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Instructional Design (ID) using Project Management (PM)


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Title: Instructional Design (ID) using Project Management (PM)

Instructional Design (ID)using Project
Management (PM)
  • Presented by
  • The Community College of Denver
  • Metro State College of Denver
  • Jeffrey Forrest, Ph.D.

Presentation Objectives
  • Your role responsibilities as a teacher using
    Project Manager (PM)
  • Elements for developing successful instructional
    materials using PM
  • Manage your classroom activity/project for
  • performance, cost, time social parameters
  • As a teacher-project manager, you apply industry
    driven processes for planning to develop lessons
    in the classroom

  • This short course is a primer for introducing
    basic concepts related to PM, that teachers may
    use to enhance the development of their class for
    educational materials.
  • The PM principles presented are borrowed from
    the same processes used in aerospace engineering
    science to develop
  • space missions!

Project - Definition
  • How is your lesson plan a Project?
  • First, it is usually highly defined and offers
    specific information or activity
  • Second, when planning your class lessons or
    activity, you must always consider
  • cost what rate over what time, and cash flow
  • schedule the major milestones concept, start,
    phases, ending?
  • performance what specific benefits should your
    students receive from the effort?
  • social - socioeconomic considerations (ethics,
    culture, legal, access, diversity, etc.)?

ID Project Management
  • What are the top-level strategies for first
    applying PM to Instructional Design (ID)?
  • First, and regardless of the goal, PM addresses
    the development of an instructional system that
    is designed to meet the needs of a specific
    educational program or project
  • an educational program is ongoing (iterative),
    such as a high school program
  • an educational project is linear, such as a
    laboratory class experiment

Project Management (PM) Phases
  • Conceptualization what are my visions, goals,
    and objectives
  • Selling marketing do I need time and
    resources to sell my project to management or
  • Planning what are all the major steps I will
    need to accomplish, and how are they related?
  • Organization what resources do I need? When?
    How much money will these resources cost?
  • Staffing What human resources do I need? Other
    teachers? Student assistants? How do I schedule
    these individuals?
  • Directing How do I direct and manage human
  • Producing Do I have a solid plan along with all
    the resources I need to produce my ID project or
  • Controlling I do I establish a system for
    controlling my resources and stakeholders to the
    project or program?
  • Evaluation Do I have an evaluation plan? Is it
    established prior to beginning the project or

ID PM Key Elements
  • Conceptualization
  • Should I consult experts?
  • Have I identified and considered all of the
    stakeholders to my ID project?
  • Do I coordinate stakeholders with outside or
    inside facilitators?
  • Selling Marketing
  • Do you have approval or support from top
    authority this is very important, and should be
    communicated to all stakeholders
  • Will I have to change user attitudes? Invent new
    institutional systems? Develop shared ownership?
    Involve facilitator help?

ID PM Key Elements
  • Planning
  • Before starting ID production create a master
    plan !!
  • Support the master plan with strategies and
    tactics for unexpected changes in time, cost,
    schedule for each task or resource relationship
    in your master plan
  • Write a sub-plan for addressing socioeconomic
  • Organizing Staffing
  • Next, organize your design team, clients
    (sponsor, management), user (students), and any
    non-users involved.
  • Often, you ARE the design team and your client
    is the student!
  • Then, staff your ID project

ID PM Key Elements
  • Start Planning to Produce ID material
  • Develop a needs values assessment
  • This becomes your reference philosophy for the
  • Determine image for the ID material - what kind
    of learning experience?
  • Now, pause, and consider feasibility are you
    starting a project too large or demanding
    resources or skills beyond what can be obtained?
  • Then, and this is the hard part, determine how
    all the learning elements resources in your
    project will be integrated we call this
    instructional systems development (ISD)
  • Documentation very important! Create a paper
    trail of everything you do in the project
    especially all communication among stakeholders.
  • Then from your master plan, begin Controlling,
    Directing, Evaluation
  • organization project users client others

ID PM and You as a Teacher
  • Usually, a teacher has formal training in ID
  • Usually, a teacher directly develops the ID
  • Usually a teacher is more an educational
    specialist than a project manager
  • So, for increasing the effectiveness and
    efficiency of your teaching, you must practice
    and reflect on the management thinking
    presented in this tutorial!

