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Title: Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias


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Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Dictionary
  • Technically a Bible dictionary is an alphabetical
    arrangement of the words found in the Bible with
    definitions or explanations attached.
  • By definition it should be limited to biblical
    terms only.
  • Are many terms not strictly biblical, but closely
    relatedcanon, millennialism, typology, versions,
    etc.

3
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Dictionary
  • Technically a Bible dictionary is an alphabetical
    arrangement of the words found in the Bible with
    definitions or explanations attached.
  • By definition it should be limited to biblical
    terms only.
  • Are many terms not strictly biblical, but closely
    relatedcanon, millennialism, typology, versions,
    etc.

4
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Dictionary
  • Technically a Bible dictionary is an alphabetical
    arrangement of the words found in the Bible with
    definitions or explanations attached.
  • Such topics may be covered in an appendix or
    additional volume.
  • By including such topics in spite of the
    definition.
  • By calling the work an encyclopedia.

5
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Encyclopedia (instruction in a circle)
  • A series of articles embracing the whole range of
    a discipline, usually in alphabetical order.
  • Religious encyclopedias deal mainly with
    theological terms, ecclesiastical and exegetical
    history, the history of religion, patristics,
    biography and other general themes with little
    reference to purely biblical details.

6
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Encyclopedia (instruction in a circle)
  • Bible encyclopedias by definition treat biblical
    material and topics directly related to the Bible
    completely and thoroughly.

7
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • How do I decide which to consult?
  • For quick reference or basic information (e.g., I
    am working on another topic, but encounter a term
    I am not that familiar with and need quick
    information) go to a Bible dictionary.

8
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • How do I decide which to consult?
  • For--
  • 1) probing the parameters of a topic
  • 2) finding very specific information
  • 3) ascertaining who the leaders are (were) in
    contributing to the growth of knowledge in a
    particular area.
  • Consult an encyclopedia.

9
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Factors in deciding which tools to use.
  • 1) Size.
  • The average Bible student may not need the large
    four- or five-volume encyclopedia.
  • On the other hand, the teacher and preacher
    cannot get along with a one-volume dictionary.

10
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Factors in deciding which tools to use.
  • 2) Date.
  • Authors and editors of smaller works are more
    likely to put out new editions in order to keep
    up with the rapid advance of knowledge.
  • This is a much more difficult undertaking for the
    larger works.

11
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Factors in deciding which tools to use.
  • 2) Date.
  • But be careful about making the date of
    publication too important.
  • Even though a century has passed since the first
    volume was published, many articles in these
    pages are still superior to, and more
    comprehensive than, articles on the same subjects
    appearing in any other similar work. Wilbur M.
    Smith in the Introduction to the1968-70 reprint
    of MClintock and Strong.

12
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Factors in deciding which tools to use.
  • 3) Signed articles.
  • Articles in the larger encyclopedias (and
    sometimes the smaller dictionaries) have been
    written my many different authors.
  • Their names or initials appear at the end of the
    articles.
  • This is important for your citation of the
    article.
  • This may also help you to judge the general trend
    of the article.

13
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Factors in deciding which tools to use.
  • 4) General trend of the work with regard to
    theology and biblical criticism.
  • How to determine? Analyze key articles.
  • Look at the article on Isaiah in Encyclopedia
    Biblica T. K. Cheyne the editor and also the
    author of the article.
  • It is too bold to maintain that we still have
    any collection of Isaianic prophecies which in
    its present form goes back to the period of that
    prophet. (Vol. 2, p. 2193)

14
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Factors in deciding which tools to use. (Barbers
    answers)
  • 1) Is it authoritative? Is the editor a person
    of repute? Have the articles been signed (the
    assumption being that if a persons name
    concludes the article, he or she will have taken
    extra special care in writing it)? Are the
    contributors people of established reputation?

15
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Factors in deciding which tools to use. (Barbers
    answers)
  • 2) Why was this work written (i.e., what need did
    the editor seek to meet), and for whom? (This
    information is generally found in the
    Introduction or Preface.)

16
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Factors in deciding which tools to use. (Barbers
    answers)
  • 3) What is its scope? (i.e., is the coverage
    comprehensive?) Are the articles long or short?
    Is the thrust biblical or theological,
    denominational (e.g., Roman Catholic, Mennonite,
    Reformed, etc.), inter-faith, national or
    international?

17
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Factors in deciding which tools to use. (Barbers
    answers)
  • 4) How up to date is it? Is it an entirely new
    work, or has it been based on an earlier edition
    with the same or a different title? How reliable
    are the maps, charts, money conversions, et
    cetera?

18
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Factors in deciding which tools to use. (Barbers
    answers)
  • 5) What are the recognizable strong points? What
    features make this work superior to any others?
    Does it have any weaknesses or acknowledged
    limitations?

19
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Dictionary
  • Technically a Bible dictionary is an alphabetical
    arrangement of the words found in the Bible with
    definitions or explanations attached.
  • Such topics may be covered in an appendix or
    additional volume.
  • By including such topics in spite of the
    definition.
  • By calling the work an encyclopedia.

20
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Why should I own or at least regularly consult
    several?
  • For serious work I cannot be satisfied with
    partial evidence.
  • Libraries keep a vast range of books because no
    one book contains all the information one needs
    or desires.
  • Especially true of dictionaries need the
    up-to-date for latest discoveries need the old
    ones for quality.

21
Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Why should I own or at least regularly consult
    several?
  • Using a variety of tools helps one to learn to
    judge the quality of evidence he finds that is
    part of the maturation process as a student and
    scholar.

22
Bible Atlases
  • Should provide maps sufficiently detailed
  • To accurately plot historic sites
  • To give the names as they appeared in Bible times
  • To show ancient roads highways places of
    importance.

