Structuring the Interview - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Title: Structuring the Interview


1
  • Chapter 4
  • Structuring the Interview

2
Chapter Summary
  • Opening the Interview
  • The Body of the Interview
  • Closing the Interview
  • Summary

3
Opening the Interview
  • It takes two parties to launch an interview
    successfully.
  • Two-Step Process
  • Establish rapport
  • Orienting the other party
  • Rapport and orientation are often intermixed and
    reduce relational uncertainty.

4
Opening Techniques
  • State the Purpose p. 79
  • Adapt the opening to each interviewee and
    situation
  • Summarize the Problem
  • Know when to end the opening and move on
  • The summary should inform not spill into body
  • Explain How a Problem Was Discovered p80
  • Offer an Incentive or Reward (5 beer drinking
    study)
  • Request for Advice or Assistance (be sincere)
  • Refer to the Known Position of the Interviewee
    (make sure you are right?)
  • Refer to the Person Who Sent You to the
    Interviewee p. 81
  • Refer to Your Organization
  • Request a Specific Amount of Time (more than 5-10
    min appt.)
  • Ask a question avoid closed questions answered
    with - no
  • Use a Combination p. 82 make it a dialogue
    involve interviewee

5
Nonverbal Communication in Openings
  • An effective opening depends upon how you look,
    act and say what you say.
  • First impressions determine tone and flow
  • Territoriality knock await response
  • Appearance and Dress contributes to first
    impressions
  • Touch handshake
  • Sex and culture regulate nonverbal communication
    in openings

6
The Body of the Interview
  • Interview Guide
  • An interview guide is a carefully structured
    outline of topics and subtopics to be covered
    during an interview.
  • A guide ensures the consideration of all
    important topics and subtopics.
  • It assists in recording answers and recall at a
    later date.

7
The Body of the Interview
  • Interview Guide
  • Outline Sequences
  • Topical
  • Time
  • Space
  • Cause-to-effect
  • Problem-solution

8
The Body of the Interview
  • Interview Schedules
  • A nonscheduled interview is merely an interview
    guide with no questions prepared in advance.
  • Unintentional interviewer bias is most likely to
    occur in a nonscheduled interview.

9
The Body of the Interview
  • Interview Schedules
  • A moderately scheduled interview contains all
    major questions with possible probing questions
    under each.
  • A moderately scheduled interview lessens the
    dangers of instant question creation.

10
The Body of the Interview
  • Interview Schedules
  • A highly scheduled interview includes all
    questions and the exact wording to be used with
    each interviewee.
  • Highly scheduled interviews sacrifice flexibility
    and adaptability for control.

11
The Body of the Interview
  • Interview Schedules
  • A highly scheduled standardized interview is the
    most thoroughly planned and structured.
  • All question and answer options are stated in
    identical words to each interviewee.
  • Highly scheduled standardized interviews are
    necessary for precision, replicability, and
    reliability.

12
The Body of the Interview
  • Interview Schedules
  • Consider a strategic combination of schedule
    types.
  • Combined schedules enable interviewers to satisfy
    multiple needs.
  • Advantages and Disadvantages on Figure 4.1 on
    page 90

13
The Body of the Interview
14
The Body of the Interview
  • Question Sequences
  • Tunnel Sequence A series of similar questions,
    either open or closed. It works well with
    informal and simple interviews.
  • Funnel Sequence Begins with a broad, open-ended
    question and proceeds with evermore restricted
    questions. It works well with motivated
    interviewees.

15
The Body of the Interview
  • Question Sequences
  • Inverted Funnel Sequence Begins with a closed
    question and proceeds toward open questions. It
    provides a warm-up time for those reluctant to
    talk.
  • Combination Sequences hourglass sequence p. 92
    bottom Figure 4.5, open closed open
  • Diamond Sequence Figure 4.6 closed open
    closed (these combinations help with specific
    situations)

16
The Body of the Interview
  • Question Sequences
  • Quintamensional Design Sequence Five-step
    approach that proceeds from an interviewees
    awareness of the issue to attitudes uninfluenced
    by the interviewer, specific attitudes, reasons
    for these attitudes, and intensity of attitude.
    It is effective at assessing attitudes and
    beliefs and is often used in opinion polls. P.
    93

17
Closing the Interview
  • Take your time and be tactful in what you say and
    do in the closing.
  • The closing often signals the continuation of a
    relationship.