Short-cut to PM!
  • The next series of slides present basic processes
    of PM that are used in the aerospace industry,
    and can easily be applied in the ID of classroom
  • Make note (print) the next slide, and use it as a
    reminder. (The explanations follow.)

My ID Project Phases to Remember!
need or concept
next need or concept, project
My Need and Concept
  • This can be the hardest part!
  • What is the specific problem my ID project is
  • What is my concept to address that problem?
  • What are my visions, goals, and objectives for my
  • What strategies, tactics, and resources will I
    require to complete the project?

My Systems Requirement Review (SRR)
  • ID Systems Requirement Review (SRR) this is
    where I plan for .
  • Scheduling, Costing, Performance estimates
  • Management tasks
  • information decision support to ID team or
    just to You!

My Preliminary Design Review (PDR)
  • Preliminary Design Review (PDR)
  • Do I have approval of a draft of my concept and
  • From your boss, peers, or sponsor?
  • Sometimes, this is just seeking approval of

My Detailed Design Review (DDR)
  • Detailed Design Review (DDR)
  • Did I conduct a test and gain approval of a
    working model of my concept?
  • This may be presenting a test-case to students or
    experts for feedback or evaluation.
  • Did your ID model work in terms of meeting the
    goals and objectives from your master plan?

My Final Design Review (FDR)
  • Final Design Review (FDR)
  • This is when You or your Management approve the
    total sum of your ID project!
  • Next . You go into,
  • production, inventory, distribution, evaluation
    of your ID project, or in teacher terms
  • Produce course material for delivery, plan for
    enough material, and evaluate the class outcomes

My ID Project Phases to Remember!
Again here are the key steps we just covered!
need or concept
next need or concept, project
ID PM - 1 problem
Other teachers
As a teacher ID PM, you are in a complex
environment requiring communication
collaboration this environment can have many
barriers to PM!
ID PM - Key Questions Traps
  • What type of need do we really have?
  • Have you really defined (concise and clearly) the
    problem your project is addressing?
  • Is what we think that we need a demand which is
    nice to know, or is there a real need to know
  • Depending on which you may need to change the
    priorities of your project planning.
  • Is what we think that we need real, or do we
    just want to hear it
  • We are in love with our own ideas this is one
    of the greatest factors causing projects to fail.
  • Make sure to seek expert review at each phase of
    your project!

ID PM Approaches
  • As an ID PM teacher, you usually combine the
    following epistemologies in your teaching
  • Artistic
  • Seeking student experiences, expressions, values,
    opinions, etc.?
  • Empirical
  • (artistic?) demanding students to provide data,
    take tests, and evaluate (often your task)
  • Analytical
  • validation for model development WAS YOUR ID
  • This is the most overlooked consideration!

What is MY ID PM Temperament?
  • Do I prefer being,
  • An Instructional Scientist?
  • develops instructional principles
  • An Instructional Technologist
  • develops instructional procedures
  • An Instructional Technician
  • develops instructional product platforms
  • Consider Your Traits they can bias or help your
    ID PM planning!
  • Blend all of these principles into your ID
    project do not focus on a single area!

ID PM -- Science vs. Technology
  • An ID PM is often a Manager of Technology
  • ID technology - concerned with developing using
    instructional technology
  • How will that blend into your project?
  • ID science concerned with developing, applying,
    and evaluating aspects of ID PM
  • As a teacher, you often blend all concerns above
    do not fixate your project plan on one aspect!

Instructional Systems Design vs. PM
  • Instructional Systems Development (ISD) vs. ID PM
  • Keep in mind that creating the system of
    strategies tactics for your ID can be very
  • But, as a PM, you must remember that any ID
    project is linear it has a life-cycle
  • This can create conflict and requires planning
    when working on your ID

ID Manager ISD vs. Media
  • As an example, consider the development of media
    used in your classroom
  • ISD teachers sometimes view media as a changing
    and iterative facet to ISD
  • we enjoy the act of conducting routine
    improvement processes!
  • However, ID PM teachers must view media
    development as a non-changing resource, at some
    point in the project
  • Or, you will miss deadlines!