23
Bible Atlases
  • Should clearly mark geographical features, but
    not so as to crowd the text on a given page.
  • Longitude and latitude should show the location
    of places in terms of degrees from the Equator
    and the Prime Meridian.

24
Bible Atlases
  • By means of an atlas you will be able to
  • Locate as nearly as possible the places made
    famous by those living in Bible times
  • Trace the movements of peoples and armies
  • Understand the significance of events mentioned
    in the Bible

25
Concordances
  • Use and Misuse
  • 1) To locate a verse in the Bible.
  • Not a misuse, but there are far more valuable
    uses of the tool.
  • 2) To collect disconnected statements which
    without discrimination are arbitrarily woven
    into a doctrinal framework.
  • At best is an abuse of the purpose of the tool.

26
Concordances
  • Proper Uses
  • 1) To determine the true meaning of words.
  • May be done more surely by concordance than by
    lexicon word meanings are to be determined more
    through usage than definition.
  • A foreign student, wishing to pay high respect to
    an American teacher, addressed him in a letter,
    August and awful Sir!

27
Concordances
  • Proper Uses
  • Dictionary definitions on which he depended may
    have contained the desired meaning, but usage
    gives those words an entirely different
    connotation.
  • An illustration of this principle in a study of
    the term Son of man.
  • Obvious meaning would seem to be the true
    humanity of Jesus.

28
Concordances
  • Proper Uses
  • An illustration of this principle in a study of
    the term Son of man.
  • Study of term by means of concordance, however,
    revises this original conception and replaces it
    with a messianic meaning.
  • Term is Js favorite designation of himself, used
    with far greater frequency.
  • Further, in the Gospels it is used by Jesus only
    (one exception when enemies ask what he means by
    it).

29
Concordances
  • Proper Uses
  • An illustration of this principle in a study of
    the term Son of man.
  • Many of passages in which Jesus uses the title
    are those in which he is making exalted claims
    for himself.
  • Is used only 3 times outside the Gospelsin Acts
    by Stephen with messianic meaning and twice in
    Revelation where it has exalted significance.

30
Concordances
  • Proper Uses
  • An illustration of this principle in a study of
    the term Son of man.
  • Where did it come from? Concordance takes you
    back to the Psalms, Ezekiel and Daniel.
  • NT usage suggests a strong affinity to Daniels
    usage, where the one with this title is given an
    everlasting dominion that all the peoples,
    nations, and languages should serve him.

31
Concordances
  • Proper Uses
  • 2) For the enriching of word meanings.
  • II Cor. 514 Paul writes that the love of Christ
    constraineth us.
  • Strongest lexical meaning given for constrain
    is to urge, impel.
  • Survey of usage elsewhere in NT points to a
    richer meaning.
  • The seizure of a dread disease (Lk. 438)
  • The overwhelming force of the pressure of a great
    throng of people (Lk. 845).

32
Concordances
  • Proper Uses
  • 2) For the enriching of word meanings.
  • The inescapable ring of force which closes in on
    a besieged city (Lk. 1943).
  • The tight clutch with which a prisoner is held
    (Lk. 2263).
  • What did it mean for P. to be constrained by
    the love of Christ? It meant he was caught up by
    a mighty energy equal to those described above.

33
Concordances
  • Proper Uses
  • 3) To distinguish the fine shades of meaning in
    synonyms translated by the same English word.
  • A reader of the KJV might be perplexed by Pauls
    statement in Gal. 16-7 about another gospel,
    which is not another.
  • Without Greek knowledge, he could determine
    (e.g., from Youngs Analytical Concordance) that
    two different words are translated by the English
    word another.

34
Concordances
  • Proper Uses
  • Following the two words through the concordance,
    he would find that in many cases no distinction
    in meaning is made.
  • But where they are used in juxtaposition, or with
    distinct meanings, one means another of a
    different kind whereas the other means another
    of the same kind.
  • Translations may help, but the meaning may be
    made even clearer by tracing shades of meaning
    through the concordance.

35
Concordances
  • Proper Uses
  • 4) For studying the distinctive truths of any
    particular book of the Bible.
  • One can readily discover the importance which any
    great truth assumes in any book by noting the
    relative frequency of the occurrence of the words
    which express it.
  • The idea of faith in the Gospel of John is an
    example.
  • One might be surprised to find the noun faith
    is not found, but the verb to believe is used
    100 times.

36
Concordances
  • Proper Uses
  • 4) For studying the distinctive truths of any
    particular book of the Bible.
  • In comparison with 19 occurrences of both noun
    and verb in Matthew, 20 in Mark, and 20 in Luke,
    Johns 100 uses of the word show how important
    belief is in his gospel.
  • The exclusive use of the verb tells us that to
    John faith is an activity, not a concept.
  • To understand it better, one studies the context
    of each passage listed.

37
Concordances
  • Proper Uses
  • 5) To trace the growth of an idea through the
    Bible.
  • Would involve tracing the word which best conveys
    the idea, and related words, first through the
    OT, and then through the NT.
  • An involved process.
  • An example of this J. B. Lightfoots On the
    Meaning of Pleroma, in Saint Pauls Epistles to
    the Colossians and to Philemon.

38
Concordances
  • Proper Uses
  • 6) To make a character study.
  • Nearly every concordance has a section which
    lists all the leading characters of the Bible in
    each instance where their names are mentioned.
  • To spot those instances, to study the
    circumstances surrounding each one, to survey the
    interrelations of other characters, makes Bible
    characters come to life.

39
Concordances
  • Proper Uses
  • 7) To interpret the significance of outstanding
    place which for one reason or another became the
    centers of outstanding events.
  • Places sometime assume more than geographical
    importance they become symbols of spiritual
    significance.
  • For example, trace references to the city of
    Shechem.

