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Developing a Checklist for Pork Quality

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Developing a Checklist for Pork Quality – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Developing a Checklist for Pork Quality


1
Developing a Checklist for Pork Quality
  • Steven J Moeller
  • Department of Animal Sciences
  • The Ohio State University

2
Focus on Pork Muscle Quality
  • Functionality is a common term used to describe
    pork quality
  • Factors that affect consumer acceptance or demand
    for pork and pork products
  • Factors that affect the processing and
    value-added opportunities for pork and pork
    products

3
Why are we interested in Quality?
  • Past 10 years
  • Producers have NOT been paid for quality, just
    lean content
  • Today
  • Packers are monitoring Quality and Positioning to
    assess quality on all pigs delivered
  • Future
  • Packers will differentiate quality
  • Producers who are looking to establish targeted,
    niche, specified markets will need to meet
    quality standards and take the necessary steps to
    deliver it

4
Critical Control Points for Quality
Farm
50 of variation
Facilities Handling
Genetics
Nutrition
Transportation
Packing Plant
Pre-Harvest Harvest Chilling
Post Harvest
5
Goal Quality Eating Experiences
Honey Garlic Americas Cut
Peppered Chefs Prime
Stuffed Pork Roast with Cranberry Sauce
6
v Genetic Inputs
  • Choice of Breeds

7
National Barrow Show Results (240 lb basis)
8
National Barrow Show Results
9
National Barrow Show Results
10
Choice of Sires Within Breeds
  • Do genetic suppliers provide quality Information
  • EPDs for Quality
  • Indications of Quality in Selection Programs

PICmarq Technologies Free of Stress
Susceptibility RN Gene Free
11
Major Genes
  • Porcine Stress Syndrome
  • Rendement Napole Gene

12
Halothane Gene Impact on Quality
  • Major contributor to PSE meat
  • nn-Homozygous positive
  • 90 PSE, 5-10 DFD
  • 5 -10 Death before slaughter
  • Nn - Stress Gene Carrier
  • 30-50 will become PSE

13
NBS Stress Gene Results
14
Napole (RN) Gene Impact on QualityHampshire
Gene
  • Dominant Gene expressed primarily in Hampshires
  • DNA test now available
  • Results in
  • Lower Processed Ham Yields
  • Higher Moisture Loss in Cooking
  • Lower ultimate pH
  • Sour meat Taste (due to low pH)
  • Improved tenderness of fresh loin Some Studies
  • Acceptable juiciness

15
Napole Frequency in Pure Breeds (NBS Progeny
Test Summary 99-01)
16
v Nutrition
17
v Nutritional Approach
  • Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation
  • Vitamin E and Selenium
  • NRC Recommendation 30 mg/kg Vit E
  • Research with levels from 100 to 800 mg/kg showed
    improvement in reducing lipid oxidation, but
    conflicting results on improving color or water
    holding capacity
  • Response seems to be dosage and feeding time
    dependent
  • Vitamin D (might improve tenderness)
  • No major benefits have been observed
  • Chromium, Carnitine, Niacine
  • Not enough data to verify potential to improve
    quality

18
v Nutritional Approach
  • Improving Fat Quality
  • Soft fat is a problem in the industry
  • belly processing (thin bellies, poor slicing
    ability)
  • Off-flavors and shelf-life implications
    associated with feeding certain fats (oxidative
    rancidity, graying of the product)
  • Feeding of Highly-Unsaturated fats to Finishing
    Hogs
  • Change in pig fat saturatedunsaturated ratio
  • Vegetable oil sources (canola, soybean, corn,
    sunflower) are very high in unsaturated fats
  • Animal fat sources (tallow, choice white grease,
    lard) are much more saturated
  • CLA - Conjugated Linoleic Acid
  • Improvement in carcass lean
  • Improvement in belly firmness
  • may increase IMF due to changes in satunsaturated
    ratio

19
v Nutritional Approach
  • Feed Withdrawal Prior to Slaughter
  • 12 to 18 hours prior to stun and stick is
    recommended
  • Benefits include, improved dressing percentage,
    fewer problems with evisceration, reduced
    glycogen stores in the muscle
  • Concerns occur when feed removal is gt 18 hours
  • Carcass shrink occurs
  • Muscle quality may decline

20
v Nutritional Approach
  • ProteinEnergy Ratio
  • Related to Intra-muscular fat content
  • Feeding Protein Deficient diets in late finishing
    appears to improve intra-muscular fat with the
    loin
  • Problem - Sacrifice lean tissue growth
  • May actually reduce water-holding capacity

21
Paylean and Quality
  • Research at OSU
  • Duroc, Berkshire and High-lean Crossbred lines
  • 9 g/ton for 28 days
  • No differences in Quality due to Paylean
  • Tendency to be numerically tougher when fed
    Paylean
  • Tendency to reduce intra-muscular fat content
    when fed Paylean
  • Genetic line difference were large
  • Berkshires superior

