • "It is with Jerome that the question of the canon
    comes sharply i
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