18
Closing the Interview
  • Functions and Guidelines for Closings
  • First, the closing signals the termination of the
    interview but not the relationship.
  • Second, the closing may express supportiveness to
    enhance the relationship and bring the interview
    to a positive close.
  • Third, the closing may summarize the interview. A
    summary must accurately reflect the important
    elements of the interview.

19
Closing the Interview
  • Functions and Guidelines for Closings
  • Be sincere and honest.
  • Do not rush the closing.
  • Do not introduce new topics or ideas during the
    closing.
  • Leave the door open for future contacts.
  • Avoid false closings when the interview is not
    really over.
  • Avoid failed departures when you soon meet up
    again with the party after having concluded the
    interview.

20
Closing the Interview
  • Closing Techniques
  • Offer to answer questions.
  • Use clearinghouse questions.
  • Declare completion of the intended purpose.
  • Make personal inquiries.
  • Make professional inquiries.
  • Signal that time is up.

Continued...
21
Closing the Interview
  • Closing Techniques
  • Explain the reason for the closing
  • Express appreciation or satisfaction
  • Arrange for the next meeting
  • Summarize the interview

22
Closing the Interview
  • Nonverbal Closing Actions
  • Plan the closing just as you do the opening and
    body of the interview.
  • Combine effective verbal and nonverbal techniques
    into effective closings.

23
Closing the Interview
  • Nonverbal Closing Actions
  • Common Nonverbal Closing Actions
  • Straightening up in your seat.
  • Leaning forward.
  • Standing up or moving away from the other party.
  • Uncrossing your legs.
  • Placing your hands on your knees as if preparing
    to rise.

Continued...
24
Closing the Interview
  • Nonverbal Closing Actions
  • Common Nonverbal Closing Actions
  • Breaking eye contact.
  • Offering to shake hands.
  • Making hand movements.
  • Smiling.
  • Looking at a clock.

25
Summary
  • All three parts of each interviewopening, body,
    and closingare vital to its success.
  • The opening influences how both parties perceive
    themselves and one another.
  • The body must be carefully structured with an
    appropriate sequence that guides the questions.
  • The closing not only brings the interview to an
    end, but it may summarize information.

26
  • Chapter 5
  • The Probing Interview

27
Chapter Summary
  • Preparing the Interview
  • Selecting Interviewees and Interviewers
  • Conducting the Interview
  • Preparing the Report or Story
  • The Interviewee in the Probing Interview
  • Summary

28
Preparing the Interview
  • Determining the Purpose
  • Your purpose controls how you prepare and what
    you do in probing interviews.

29
Preparing the Interview
  • Researching the Topic
  • The Internet and databases are becoming essential
    resources for interviews.
  • Paying attention to omissions, dates, and interim
    events may help to focus your purpose.
  • Evidence of research impresses interviewees.

30
Preparing the Interview
  • Structuring the Interview Interview Guide
  • Plan a structural sequence but remain flexible.
  • Who was involved?
  • What happened?
  • When did it happen?
  • Where did it happen?
  • How did it happen?
  • Why did it happen?

31
Preparing the Interview
  • Structuring the Interview The Opening
  • A solid opening is essential in motivating an
    interviewee.
  • Know what off the record means to both parties.

32
Preparing the Interview
  • Structuring the Interview Body
  • A moderate schedule is a useful tool for long
    interviews.
  • The moderate schedule allows the flexibility to
    delete questions and create new ones.

33
Preparing the Interview
  • Structuring the Interview Closing
  • Abide by time limits.
  • Involve the interviewee actively in the closing.