40
Concordances
  • Proper Uses
  • There Abraham raised his first altar.
  • There Jacob rededicated himself to God upon his
    return to Canaan.
  • There Joseph had gone to find his brothers when
    he was sold into slavery.
  • There that the Israelites stopped and held a
    solemn ceremony after entering the promised land.
  • Is it any wonder that Joseph instructed that his
    bones be buried there?

41
Concordances
  • For independent, first hand Bible study, a good
    concordance may be the most indispensable tool.
  • Questions answered by concordance use
  • What is the relative frequency or infrequency of
    a word or idea?
  • In what areas of the Bible is it used most
    frequently?
  • What are the interrelations of thought which
    gather around it?

42
Concordances
  • Questions answered concordance use
  • Is there any discernible growth in the idea?
  • How does it point forward to Christ?
  • What light does Christ cast back on it?

43
Concordances
  • Advice
  • Avoid an abridged concordance.
  • Use a concordance based on the translation you
    are using.
  • All modern concordances owe a debt to the past
    it is helpful to have an understanding of the
    leading tools of the recent past so as to be
    aware of the strengths upon which contemporary
    compilers have relied.

44
Concordances
  • Advice
  • Important to understand that publishers
    occasionally display some semantic elasticity in
    hawking their concordance wares.
  • The three principal terms are analytical,
    exhaustive, and complete.

45
Concordances
  • Analytical
  • An analytical concordance is one in which the
    words of the translated Bible are presented
    alphabetically, with passages in which each term
    occurs being apportioned under the respective
    Hebrew or Greek words underlying the term.

46
Concordances
  • Exhaustive
  • An exhaustive concordance is one that lists
    passages in sequence under a headword, without
    classifying under the various original terms and
    in some way accounts for every occurrence of a
    word in the translation, including the word if
    and other frequently used conjunctions,
    relatives, and particles.

47
Concordances
  • Complete
  • A complete concordance is one in which every word
    is cited and at least one passage is indicated
    for a word, as is the case especially for words
    that occur hundreds or thousands of times.
  • When in doubt, read the preface.
  • In the case of reprints that lack detailed
    editorial information, caveat emptor, buyer
    beware.

48
Concordances
  • Youngs Analytical Concordance to the Bible
  • Based on text of the AV
  • Form of the different Greek Hebrew words
    accompany the English word
  • Provides ready reference to each passage in which
    that word appears, making it easy to study words
    like faith, love, and obedience.

49
Concordances
  • Youngs Analytical Concordance to the Bible
  • The arrangement also show how different Heb GK
    words have translated by a single English word
    (e.g., lord, sleep, son, will.
  • The flexibility as well as the precision of the
    original languages is thus readily evident.
  • Included at the end is a handy lexicon to words
    appearing in the Old New Testaments.

50
Concordances
  • Strongs Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible
  • Also based on the AV
  • Format established by Strong has set a standard
    of excellence for accuracy and completeness.
  • Unique feature against each entry there is a
    number directing the researcher to a Hebrew or
    Greek index at the back that contains information
    about the word used and its meaning(s).

51
Concordances
  • Strongs Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible
  • E.g., under offering a number is indicated
    4503. Lower down, another number is given 8641.
  • References to 4503 8641 in the Hebrew and
    Chaldee Dictionary at the back will give you the
    meaning(s) of each word.
  • Greek words can be traced in the same way.

52
Concordances
  • Strongs Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible
  • what this means is that with little technical
    knowledge of the biblical languages, you may have
    access to the learning of others.
  • Tools like the Theological Wordbook of the Old
    Testament and the Logos Library System on CD-ROM
    have been coded to Strongs Concordance.

53
Concordances
  • R. L. Thomas, New American Standard Exhaustive
    Concordance of the Bible
  • Patterned after Strongs
  • Illustrative of the new works available today
  • Lists every word which may be used to locate a
    verse in the NASB also notes the Hebrew,
    Aramaic or Greek word from which the English is
    translated.
  • 10 yrs of work went into the work computers
    were used to compile an alphabetical listing of
    words and frequencies.

54
Concordances
  • R. L. Thomas, New American Standard Exhaustive
    Concordance of the Bible
  • As with Strongs, the Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek
    dictionaries are included at the back.
  • They have been arranged in such a way that those
    lacking a knowledge of the original languages may
    nevertheless be appraised of the root form of the
    word, the frequency of its occurrence, and its
    meaning(s).

55
Concordances
  • George V. Wigram, The Englishmans Hebrew and
    Chaldee Concordance of the Old Testament
  • Arranged by Hebrew word, this work lists passages
    in the OT containing the term with its
    translation in the KJV
  • Because it is the usage of the word that
    determines its meaning, and because language is
    always changing, by using a concordance you will
    be able to

56
Concordances
  • George V. Wigram, The Englishmans Hebrew and
    Chaldee Concordance of the Old Testament
  • By using a concordance you will be able to
  • Assess the general meaning of a given word
  • Tie in its usage with different writers and/or
    eras of history (e.g., Mosaic period, united or
    divided monarchy, early or later prophets)

57
Concordances
  • Solomon Mandelkern, Veteris testamenti
    concordantiae Habraicae atque Chaldaicae
  • Contains citations according to sense, proper
    placement of entries misplaced under false roots,
    corrections of grammatical confusions, and the
    addition of hapax legomena omitted in previous
    works.
  • If beginning student only uses the biblical
    references at side of each citation, study will
    be enhanced.

58
Concordances
  • Solomon Mandelkern, Veteris testamenti
    concordantiae Habraicae atque Chaldaicae
  • For more advanced student, this tool will not
    only give the accuracy that thorough research
    requires, but will also enable him to study words
    in relationship to important grammatical
    distinctions.