Basic Learning Theories
  • Managing the Integration of learning theories
    into the ID PM concept.

ID PM Learning Theories Checklist
Jeff Forrest add this to first slide objectives
  • A good ID PM teachers considers quality in each
    step or phase of a project, consider
  • what should be taught how?
  • what kind of behavior change is desired?
  • how will users relate the purpose of the learning
    to the experience?
  • how many facets will the users apply?
  • senses, attitudes, etc.

ID PM Learning Theories Checklist
  • Quality (cont)
  • are the users ready to learn it?
  • how will they get enough exercise/experience to
    remember it?
  • what kind of environment will provide the best
  • what are the quality checks to insure that what
    is taught is correct appropriate?

ID PM Learning Theories Checklist
  • Quality (cont)
  • how will you match user perceptions to each
    element introduced?
  • what level of learning is required?
  • rote, understanding, application, correlation
  • what system will enhance retention positive

ID PM Learning Theories Checklist
  • Quality (cont)
  • How will you present the material for each
  • How will the communication process be tested?
  • How will the user apply what has been taught?
  • How will the user be examined?

ID PM Learning Theories Schedule
  • Consider the impact of learning theories when
    designing and managing your project schedule
  • task, cost, resource, time management
  • manage time cost to build for performance
  • Time to document for communication
  • document to protect yourself as a PM
  • Use a software package such as Microsoft Project
    (Web link) or Scitor Project Scheduler (among

ID PM Resource Management
  • Resource Determination Scheduling

ID PM Resource Management
  • You, as a teacher using PM to create educational
  • I want to create a videotape that I can use to
    teach a class in biology... what should I have in
    it?... how long should it be?... when do I need
    it?... how much will it cost?... how can I sell
    this to my management?
  • You, after reflecting on these questions
  • Good Grief ... What do I do first?

ID PM Resource Management
  • Respond by asking
  • why video?
  • what specific benefits will your tape provide to
    your students?
  • what are the demographics and learning
    characteristics of your students?
  • how what are your goals and learning objectives
    for your students?

ID PM Resource Management
  • Resource determination for your videotape
  • Ask yourself, consider, and determine
  • amount of materials to produce
  • each task needed to produce materials
  • schedule each task to produce materials
  • relationships of task resources
  • what needs to be finished to start the next
    task(s), or what tasks can start at the same
    time, etc.
  • schedule required financial resources needed for
    each task

ID PM Resource Management
  • Where do I get information to plan my project,
    schedule, and costs?
  • Use rules of thumb for estimating time costs
    for each task in your project
  • industry sources
  • school specific
  • your own estimate
  • opinions
  • historical samples

ID PM Resource Management
  • Here are some example rules of thumb from
    Expert derived examples
  • (in commercial industry)
  • screenplay 1pg. per finished minute
  • corporate video 1K - 2K per running minute
  • edit 1hr. per minute
  • video crew _at_ 1200 per day
  • corporate scripts 100 - 200 per minute
  • These types of examples, available for almost any
    project, must be used to schedule your resources
    and determine costs
  • Hint usually a simple search on the Web will
    reveal similar estimates for almost any type of
    ID PM

ID PM Project Time Management
ID PM Project Time Management
  • Estimating time
  • It is difficult to determine the amount of YOUR
    management time it will require to complete each
    phase of the ID Project.

ID PM Project Time Management
  • Consider times needed for these top-level steps
    in creating your ID (videotape example)
  • Demand/Need/Marketing Analysis
  • Project Scope
  • Organize the Project
  • Gather Information
  • Develop Blueprint
  • Create Draft Material
  • Test
  • Produce Master Materials
  • Reproduce
  • Distribute
  • Evaluate

ID PM Project Time Management
  • How about adding resources to cut time?
  • be careful when and how you add other IDs,
    Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), art directors,
  • they are artist . And can add time if you are
    not careful in setting deadlines
  • Requires strong communication skills
  • relationships - ego knowledge
  • In creative settings within ID PM these can be
    the biggest roadblocks to completing your project!

