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Xbee Module development


UART Data Input (3.3V) 4 ADC's. 8 1 DIO lines. PWM (RSSI) output ... Output can be read from the UART. Also can build a LPF for the PWM output. XBee - DAC ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Xbee Module development

XBeeKey Features
XBee 802.15.4 XBee DigiMesh 2.4 XBee
Znet 2.5 XBee ZB
  • Price-to-Performance Value
  • Low Power Consumption
  • Receiver Sensitivity
  • Industrial Temperature Rating
  • Worldwide Acceptance
  • Small Form Factor

XBee Standard Series comparison
XBee Module
  • Thin API or AT interface application layer to
    802.15.4, DigiMesh or EmberZNet stack
  • Powerful feature set includes
  • Remote configuration
  • Low power end devices
  • IO line set/read capabilities
  • 81 GPIO (1 PWM)
  • 4 A/D inputs
  • Network diagnostics
  • 4 Antenna Options Whip, Chip, U.FL, RPSMA
  • No RF HW development risk
  • Fully approved !!!

Digi API / AT
ZigBee AF
ZigBee ZDO
ZigBee APS
ZigBee Network
802.15.4 MAC
802.15.4 PHY
Transparent / AT Firmware
  • Transparent operation works out of the box
  • Serial cable replacement
  • 3 Command Characters to enter Command mode (
  • Simple configuration of network, addressing, and
    other advanced features

End Device
API Firmware
  • Commands and data sent to the module through a
    simple API (Application Programming Interface)
  • API frames expose simple and advanced ZigBee

End Device
API Firmware
  • XBee API Frames
  • Transmit and Receive Frames
  • Simple Transmit and receive frames require only
    module addresses
  • Advanced transmit and receive frames expose
    ZigBee cluster IDs, endpoints
  • Transmit status frames indicate the delivery
    status of the transmission
  • Receive frames indicate the senders address
  • Status Frames
  • Indicate device and network-level behavior
    including join indications, reset notifications,

AT versus API mode
  • Advantages
  • Quick commands
  • Additional information
  • Over the air configuration
  • Disadvantages
  • Complex
  • Not transparant
  • Advantages
  • Simple
  • Transparant
  • Streaming performance
  • Disadvantage
  • Slow for commands
  • Not optimized for embedded systems

XBee - IO features
  • UART Data Input (3.3V)
  • 4 ADCs
  • 81 DIO lines
  • PWM (RSSI) output
  • Supply voltage monitoring

XBee - ADC
  • Analog to Digital Conversion
  • XBee has 4 ADCs
  • 10 bit resolution
  • 1KHz MAX sample rate
  • The XBee does not have DACs
  • Output can be read from the UART
  • Also can build a LPF for the PWM output

XBee - DAC
  • DAC
  • PWM Pulse Width Modulation
  • LPF

XBee - DIO line passing
  • Digital Input / Output lines
  • XBee has 81 DIO lines
  • User configurable for
  • Timed sampling
  • Default states
  • Change Detect
  • Pass-through mode
  • Internal Pull-up enable/disable

802.15.4 firmware only
Xbee Over the Air
  • Using API mode it is possible
  • To change configuration over the air
  • Set/Reset and read IO lines
  • Read A/D values
  • XBee also can send you automatic low battery
    warning (voltage threshold)

Commissioning Pushbutton Associate LEDs
Note if you want to have the node rejoin on
programmed ID and SC you need to power cycle
after 4 button presses !!!
ZigBee Application Addressing
  • In addition to 64- and 16-bit addresses, ZigBee
    supports endpoints, cluster IDs and profile IDs.
  • ZigBee transmissions specify
  • Source and Destination Addresses
  • Source and Destination Endpoints
  • Cluster ID
  • Profile ID

Src 16-bit Addr Dest 16-bit Addr Src
Endpoint Dest Endpoint
Cluster ID Profile ID Payload
Zigbee Profile IDs
  • Profile IDs define a collection of devices and
    associated functions services to provide an
    overall system level functionality.
  • Example a thermostat on one device talks with a
    heating element on another device. Both devices
    and their supported functions are defined in the
    same profile.
  • Profile IDs can be private (defined and used
    solely by developer) or public (supported by
    multiple vendors).
  • Public profiles include Home Automation, Smart
    Energy, etc.
  • Private profiles include Digis profile, vendor X
  • One or more profile IDs may be defined on a
  • Devices must communicate on the same profile ID
    to be interoperable.