59
Concordances
  • Gerhard Lisowsky, Konkordanz zum hebraischen
    Alten Testament
  • Photographically reproduced from Ls handwritten
    manuscript
  • With emphasis placed on nouns and verbs, this
    work is particularly helpful to the student
    engaged in word studies.

60
Concordances
  • Edwin Hatch and Henry Redpath, Concordance to the
    Septuagint
  • Includes the Apocryphal books
  • Zealous student will wish to compare the Greek
    words used to translate their Hebrew equivalent.
  • Each Gk word in the canonical and apocryphal
    books is listed with its Hebrew counterpart in a
    corresponding numerical sequence.

61
Concordances
  • Edwin Hatch and Henry Redpath, Concordance to the
    Septuagint
  • Because the usage of a given word is crucial in
    determining its meaning(s), the inclusion of the
    Apocrypha is important.
  • Were this not the case, we would have needed
    another concordance to the non-canonical writings.

62
Concordances
  • The Englishmans Greek Concordance to the New
    Testament
  • Arranged in the same way as its OT counterpart.
  • Based on the text of AV and cites in alphabetical
    order by the Gk word the Biblical references
    together with a brief quotation.
  • Is relatively easy, therefore, to determine the
    meaning(s) assigned a word by the translators of
    the KJV.

63
Concordances
  • The Englishmans Greek Concordance to the New
    Testament
  • Included in this large work is a complete index
    of the words of the English text with the Greek
    words from which they are translated.
  • From this index the student will find, for
    example, a listing of the 27 different English
    words used to translate logos (word).

64
Concordances
  • William F. Moulton Albert S. Geden, Concordance
    to the Greek Testament
  • Is now complete with full citations including
    particles.
  • Has become one of the basic reference tools for
    students of the NT.
  • Familiarly known as Moulton and Geden.
  • Based on the text of Westcott and Hort.
  • Contains quotations of Scripture that are longer
    than in most concordances of its kind.

65
Concordances
  • William F. Moulton Albert S. Geden, Concordance
    to the Greek Testament
  • Replete with
  • grammatical hints
  • the usage of the word in the LXX and Apocrypha
  • citations in Hebrew (if the passage in question
    happens to be a quotation from the OT).

66
Concordances
  • Computer concordance to the Novum Testamentum
    Graece/Computer-Konkordanz zum Novum Testamentum
    Graece
  • Indispensable to the study of specific Greek
    words used in the NT.
  • Based on the 26th edition of the Nestle-Aland
    text and the 3rd edition of the United Bible
    Societies Greek New Testament.
  • Lists every word appearing in NT with the
    frequency of occurrence.

67
Concordances
  • Computer concordance to the Novum Testamentum
    Graece/Computer-Konkordanz zum Novum Testamentum
    Graece
  • as a general rule, words are arranged in
    accordance with their root form
  • In case of some irregular verbs, however, the
    word is also listed under the different forms.
  • Words occurring in pericope are included with an
    asterisk following each entry.
  • An appendix lists the appearance of conjunctions,
    particles, et cetera.

68
Lexicons
  • Lexicona dictionary, especially of Greek, Latin,
    or Hebrew
  • From Gk lexikon, wordbook
  • A lexicon may be described as a wordbook or
    dictionary of a specific language, or the
    vocabulary of a particular people.

69
Lexicons
  • A lexicon is compiled to describe in succinct
    terms the meaning(s) of a given word.
  • The etymology is traced through the successive
    stages of the history of the language.

70
Lexicons (Hebrew)
  • F. Brown, S. R. Driver and C. A. Briggs, A Hebrew
    and English Lexicon of the Old Testament
  • Often referred to as BDB.
  • BDB translated Thesarus philologicus-criticus
    linguae Hebraeae et Chaldaeae Veteris Testament
    (1829-1858)
  • This work completed posthumously.

71
Lexicons (Hebrew)
  • F. Brown, S. R. Driver and C. A. Briggs, A Hebrew
    and English Lexicon of the Old Testament
  • Was companion volume to Wilhelm Gesenius,
    Hebraisches-deutsches Handworterbuch uber die
    Schriften des Alten Testaments (2 vols.
    1810-1812)
  • BDB first appeared in 1907 and was last revised
    in 1962.

72
Lexicons (Hebrew)
  • F. Brown, S. R. Driver and C. A. Briggs, A Hebrew
    and English Lexicon of the Old Testament
  • It depended heavily on comparative linguistics
    and readily translated similar terms in a variety
    of Near Eastern languages.
  • Value of BDB lies in fact editors were sensitive
    to the nuances or shades of meaning of Classical
    Hebrew.

73
Lexicons (Hebrew)
  • F. Brown, S. R. Driver and C. A. Briggs, A Hebrew
    and English Lexicon of the Old Testament
  • This gave their work an enduring quality that is
    not to be found in other, more recent, lexicons
    that lack flexibility when assigning specific
    meanings to words.

74
Lexicons (Hebrew)
  • L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Lexicon in Veteris
    Testamenti Libros (2 vols. 1951-1953)
  • Has never attained stature of BDB.
  • Provided a Hebrew/Aramaic German/English
    explanation of words and their meanings and was
    based on the 3rd ed. of Rudolf Kittels Biblia
    Hebraica.

75
Lexicons (Hebrew)
  • L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Lexicon in Veteris
    Testamenti Libros (2 vols. 1951-1953)
  • The order of the words is strictly alphabetical
    and not by root as in BDB.
  • Usage is also made of Ugaritic sources not
    available to BDB.
  • K-B has now been revised by Baumgartner and J. J.
    Stamm, and is in the process of being translated
    and edited by M. E. J. Richardson (1994-).