ID PM Project Time Management
  • Time reduction strategies -- consider
  • overlap tasks
  • modify working calendar/overtime (resources)
  • reduce of tasks or combine
  • decrease duration of tasks
  • Or, change ID project concept
  • Be careful not to do this too late, or in a rush

ID PM Project Time Management
  • Want to get real sophisticated in your ID time
    management? Then look into ..
  • Critical path methodology (CPM) (Web link)
  • shorten critical path by deleting or combining
    tasks on critical path
  • Program Evaluation Review (PERT) (Web link)
  • similar to CPM, used less because each project is
    so different it is difficult to define statistics

ID Project Time Management
  • Final advice on time management .
  • Use two schedules
  • one for distribution
  • one for your planning showing slack time, lead
    times etc.
  • you probably do not want you boss to see this
    schedule ..?

ID Cost Management
ID PM Cost Management
  • Here are some basic strategies for controlling
    costs in your ID project
  • change design
  • change production values
  • (trade decisions on what benefit you get from
    special features or benefits that add costs)
  • change resources
  • other creative ways?

ID Cost Management
  • Use software to schedule tasks and costs and to
    be used as an approval form. Here is an example
    aviation video training tape ID project

ID PM Organization
  • Structuring Tasks, Resources,
  • Time

My ID Project Phases
Remember these steps? Lets look at some issues
in the following slides related to each phase.
need or concept
next need or concept, project
ID PM Organization - PDR
  • Organize for PDR
  • time sensitive since SRR
  • how have things changed?
  • New objectives, new policy, new costs?
  • How has the environment changed for creating your

ID Organization - PDR
  • Organize for PDR
  • bring to approval meeting (remember that software
    for building a plan we talked about?)
  • cost, schedule, resource information story
    boards or other supporting information - experts
  • get approval for
  • preliminary design, cost, time resources

ID PM Organization - Team
  • The team members
  • Sponsor could be your supervisor
  • SMEs subject matter experts (thats usually
  • IDs instructional designers (thats usually
    you, but you may include other teachers)
  • Production who or what organization will
    produce your videotape or other ID
  • Trainers are others going to use your ID? If
    so, invite a few users to serve on your team
  • We also recommend you include a few students as
  • Project Manager that's you!

ID PM Organization - Team
  • Warnings about team members
  • Sponsor or boss
  • hear no evil, speak no evil, see no evil
  • SME
  • Overkill lets keep adding information
  • Designer
  • remove critical elements, because of the design
    constraints or image desired
  • Trainer
  • Other teachers provide infinite advice
  • Production
  • Usually want high production values all the
  • Project manager
  • MUST balance the strengths and weaknesses of the

ID PM Organization - Documents
  • Remember to Document
  • proposals, contracts, specs, schedules,
    financial, status reports, approval forms,
    conversations, letters, memos, diary

ID PM Organization - Meetings
  • Hold a Kick-off meeting with your ID Team
  • distribute itinerary well before meeting
  • structured as possible
  • you will have one or two formal meetings many
  • use for clarification of roles, responsibilities,

ID PM Information Search
  • The research proposal.

ID PM Information Search
  • Finding Needed Information for your ID project
  • Seek managers or donor viewpoint
  • info about, users, learning objectives, platforms
  • what info is missing vs. time resources
    available to find it
  • use marketing research if available

ID PM Information Search
  • Gathering information
  • observations, interviews, documentation
  • examples
  • users, focus groups - interview sample
  • tasks, review documentation
  • As a teacher, you should know how to conduct a
    literature scan
  • product, market analysis - compare existing video

ID PM Information Search
  • Considering the impact of interventions on
    your ID PM due to new information
  • one of the most difficult task of ID manager
  • what info is coming in?
  • is it relating to what you need?
  • is it causing unneeded secondary issues
  • do you know where to stop

Beginning the ID Project
  • Managing the design plan.