34
Selecting Interviewees and Interviewers
  • Selecting Interviewees Level of Information
  • Make sure your interviewee possesses the
    information you need.

35
Selecting Interviewees and Interviewers
  • Selecting Interviewees Availability
  • Do not assume a potential interviewee is
    unavailable ask first.

36
Selecting Interviewees and Interviewers
  • Selecting Interviewees Willingness
  • Fear of what may be revealed in an interview
    might make participants reluctant.
  • Resort to arm-twisting as a last resort.

37
Selecting Interviewees and Interviewers
  • Selecting Interviewees Ability
  • Many potential interviewees are willing but
    unable to participate for several reasons
  • Faulty memory.
  • Poor health.
  • State of shock.
  • Inability to express or communicate ideas.
  • Proneness to exaggeration or oversimplification.
  • Unconscious repression or distortion of
    information.
  • Biases or prejudices.
  • Habitual lying.

38
Selecting Interviewees and Interviewers
  • Selecting Interviewers
  • An interviewer should be
  • Friendly
  • Courteous
  • Organized
  • A keen observer
  • A good listener
  • Patient
  • Persistent
  • Skillful at asking probing questions

39
Selecting Interviewees and Interviewers
  • Selecting Interviewers Status
  • Status difference and similarity affect
    motivation, freedom to respond, control, and
    rapport.
  • Status is a critical criterion for some
    interviewees.

40
Selecting Interviewees and Interviewers
  • Relationship of Interviewer and Interviewee
  • Be aware of the relational history of the
    parties.
  • Be aware of perceived similarities and
    differences of both parties.

41
Conducting the Interview
  • Motivating Interviewees
  • Know what motivates each interviewee.
  • Trust is essential for probing interviews.

42
Conducting the Interview
  • Asking Questions Ask Open-Ended Questions
  • Use the number of questions necessary to get the
    job done.
  • Listening is as important as asking.
  • Make the interviewee the star of the show.
  • Be an active listener, not a passive sponge.
  • Know what you are doing and why.
  • Think before asking.

43
Conducting the Interview
  • Note Taking and Tape Recording Note Taking
  • Weigh carefully the pros and cons of note taking
    prior to the interview.
  • Note taking should not threaten the interviewee.

44
Conducting the Interview
  • Note Taking and Tape Recording Tape Recording
  • Three advantages of tape recording
  • Enables you to relax and concentrate on the
    interviewee.
  • You can hear or watch what was said at a later
    time without having to rely on memory.
  • A recording may pick-up answers that may have
    been inaudible at the time.

45
Conducting the Interview
  • Note Taking and Tape Recording Tape Recording
  • Three disadvantages of tape recording
  • Tape recorders can malfunction or create
    technical interruptions.
  • Some people view recorders as an intrusion.
  • Tapes provide permanent, undeniable records that
    may threaten some interviewees.

46
Conducting the Interview
  • Handling Difficult Situations
  • A Sanitized versus a Real Setting
  • You may need to feel and experience before you
    can ask meaningful questions.
  • Use good sense and good judgment in probing
    interviews.
  • In unsanitized situations, prepare for human
    suffering and risks.

47
Conducting the Interview
  • Handling Difficult Situations
  • The Press Conference or Group Interview
  • The interviewee usually controls the press
    conference.
  • Your relationship with the interviewee is
    critical at a press conference.

48
Conducting the Interview
  • Handling Difficult Situations
  • The Broadcast Interview
  • Being familiar with the physical setting may
    avoid surprises.
  • Spontaneous questions generate spontaneous
    answers.

49
Conducting the Interview
  • Handling Difficult Interviewees
  • The seven common types of interviewees are
  • Emotional Interviewees
  • Hostile Interviewees
  • Reticent Interviewees
  • Talkative Interviewees
  • Evasive Interviewees
  • Confused Interviewees
  • Dissimilar Interviewees

50
Preparing the Report or Story
  • Make it a habit to check all sources.
  • Be honest, accurate, and fair in reporting
    interview results.