76
Lexicons (Hebrew)
  • L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Lexicon in Veteris
    Testamenti Libros (2 vols. 1951-1953)
  • The new edition is being issued under the title
    Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament.
  • so far, four out of five promised volumes have
    been published.
  • This revision makes full use of Ugaritic
    materials and information from the Dead Sea
    Scrolls.

77
Lexicons (Hebrew)
  • L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Lexicon in Veteris
    Testamenti Libros (2 vols. 1951-1953)
  • A feature that makes this new edition more usable
    to students of Biblical Hebrew is the fact that
    words from other cognate languages are
    transliterated.
  • Only Hebrew and Greek words are written in their
    own alphabets.

78
Lexicons (Hebrew)
  • L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Lexicon in Veteris
    Testamenti Libros (2 vols. 1951-1953)
  • A far as can be ascertained, this new edition of
    K-B has special value in the area of etymological
    research and in tracing hapax legomena.

79
Lexicons (Hebrew)
  • L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Lexicon in Veteris
    Testamenti Libros (2 vols. 1951-1953)
  • Though the meanings assigned different words are
    often influenced by critical considerations, the
    conclusions offered can always be checked against
    BDB.
  • Advanced students will find valuable information
    in the bibliography.

80
Lexicons (Hebrew)
  • D. J. A. Clines, Dictionary of Classical Hebrew
    (1993-)
  • Scheduled for 8 vols., this lexicon is in many
    respects the first entirely new work to be
    published in many years.
  • Others, such as BDB and K-B were based upon
    earlier works.
  • DCH follows a strictly alphabetical order for the
    entries as they appear in sentences (as opposed
    to BDB where words are placed under the
    tri-lateral root).

81
Lexicons (Hebrew)
  • D. J. A. Clines, Dictionary of Classical Hebrew
    (1993-)
  • No cognates from other Semitic languages are
    mentioned, but inscriptional evidence down to
    A.D. 200, together with data from Qumran and Ben
    Sira, has been included.
  • As a result DCH does not provide information
    about connections with other Semitic dialects and
    it does not classify usages as figurative or
    literal.

82
Lexicons (Hebrew)
  • D. J. A. Clines, Dictionary of Classical Hebrew
    (1993-)
  • Related words, synonyms, and antonyms are listed
    at the end of the treatment of a word.
  • Emendations proposed by BDB and K-B are listed,
    but without any critical evaluation.

83
Lexicons (Hebrew)
  • D. J. A. Clines, Dictionary of Classical Hebrew
    (1993-)
  • DCH gives promise of being a valuable tool for
    the scholar.
  • It strength lies in its semantic examination of
    each word, syntagmatic listing of every usage
    with its meaning, and paradigmatic listing of
    synonyms and antonyms.

84
Lexicons (Hebrew)
  • D. J. A. Clines, Dictionary of Classical Hebrew
    (1993-)
  • It concludes with an English-Hebrew index, and an
    English translation of every Hebrew word or
    phrase.
  • Though avant-garde and highly commendable, its
    projected size and cost will place it beyond the
    reach of the average student of the biblical
    languages.
  • It is unlikely, therefore, to replace BDB for
    practical usefulness.

85
Lexicons
  • Walter Bauer, Greek-English Lexicon of the New
    Testament and Other Early Christian Literature
    (translated and edited by W. F. Arndt and F. W.
    Gingrich 1957-1958, and revised and augmented
    by F. W. Gingrich and F. W. Danker 1979).
  • At one time referred to as Arndt and Gingrich,
    Bs lexicon is based upon an extensive
    examination of Greek literature, including NT
    words still in use in Byzantine times.

86
Lexicons
  • Bauer
  • A vast amount of material was mastered and then
    reduced to succinct, descriptive statements
    defining the usage of each word and giving its
    meaning during different eras of Greek literary
    history.
  • True value of the work can only be appreciated
    when one reads through the prefatory material,
    and particularly the introduction by Bauer.

87
Lexicons
  • Bauer
  • Excellent coverage
  • Meanings given are judicious
  • Grammatical hints are significant
  • References to literature outside the NT have been
    well-chosen and are representative of the usage
    of the same word in other sources.
  • The volume is indispensable.

88
Lexicons
  • J. H. Moulton and G. Milligan, Vocabulary of the
    Greek Testament, Illustrated from the Papyri and
    Other Non-literary Sources (1929)
  • Important source of philological illumination
    comes from papyri discovered in Egypt.
  • The terminology found in papyrus fragments,
    letters and ostraka, parallels the Greek of the
    NT.
  • Thus, much of it may be used to add new insights
    into meanings of words employed by writers of the
    NT.

89
Lexicons
  • M-M
  • This work is based upon articles published in The
    Expositor (1908-1911).
  • Following Moultons death in 1917, Milligan
    carried on the work alone, finally finishing in
    1929.
  • Contains numerous parallels to the terminology of
    the NT.
  • Investigation of the source material offered in
    the concise format of M-M will not only enrich
    study but also provide many illustrations of word
    usage in the language of the people of the NT
    period.

90
Lexicons
  • G. H. W. Lampe, Patristic Greek Lexicon (1961)
  • Work based on the material contained in Mignes
    Patrologia Graeca.
  • Object is to make available the theological and
    ecclesiastical vocabulary of the Greek Christian
    authors from Clement of Rome to Theodore of
    Stadium, so that researchers can trace easily and
    efficiently the development of Christian thought.
  • Informative coverage is given terms like
    apostolos, episkopos, presbuteros, .

91
Lexicons
  • G. H. W. Lampe, Patristic Greek Lexicon (1961)
  • Values of such a lexicon are many.
  • 1) As far as the development of doctrine is
    concerned, we can trace by e.g. as well as
    precept either the early churchs adherence to
    sound doctrine or its departure from it.
  • The reasons for the latter frequently parallel
    trends in our own time.
  • Human nature remains the same.