22
v On-farm Handling
  • Health/Stress Management
  • Well-lit buildings reduce excitability
  • Human-pig interaction on a regular basis improves
    handling
  • Facilities for Loading and Movement
  • No Electrical Prods (increases in PSE if used)
  • Avoid movement and sorting during hottest time of
    day
  • Dual ramp design with open panels between and
    solid outside walls increase loading efficiency
  • Loading Ramps should have a maximum 20º slope

23
v Transportation
  • National Pork Board Trucker Quality Assurance
  • Use flat-floor trailers
  • avoid possum belly trailers
  • Allow 4.2 sq. ft for a 250 lb pig
  • 183, 250 lb pigs per load
  • DOAs double when gt 200 pigs/load

24
v Transportation between the farm and plant
  • Adjust for Weather Extremes
  • Fewer pigs/load in hot weather
  • Use wet sand or wet shavings (gt 60 F)
  • Use straw ONLY in Cold weather
  • Install water drips or wet animals once loaded
  • Open sides of trailer to allow air-flow in summer
    and close sides in winter
  • Unload immediately upon arrival to the plant

25
v Packing Plant Factors
  • Pre-harvest handling
  • Pen arrangements, water access, cooling, pen
    size, rest time
  • Stunning and Early Post-mortem
  • Method of stunning, stun to stick interval, scald
    time, evisceration time, death-cooler interval
  • Chilling
  • Method of chill, rate of chill
  • Fabrication processes
  • Packaging, product enhancement

26
v Pre-Harvest Handling
  • Penning
  • Free access to water, wide alleys, adequate room
    to rest
  • Water Spray
  • Misters or sprays to cool hogs when unloaded
  • Rest times
  • Minimum of 2 to 4 hours rest prior to stunning
  • Significant decrease in PSE

27
v Stun and Early Post-Mortem
  • Electrical stunning
  • Observed impact on incidence of broken backs,
    blood splash, bruising and meat quality as result
    of sudden muscle contraction
  • Constant amp systems should be utilized
  • CO2 stunning appears to significantly reduce
    quality problems
  • Less stress on the animal
  • Slower than US line-speeds

28
v Stun and Early Post-Mortem
  • Stun-to-stick interval
  • Bleed within 25 to 35 seconds
  • Reduces blood splash because pressure reduced
    quickly
  • Faster sticking allows carcasses to cool down
    quicker, reducing PSE
  • Bleeding in the Horizontal position will speed
    stick interval
  • Bleed Time
  • Minimum of 5 minutes prior to scalding

29
v Stun and Early Post-Mortem
  • Scald Time
  • Hair removal requires immersion in to hot scald
    tanks
  • More than 5 ½ to 7 ½ minutes can result in
    increased temperature of the carcass and increase
    the rate of pH decline

30
v Evisceration Time
  • Goal is to have the carcass from stun to chill
    within 25 to 30 minutes
  • Time implication is on how quickly we drop the
    temperature of the carcass
  • Intestinal contents maintain heat and allow
    glycolocis to occur at a rapid rate
  • Most U.S. plants today take longer than 30
    minutes to reach the cooler

31
v Chilling System
  • Cooler capacity and chill technique influence
    quality and the ability to retard growth of
    bacteria
  • Goal is to rapidly chill the carcass without
    creating cold-shortening of the muscles
  • Carcass temp of 36 to 40 F at 24 hrs post mortem
  • Blast Chilling Extremely cold, rapidly moving
    air
  • Usually a short time (45 min 2 hrs)
  • Reduce expression of Pale meat (improve color)
  • Little impact on Water-Holding Capacity in most
    studies
  • Impact is unpredictable

32
v Fabrication and Retail
  • Vacuum packaging improves shelf-life and
    preserves quality
  • Enhanced fresh pork (sodium, phosphates and
    water)
  • Benefits Improves Tenderness significantly as
    well as juiciness and flavor
  • Concerns - Success is a function of initial
    quality
  • Cant cover-up poor quality with enhancement
  • Changes the flavor and taste

33
Fastest Way to Improve Quality
  • Provide economic incentive based upon Pork
    Quality
  • Already present in any niche market
  • Producers respond to economic signals
  • Producers can use genetics, nutrition, handling,
    trucker selection, and packer selection to
    improve pork quality

34
Who is capturing Quality Markets
http//www.berkshiremeats.com/newsite/
35
Who is capturing Quality Markets
  • Five-Star Duroc Pork

36
Who is capturing Quality Markets
http//www.nimanranch.com/
37
Who is capturing Quality Markets
http//www.edenfarms.org/edenfarms/
38
Who is capturing Quality Markets
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