51
The Interviewee and the Probing Interview
  • Doing Homework
  • Get to know the interviewer as well as the
    interviewer knows you.
  • Who is the interviewer?
  • Who does the person represent?
  • How long will the interview take?
  • What information does the person want?
  • How will the information be used?

52
The Interviewee and the Probing Interview
  • Understanding the Relationship
  • Appreciate the impact of upward and downward
    communication in interviews.
  • Understand the relationship prior to the
    interview.

53
The Interviewee and the Probing Interview
  • Awareness of the Situation
  • Assess the many situational variables that will
    impact the interview.
  • Consider establishing ground rules such as time,
    place, length, which topics are off-limits, and
    the identity of the interviewer.

54
The Interviewee and the Probing Interview
  • Anticipating Questions
  • Be as prepared to answer as the interviewer is
    prepared to ask.
  • Rehearsing possible questions and answers is a
    common preparatory technique.

55
The Interviewee and the Probing Interview
  • Listening to Questions
  • Listen and think before answering
  • Be patient.
  • Focus attention on the question of the moment.
  • Concentrate on both the interviewer and the
    question.
  • Do not dismiss a question too quickly as
    irrelevant or stupid.

56
The Interviewee and the Probing Interview
  • Answering Strategically
  • Avoid defensiveness.
  • Share control of the interview.
  • Explain what you are doing and why.
  • Take advantage of question pitfalls.
  • Support your answers.
  • Use analogies and metaphors to explain unknown or
    complicated things.
  • Organize long answers like mini-speeches.

57
Summary
  • The probing interview is the most common type of
    interview.
  • This chapter has presented guidelines for
    structured probing interviews that call for
    thorough preparation and flexibility.
  • Interviewees need not be passive participants.

58
  • Chapter 7
  • The Recruiting Interview

59
Chapter Summary
  • The Changing World of Work
  • Preparing the Recruiting Effort
  • Obtaining and Reviewing Information for
    Applicants
  • Structuring the Interview
  • Conducting the Interview
  • Evaluating the Interview
  • Summary

60
The Changing World of Work
  • Brains are more important than brawn.
  • The knowledge worker is now the prized employee.
  • Knowledge, information, technology, medicine and
    data are now where work and competition are
    centered.
  • Finding, recruiting, interviewing, evaluating,
    and retaining quality employees are an
    organizations biggest challenges.

61
The Changing World of Work
  • Essential Applicant Skills
  • Language and the accompanying culture
  • Problem-solving attitude
  • Computer competent
  • The ability to deal effectively with numbers
  • Strong interpersonal skills

Continued
62
The Changing World of Work
  • Essential Applicant Skills
  • Global and diverse perspective
  • Willingness to learn new skills and ideas
  • Ability to deal effectively with change and job
    ambiguity
  • Customer and quality oriented
  • Team player and group leader

63
The Changing World of Work
  • Where to Find Good Applicants
  • Internet Options
  • Career catalogue department at large bookstores
  • College placement services
  • Ethnic organizations
  • Job fairs
  • Downsizing or merging organizations
  • Personal associates and friends
  • Professional societies

64
Preparing the Recruiting Effort
  • Reviewing EEO Laws
  • EEO Laws to Know
  • Know both state and federal laws
  • Federal EEO laws pertain to all organizations
    that
  • Deal with the federal government
  • Have more than fifteen employees
  • Have more than 50,000 in government contracts
  • Engage in interstate commerce

Continued...
65
Preparing the Recruiting Effort
  • Reviewing EEO Laws
  • EEO Laws to Know
  • State laws may be more stringent than federal
    laws.
  • Unintentional violations are still violations.
  • EEO laws apply to applicants who are not
    minorities or women.

66
Preparing the Recruiting Effort
  • Reviewing EEO Laws
  • Compliance with EEO Laws
  • Bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQs) are
    the keys to nondiscriminatory hiring.
  • EEO violations are easy to avoid.
  • Focus on the positive, not the negative.
  • Treat applicants as you would want to be treated.