92
Lexicons
  • G. H. W. Lampe, Patristic Greek Lexicon (1961)
  • Values of such a lexicon are many.
  • 2) In the course of history, changes in the usage
    of words and their meaning were inevitable.
  • Disciple in the Gospels used of one who had
    counted the cost of following Christ.
  • In the era of the early church it came to be
    applied to those whose manner of life would
    permit this term to be connected with their name.

93
Lexicons
  • G. H. W. Lampe, Patristic Greek Lexicon (1961)
  • Values of such a lexicon are many.
  • Often death by martyrdom was regarded as the
    criterion for calling one a disciple.
  • Lampe begins with a list of authors and their
    writings.
  • Each of the references can be traced to the Loeb
    Classical Library.

94
Lexicons
  • H. C. Liddell and R. Scott, Greek-English Lexicon
    (1897/1996)
  • A revised and updated edition was prepared for
    publication by H. S. Jones with the assistance of
    R. McKenzie (1940) and a Supplement by E. A.
    Barber was issued in 1968.
  • Provides access to the classical period of Greek
    literature.
  • An index to Greek authors and their works is
    found in the introductory materials.

95
Lexicons
  • H. C. Liddell and R. Scott, Greek-English Lexicon
    (1897/1996)
  • While this work is of value primarily for the
    access it provides to the classical period,
    literature is also cited through to the 6th c.
    A.D. (including the Septuagint and Apocrypha).
  • Obviously, the closer the reference is to the NT
    era, the greater will be its bearing on the
    meaning of the word in the language of the NT.

96
Lexicons
  • H. C. Liddell and R. Scott, Greek-English Lexicon
    (1897/1996)
  • Note of caution
  • Do not buy an abridged edition.
  • An abridgement is valuable only to the student of
    classical Greek.
  • An abridgement is valueless for NT study.

97
Lexicons
  • Joseph Henry Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon (1886)
  • A translation of Wilke-Grimms 2nd ed. (1879).
  • A corrected edition appeared in 1889 and made
    Thayer a standard name in the English speaking
    theological world until 1957.
  • Followed the comparative philology school with
    its proportionately greater emphasis on etymology
    as compared with more recent approaches.

98
Lexicons
  • Joseph Henry Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon (1886)

99
Lexicons
100
Use of Lexicons
  • Primary purposeto bring together within
    convenient range the evidence for making a
    judgment concerning the precise meaning of a
    term.
  • What types of evidence can be found in a lexicon?
  • 1) Identification of word forms
  • 2) Etymology
  • 3) Classification of usage
  • 4) Discrimination of synonyms

101
Use of Lexicons
  • 1) Identification of Word Forms
  • One of first tests of the beginner in learning a
    new language is his ability to identify word
    forms correctly.
  • Whenever one encounters new or unfamiliar words,
    recourse to the lexicon is necessary.
  • While the structural form of words is treated by
    a grammar, the lexicon provides a useful index to
    word forms.

102
Use of Lexicons
  • 1) Identification of Word Forms
  • Since most irregularities occur in the verb, the
    lexicon provides clues to such irregular forms by
    citing the principal parts of the most important,
    or the most irregular, verbs these forms are
    usually supplied at the head of the particular
    article being consulted.

103
Use of Lexicons
  • 1) Identification of Word Forms
  • Once the correct form has been identified, it
    remains to complete the process of analysis of
    the function of the verb in a particular
    instance several factors assist in the analysis.
  • 1) The verb root this will indicate the meaning
    of the verbal idea.
  • 2) Tense force this will identify the kind of
    action involved, whether durative, punctiliar, or
    completed.

104
Use of Lexicons
  • 1) Identification of Word Forms
  • 3) The relation of the verb to the context, that
    is, the connection between the verb and the other
    parts of the sentence.

105
Use of Lexicons
  • 2) Etymology
  • Word roots have the power to create pictures in
    the mind and so to vivify the reading of the Gk
    NT.
  • The lexicon shows, for instance, that the word
    translated to fear comes from a root meaning
    to run the word soul stems from a root
    meaning to breathe the root meaning of the
    word for life (zoe) is reflected in our Eng.
    word vitality.

106
Use of Lexicons
  • 2) Etymology
  • Words are not like disconnected atoms they grow
    from roots and they form clusters in families.
  • So, words, like people, have ancestors and
    display family relationships.
  • The lexicon serves as an index to derivation by
    enabling the reader to trace family relationships
    to their source wherever possible.

107
Use of Lexicons
  • 3) Classification of usage
  • Since one word may be used in a variety of ways,
    the NT lexicon offers an attempted classification
    of usage.
  • Here the lexicographer must play the role of an
    interpreter and state what appears to him to be
    the specific meaning of the word in a given
    passage
  • He then cites other instances of identical or
    similar usage under a single heading.

108
Use of Lexicons
  • 3) Classification of usage
  • The student must learn always to exercise the
    greatest care and not to infer without
    examination that all the passages cited are
    exactly similar.
  • He should regard what the lexicon presents as an
    index to evidence, and the classification of
    usage as one specialists opinion based upon that
    evidence.

109
Use of Lexicons
  • 3) Classification of usage
  • He must then weigh this evidence for himself in
    the light of the specific contexts where the word
    occurs.

110
Use of Lexicons
  • 4) Discrimination of synonyms
  • One of the most rewarding uses of the NT lexicon
    is the discrimination of those words which
    occasionally may be used interchangeably.
  • The lexicon shows why in certain cases one would
    be appropriate and the other not.
  • For e.g., a person can be tested or tried in many
    ways.

111
Use of Lexicons
  • 4) Discrimination of synonyms
  • James (112) declares that the man who endures
    temptation is blessed, for when he is tried, he
    shall receive the crown of life.
  • Temptation and tried cannot be interchanged
    here without doing violence to James meaning.
  • The fine shades of meaning inherent in Greek
    synonyms are not always made explicit in English
    translations.