ID PM Plans
  • Types of plans these should be considered in
    your concept planning
  • Curriculum
  • ongoing plan
  • Syllabus
  • your project
  • Lesson plan
  • task element
  • learning objectives, lesson content, completion

ID PM Plan - Syllabus
  • Management concerns
  • does the project integrate with the curriculum?
  • what are the performance objectives for each
    syllabus phase?
  • what are the teaching strategies for each phase?
  • what is the content of each phase?
  • what is the time schedule for each phase?
  • what resources are the resources needed?

ID PM Plans - Lesson
  • Lesson plans should consider
  • Lesson objective
  • elements of knowledge
  • schedule
  • equipment
  • instruction actions
  • user actions
  • completion standards

ID PM Plans - Management
  • YOUR top management tasks
  • keep ID staff within cost, performance schedule
  • Quality assurance supervision
  • Obtain regular feedback from SMEs IDs
  • Sponsor/boss approval

ID Testing, Production, Distribution Evaluation
ID Testing
  • Test draft
  • Test components or drafts of your ID for risk
  • how?
  • use statistics, qualifications
  • get a good sample of population
  • test in actual environment if possible
  • use full scale draft or model

ID PM Testing
  • Phases methods
  • Concept analyze
  • PDR test components
  • DDR test the model/draft
  • FDR on site test (in class)
  • Life cycle continuous evaluation (curriculum)

ID PM Production
  • This is the creation of the master copy of you ID
  • Instructional integrity vs. production values
  • Sending your ID materials out for production can
    be a risky stage even if in-house!
  • Delays
  • Cost overruns
  • Flaws
  • Not packaged or formatted correctly
  • And others!

ID PM Production
  • During production, here are YOUR PM tasks
  • brief producers in writing verbal seek
  • coordinate production schedule
  • require samples of master material
  • go on site if possible
  • obtain sponsor approval

ID PM Production
  • During production, here are YOUR PM tasks
  • raw materials inspect, inventory
  • assembly inspect, test, inventory
  • modifications inspect, test, inventory
  • finished product inspect, test, reproduce
  • reproductions inspect, random test
  • end user packaging, shipping

ID PM Reproduction Distribution
  • Master copy reproduction distribution some
    considerations for you as the PM
  • consult with reproduction firm
  • schedule
  • review samples
  • storage distribution
  • sponsor approval for distribution

ID Testing
  • Test your ID materials for
  • environmental compatibility
  • reliability
  • maintainability
  • supportability
  • personnel
  • software compatibility
  • meeting objectives as related to end user!

ID Evaluation Test
  • Get an outside evaluation consultant
  • try to hire that consultant yourself!
  • get sponsor approval for evaluation strategy
  • watch out for analysis traps
  • evaluate what needs to be evaluated
  • very sensitive area, relationship problems

ID PM Design Reviews Checklist
  • Conducted from both organizational worker
  • why this program?
  • identify source of problem
  • determine possible solutions
  • communicate results
  • performance problem?
  • training or educational
  • environment problem?
  • procedural or educational

ID Design Review Checklist
  • Educational?
  • then compare what is known to what should be
  • Training?
  • then compare actual performance to what the
    performance should be
  • Statement of the Problem

Determine what we need to teach for increased
Determine the specific areas of each
individual students technique or
knowledge-base that needs improvement.
ID Design Review Checklist
  • Report analysis
  • features and benefits
  • instruction not needed
  • results, proposed solutions, rationale, trade -
    off studies
  • Determine standards conditions
  • Write performance statement
  • procedural
  • transfer
  • Test
  • Select, order content
  • Develop lessons
  • Determine platform

ID PM Management Summary
  • Summary
  • understand the role responsibilities of the ID
    Project Manager
  • integrate basic learning theories into ID
  • identify the task elements for successful ID
  • construct an ID project for
  • performance, cost, time, social parameters
  • understand ID basic and subcontractor

Instructional Design (ID)using Project
Management (PM)
Thank you!
  • Presented by
  • The Community College of Denver
  • Metro State College of Denver
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