67
Preparing the Recruiting Effort
  • Reviewing EEO Laws
  • Keep Up-to-Date
  • Current information on EEO laws is essential.
  • Accepting or keeping unlawful information create
    liability for the company even if the information
    was not requested.

68
Preparing the Recruiting Effort
  • Developing an Applicant Profile
  • The profile must be a composite of BFOQs.
  • The profile is the ideal by which all applicants
    are measured.
  • Is past performance the best predictor of future
    performance?
  • Can non-dominant group applicants match your
    profile?

69
Preparing the Recruiting Effort
  • Assessing What Applicants Want
  • What Do Applicants Desire in a Position and
    Career?
  • Applicants are increasingly information driven.
  • Applicants may not look or dress like you live
    with it.
  • What Do Applicants Desire in an Interviewer?
  • The recruiter is the organization in the
    applicants eyes.
  • Select recruiters with applicant characteristics
    in mind.

70
Obtaining and Reviewing Information on Applicants
  • Application Forms
  • Resumes
  • Cover Letters
  • Letters of Recommendation References
  • Tests
  • Basic skills tests
  • Personality tests
  • Honesty tests
  • Many sources have criticized the use and validity
    of honesty tests.
  • Probing deeply into answers is essential in
    assessing honesty.

71
Obtaining and Reviewing Information on Applicants
  • Benefits of Previewing Applicants
  • Doing your homework leads to more effective
    interviews.

72
Structuring the Interview
  • The Opening
  • Establishing Rapport
  • Orientation
  • The Opening Question

73
Structuring the Interview
  • The Body of the Interview
  • Unstructured interviews do not recruit top
    quality applicants.
  • Highly structured interviews are more reliable
    but less flexible and adaptable.
  • Moderately structured interviews are used by the
    majority of recruiters.
  • In all cases, get the applicant talking as
    quickly as possible.

74
Structuring the Interview
  • Closing the Interview
  • The closing must sustain the positive tone of the
    interview.
  • Do not encourage or discourage applicants
    needlessly.
  • Make decisions and notify all applicants as soon
    as possible.

75
Conducting the Interview
  • Nontraditional Interviewing Approaches
  • Applicants and recruiters prefer the traditional
    one-on-one interview.
  • Stifle any signs of competition in seminar
    interviews.

76
Conducting the Interview
  • Asking Questions
  • Keep your questions open-ended.
  • Applicants give longer answers to open-ended
    questions.

77
Conducting the Interview
  • Common Question Pitfalls
  • Be on guard for pitfalls in primary and secondary
    questions.
  • Evaluative responses will lead to safe,
    superficial answers.
  • Do not ask unlawful questions.
  • Do not ask for information that you already have.

78
Conducting the Interview
  • Traditional Questions
  • Interest in the Organization
  • Work-related (general)
  • Work-related (specific)
  • Teams and Team Work
  • Education and Training
  • Career Paths and Goals
  • Performance
  • Salary and Benefits
  • Career Field

79
Conducting the Interview
  • Non-Traditional Questions
  • Past Experiences
  • Critical Incidents
  • Hypothetical Situations
  • A Case Approach

80
Conducting the Interview
  • Giving Information
  • Information is the primary interest of
    applicants.
  • Minimize you in the interview.
  • Rule 1 Keep your ears open and your mouth shut.

81
Evaluating the Interview
  • Record your impressions and reactions
    immediately.
  • Assess the performance of both interview parties.

82
Evaluating the Interview
83
Summary
  • The recruiting interview can be an effective
    means of selecting employees, but it takes
    preparation that includes becoming familiar with
    state and federal EEO laws, developing an
    applicant profile, obtaining and reviewing
    information on applicants, and developing a
    carefully structure interview.
  • When the interview is concluded, conduct
    evaluations of the applicant and yourself.
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