Zigbee Cluster IDs
  • Cluster IDs are 2-byte values that define a
    particular action or service. e.g. Turn on
    Light, Read Sensor.
  • Cluster IDs are defined within the scope of a

Zigbee Endpoints
  • An endpoint can be thought of as an application,
    a domain, or a TCP port.
  • Each device must support one or more endpoints.

ZigBee Application Addressing In a Nutshell
  • Data flow for a received ZigBee RF data packet

API Construction
API Explicit Tx Frame (0x11)
  • Specify 64-bit address (16-bit optional)
  • Data is delivered to the specified endpoint,
    cluster ID, and profile ID on the remote device
  • Can send ZDO commands

API Explicit Rx Frame (0x91)
  • Indicates
  • Senders 64- and 16-bit addresses
  • Endpoint, cluster ID, and profile ID information

APIA Note on Interoperability
  • To talk to another ZigBee device...
  • Set the profile ID, cluster ID, and destination
    endpoint and format the data payload correctly.

ZigBee Feature Set Comparison
ZNet 2.5 ZB (Zigbee PRO)
  • ZigBee Alliance
  • ZNet 2.5 Designed for ZigBee
  • ZB ZigBee Certified (pending)
  • Unicast Timeout (Hop Maximum)
  • ZNet 2.5 Fixed Unicast Timeout
  • ZB Adjustable Unicast Timeout (12 sec.)
  • Over-the-air firmware updates
  • ZNet 2.5 not possible
  • ZB available

XBee Series - Summary
  • XBee 802.15.4
  • FreeScale Chipset
  • Ideal for 802.15.4 applications
  • 4 Antenna Options
  • XBee DigiMesh 2.4
  • FreeScale Chipset
  • Ideal for MESH applications with ALL nodes
  • 4 Antenna Options
  • XBee Znet 2.5 (not recommended for new designs)
  • Ember EM250 Chipset
  • Ideal for ZigBee Applications
  • 4 Antenna Options
  • Xbee ZB
  • Ember EM250 Chipset
  • Ideal for Zigbee Cross-Compliant Applications
  • 4 Antenna Options

Decision factors
  • Do I need MESH ???
  • If NO
  • XBee 802.15.4 (Freescale based)
  • 802.15.4 (point to multipoint)
  • Slightly lower price than Series 2
  • Lower more predictable latency
  • More predictable battery life
  • If YES
  • Do I need ALL nodes to sleep (battery operated)
    and is it ok to have a proprietary Solution ?
  • IF NO
  • XBee Znet 2.5 / ZB (Ember based)
  • Mesh support (vector based)
  • Automatic route discovery
  • Self-healing
  • Extended range through mesh
  • IF YES
  • XBee DigiMESH2.4 (Freescale based)
  • Mesh support (peer-to-peer based)
  • Automatic route discovery

XBee Platform Agility
  • Shared footprint
  • Similar commands and interface (some exceptions)
  • Future-proof footprint
  • Considerable ongoing development
  • Ability to change RF functionality quickly,
    without significant redesign.

AT/API Command Mode Demo
Digi added advantageDrop in Networking
End-to-End Wireless networks
Central Systems
Zigbee PAN
Local Access
Drop-in Network Architecture
Management Site Survey Tools
ConnectPort X8
ConnectPort X2
ConnectPort X4/6
XBee Wall Router
XBee XTender XBee/9XTend Bridge
Rabbit PK400
Digi XBee Adapters
Embedded Modules and Device Adapters
Rabbit 4510W 4400W
MaxStream XBee Modules
XBee Adapters (SP-style)
  • Versions - Now
  • XBee 232 DB9
  • XBee 485 Terminal Block
  • XBee 1-Wire RJ45
  • Next Versions
  • XBee Digital I/O Terminal Block
  • XBee Analog I/O Terminal Block(0-10 volts, 12
  • Battery (N-cell), externally powered, or both for
  • Supports all XBee formats with PRO level range