112
Use of Lexicons
  • 4) Discrimination of synonyms
  • In Eng., one word sometimes is used to translate
    several words in Greek.
  • Typical examples of such words in NT vocabulary
    are love, fear, labor, power, know,
    send, ask, tempt, gift, and so on.
  • Lexicons may attempt to provide a basis for
    distinction by means of special notes at the ends
    of articles.

113
Use of Lexicons
  • 4) Discrimination of synonyms
  • The notes may indicate the most important
    contexts in which the synonyms occur together.
  • When these passages have been located, insights
    into their meanings may be provided by observing
    instances of their use in classical and
    Septuagint Greek as well as in Koine, and by
    considering other NT contexts in which they occur.

114
Use of Lexicons
  • Old Friends (known words)
  • Every beginning Gk student knows onoma, name why
    bother to use the lexicon.
  • The big lexicon sketches the vivid associations
    made by the ancients between the name and the
    qualities possessed by a person or thing.
  • It details the implications of all phrases
    involving the name of God and Christ.

115
Use of Lexicons
  • Old Friends (known words)
  • The word onoma, does not itself mean all the
    things suggested.
  • But the lexicon invites consideration of contexts
    in which the word takes on meaning beyond the its
    mere dictionary meaning.

116
Use of Lexicons
  • Old Friends (known words)
  • Almost everyone associates the expression wait
    on tables (Acts 62) with food.
  • A look at BAGD under trapedza the very strong
    possibility that the apostles were entangling
    themselves in time-consuming bookkeeping.
  • The apostles are then rejecting their role of
    bankers and not simply that of butlers.

117
Use of Lexicons
  • Local Color (understanding the environment of
    words)
  • One ought not only remain open to new and
    increased appreciation of old friends.
  • It is equally rewarding to understand their
    environment.

118
Use of Lexicons
  • Local Color (understanding the environment of
    words)
  • In Acts 2030 Paul views with concern the
    inevitable arrival of false teachers.
  • The word apospao translated entice is found in
    a papyrus of the 3rd c. B.C.
  • You wrote me not to withdraw the gang (of
    workmen engaged in the copper mines) from
    Philoteris before they had finished their work.

119
Use of Lexicons
  • Local Color (understanding the environment of
    words)
  • Withdraw in the sense of breach of contract
    is found in numerous formal documents.
  • Between the lines of Acts 2030 we may find the
    suggestion that the disciples were under contract
    to serve the Lord and that false teachers will
    urge them to break the contract.

120
Use of Lexicons
  • Local Color (understanding the environment of
    words)
  • No new definition is attached to the word, but
    the word undergoes rejuvenation and suggests to
    the expositor an appropriate contemporary legal
    illustration.

121
Use of Lexicons
  • Local Color (understanding the environment of
    words)
  • Primary function of Moulton Milligan, The
    Vocabulary of the Greek Testament, illustrated
    from the Papyri and Other Non-Literary Sources,
    is to recreate the world in which the NT
    vocabulary was employed is not a comprehensive
    lexicon but a selective list of words that shed
    fresh light on the NT.

122
Use of Lexicons
  • Local Color (understanding the environment of
    words)
  • MM attempts to make the world of the NT come
    alivethe world of shopkeepers, of lonely widows,
    of traveling salespeople, of the lovelorn, of
    bankers, of merchants, of politicians.

123
Use of Lexicons
  • Local Color (understanding the environment of
    words)
  • And because it is the same workaday world as that
    of our own century, with names and places
    changed, MM is a volume that more effectively
    than many others can bridge the chasm between
    pulpit and pew.

124
Use of Lexicons
  • Pedigree (word families)
  • Words are like people to know them well one must
    meet them on their own level, in their own
    environment in different circumstances they
    react differently like a face they take on
    varying expressions.
  • Some of them move from place to place some never
    return to their earlier surroundings.

125
Use of Lexicons
  • Pedigree (word families)
  • But to know their past is to know a little better
    what makes them act as they do in the present.
  • BAGD is not intended to be a historical survey of
    NT Greek.
  • MM deals only with the papyri, and to some extent
    with inscriptions.

126
Use of Lexicons
  • Pedigree (word families)
  • To see the family portrait one can go to the
    Liddell-Scott, Greek-English Lexicon (LSJM), a
    lexicon of classical Gk literature.

127
Use of Lexicons
  • Pedigree (word families)
  • Common word amartano (sin) provides an example.
  • In the Iliad 5.287 is used of a spear missing its
    mark in general it is used of failure to achieve
    ones purpose.
  • The concept of actual wrongdoing and
    indiscretions committed against the gods appears
    in the Iliad 9.501.

128
Use of Lexicons
  • Pedigree (word families)
  • In Biblical documents the implications of sin
    are more clearly defined, but the original idea
    of failure to achieve ones purpose sharpens the
    contrast between moral expectations and actual
    achievements.

129
Use of Lexicons
  • Pedigree (word families)
  • Amartano by itself does not mean all these
    things, and there is nothing specifically
    theological about the term.
  • But when a given context indicates awareness of
    divine interests, the student searches for
    resources in the receptor language that will
    express the meaning in a specific passage.

130
Use of Lexicons
  • Pedigree (word families)
  • That the word parrasia (boldness) is composed of
    two words, pas and rasis and literally means
    saying everything might not be recognized
    without the help of LSJM (the components are
    entered in parentheses).
  • The references to Athenian love of free speech
    help accent the type of fearlessness displayed by
    the apostles in Acts 4.

131
Use of Lexicons
  • A Notable Asterisk
  • The more comprehensive a lexicon becomes, the
    more complete is its listing of words.
  • Koehler-Baumgartner signals the occurrences of
    certain words and forms with numbers in
    parentheses.
  • BAGD simply places a single asterisk at the end
    of articles in which all occurrences in the NT
    and apostolic fathers has been noted and a double
    asterisk when only the NT passages are listed in
    full.

132
Use of Lexicons
  • A Notable Asterisk
  • So the student is spared the need for checking in
    an additional tool, in this case a concordance.
  • For e.g., one can see at a glance that mathetria
    occurs only once in the NT (Acts 96).
  • No other woman in the NT is described by this
    term.

133
Use of Lexicons
  • Reference and Resource Material
  • One of the most valuable incidental features of
    BAGD is the bibliographical data found at the end
    of many of the articles.
  • If you were writing a paper, would find a
    bibliography of journal articles, books, chapters
    in books, etc.

134
Use of Lexicons
  • Practical Note
  • Special signs and abbreviations are necessary
    (for saving space) to a lexicons system of
    communication.
  • Some time spent pondering the introductory pages
    will save the user time and frustration.
  • Same advice holds for use of other reference
    tools as well.

135
Use of Lexicons
  • A study of material referred to in a concordance
    precedes the consultation of a lexicon.
  • After tracing the sources mentioned in a
    concordance and studying the usage of the word in
    light of the context, a lexicon can be consulted
    to either validate or correct the work you have
    done.

136
Use of Lexicons
  • Because lexicons synthesize material, you may
    uncover something passed over by the editors due
    to the fact that they were dealing with broader
    issues then the one you have been researching.
  • A knowledge of the use of concordances and
    lexicons will prepare you for engaging in one of
    the most exciting of biblical pursuitsword
    studies.

137
Word Studies OT
  • With so many linguistic helps available, why
    should anyone spend time learning to do Greek and
    Hebrew word studies?
  • Why cant we just read up on this word in
    Kittel? Because Kittel (TDNT) does not
    discuss this word.
  • Im interested in people and they dont care
    about Greek Hebrew words.
  • Thats where you come in. Its your
    responsibility to make the Bible come alive, and
    word studies are one way of doing this.

138
Word Studies OT
  • Hebrew Word Studies
  • Etymologytracing historically the origin and
    development of a word.
  • Usageanalyzing the occurrences of the word in a
    given body of literature (e.g., the OT) and
    seeking to lay bare the categories of meaning.
  • Verificationchecking findings against reference
    materials produced by specialists in the field.
    (Verification is important even with the finest
    of resourcese.g., almah.

139
Word Studies OT
  • Hebrew Word Studies
  • In a Hebrew word study, is important to
  • Focus on the root form of the word.
  • Then to consider the usage in the Semitic family
    of languages of which Hebrew is a part.
  • Broadly speaking, the Semitic family tree may be
    dived into East Semitic, South Semitic and North
    Semitic.

140
East Semitic
South Semitic
North Semitic
141
Word Studies OT
  • Etymology
  • The etymology of a given word not only considers
    the derivation and history of that word but also
    its meaning in the cognate Semitic languages.
  • To properly trace the historic development of a
    given Hebrew term, you should have access to the
    Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old
    Testament, edited by F. Brown, S. R. Driver and
    C. A. Briggs, and

142
Word Studies OT
  • Etymology
  • The Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti libros, by L.
    H. Koehler and W. Baumgartner.
  • and, if possible, its revision, the Hebrew and
    Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament.

143
Word Studies OT
  • Etymology
  • Three other works are important
  • Konkordanz zum hebraischen Alten Testament, by G.
    Lisowsky
  • Veteris testamenti concordantiae Habraicae atque
    Chaldaicae, by S. Mandelkern
  • Concordance to the Septuagint, by E. Hatch and H.
    A. Redpath

144
Word Studies OT
  • Etymology
  • In a study of the word dabar (BDB, p. 180), you
    will see that the editors have gone to
    considerable lengths to provide the equivalent
    meaning of a given Hebrew word in related semitic
    languages.
  • Building on what they have supplied, you can
    write down their dictionary definition of the
    word.

145
Word Studies OT
  • Etymology
  • This should then be compared with the
    definition(s) given in Koehler and Baumgartners
    Lexicon.
  • Differences of meaning should be noted and
    reflection given as to the possible reasons for
    these changes.
  • In tracing the possible common origin of a word,
    the lowest common denominator (or common idea
    behind the historic development and meaning) of
    the word should be sought.

146
Word Studies OT
  • Etymology
  • Caution needs to be exercised to prevent the
    inexperienced researcher from too readily
    adopting opinions based upon inadequate data.

147
Word Studies OT
  • Etymology
  • With dabar as an illustration, we find at the
    beginning of the discussion there is a listing of
    the meanings of this word in Arabic (Ar.),
    Aramaic (Aram.), and Alexandrine manuscript of
    the Septuagint (A), Assyrian (As.), and Syriac
    (Syr.), et cetera.

148
BDB p. 180
149
Word Studies OT
  • Etymology
  • Because Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit) has been
    discovered in more recent times, the important
    contribution of Ugaritic studies to the OT
    literature will not be found in BDB and will have
    to be obtained from others sources (e.g., Cyrus
    Gordons Ugaritic Textbook.

150
Word Studies OT
  • Etymology
  • With some idea of the meaning, it will now be of
    value to
  • Take note of the derived terms which may
    illustrate the basic idea.
  • The occasions when the word is used.
  • The people involved.
  • The synonyms, antonyms or homonyms employed in
    different forms of Hebrew parallelism.
  • The situations giving rise to its usage.

151
Word Studies OT
  • Etymology
  • Then, having examined as thoroughly as possible
    the dictionary definition of the word and its
    meaning in cognate Semitic l
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