XBee Adapters (EP-style)
  • XBee USB
  • USB Host Connected
  • Quick connect to a PC
  • Drivers compatible with other MaxStream USB
  • Supports all XBee formats at a PRO level
  • XBee 232PH
  • Parasitically powered
  • Simple serial connectivity
  • RS232 only
  • Ember 2.5 and Zigbee PRO compatibility

New PIC Coming
  • Small form factor
  • Digi EdgePort/1 Size
  • Value connectivity

XBee USB 232PH
New PIC Coming
  • Low power, low cost simple ZigBee adapter
  • Targeted at Point of Sale, Transaction
    Processing and simple Terminal server
  • Powered from Serial Port with small rechargeable
  • May also be added to current Digi DS, TS and
    Cellular products
  • Supports MaxStream APIs
  • Currently compatible with only Ember 2.5 and
    ZigBee PRO stacks

XBee Wall Router
Universal Input (swappable US, UK, EU, Japan,
Australia plugs)
Internal Antenna
Cordless, mains powered form factor for simple
plug-in router function
  • Simple Router
  • Easy-to-deploy
  • Non-intrusive
  • Future Versions
  • Power Control

Provisioning Button
Single/ Multiple LEDs
XBee-PRO with router function
  • Built in Sensors
  • Temp and Light

IntroducingConnectPort X Gateways
ConnectPort X features
  • Digi Cellular / Ethernet /Zigbee Gateway Routers
  • Transparant Gateway operation
  • Remote configuration and monitoring of ZigBee

ConnectPort X8
Embedded IPsec or SSL VPN
Small Form Factor 1.25x7.75x4.12 in.
  • Built in Mgt. with
  • Web User Interface
  • CLI
  • Connectware Agent

Digi PCIe embedded WiFi
Embedded NS9750 ARM9 Processor
Mounting Brackets Under the Enclosure
9-30VDC Power
  • WAN Internal Radios
  • Fully enclosed to prevent damage or theft
  • Siemens MC/AC75 EDGE/GPRS or Kyocera M200 CDMA
  • PCI Express Module Sierra MC8755, 8765, 8775
  • MC5720/25

LEDs for Link, Activity, Signal Strength
Four 50 Ohm Antenna Connector Bank for -Wireless
WAN 2.5/3G -WiFi 802.11 b/g -Zigbee 802.15.4
ConnectPort X Gateways
ConnectPort X8
  • Network Flexibility
  • 3G EVDO or HSDPA for Wireless WAN
  • 2.5G EDGE/GPRS and 1xRTT Wireless WAN(1xRTT
    option via Sierra EV-DO PCIe module)
  • Ethernet for WAN or LAN
  • 802.11.bg for WAN or LAN
  • Mesh Zigbee
  • MaxStream Freescale 802.15.4
  • MaxStream Ember 2.5 stack, 3.0 when available
  • MaxStream Freescale ZigBee available upon release
  • Security
  • IPSEC/SSL Tunneling on WAN Connections with DES,
    3DES or AES Encryption
  • 128 bit encryption on the Zigbee/802.15.4 Network
  • Commercial/Industrial Grade
  • Enclosed card/module to reduce breakage/theft
  • External antennas with standard connectors
  • Extended operating temperature, -20? to 60?C
  • Hardened enclosure with built-in mounting flanges
  • Real-time clock

  • Dynamic, object-oriented language
  • Extensive libraries
  • Works well with other languages
  • True Open Source-gt no royalties
  • Runs on a wide range of operating systems-
    Windows, Linux/Unix, Mac OS X, OS/2, Amiga, Palm
    Handhelds, and Nokia mobile phones. Python has
    also been ported to the Java and .NET virtual
  • Used by Google, Yahoo, uTube, NASA, Honeywell,
    Disney, IBM, National Weather Service
  • Supporting Rel 2.5 downloadable from
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