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ADD and ADHD. Hayley Gardner. Halie Hudson. Jonathon Johnson. Suzette Matthews. Kate Noble. What is ADD/ADHD? ... ADHD tends to run in families, which means ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ADD and ADHD

  • Hayley Gardner
  • Halie Hudson
  • Jonathon Johnson
  • Suzette Matthews
  • Kate Noble

What is ADD/ADHD?
  • Attention Deficit Disorder is a biologically
    based condition causing a persistent pattern of
    difficulties resulting in one or more of the
    following behaviors
  • inattention
  • hyperactivity
  • impulsivity

What Is The Cause?
  • HeredityADHD tends to run in families, which
    means that genes may play a role. Most children
    with ADHD have at least one family member with
    the disorder.
  • Changes in Brain FunctionStudies show that the
    brains of children with ADHD may function
    differently than those of other children. These
    children may have an imbalance of chemicals in
    the brain that help to regulate behavior.

The Three Types
  • Inattention
  • difficulty attending or focusing on a specific
    task. People with Attention Deficit Disorder may
    become distracted within a matter of minutes.
    Inattentive behavior may also cause difficulties
    with staying organized (e.g. losing things),
    keeping track of time, completing tasks, and
    making careless errors.
  • Hyperactivity
  • difficulty inhibiting behavior. These people are
    in constant motion. They may engage in excessive
    fiddling, leg swinging, and squirming in their
  • Impulsivity
  • difficulty controlling impulses. These people do
    not stop and think before they act. They say and
    do whatever comes into their mind without
    thinking about the consequences. They might say
    something inappropriate and regret it later,
    blurt out a response to question before a person
    is done speaking to them, or have difficulty
    waiting for their turn in line.

Signs And Symptoms
  • Symptoms of inattention
  • ignores details makes careless mistakes
  • difficulty sustaining attention or listening when
    directly addressed
  • difficulty following instructions or finishing
  • Some symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity are
  • fidgety, squirmy
  • difficulty staying seated
  • in constant motion, often running or climbing
  • physical restlessness difficulty with quiet,
    sedentary activities
  • excessive talking blurts out answers before
    questions are completed
  • difficulty waiting interrupts or intrudes on
  • Because hyperactivity and inattention are
    expected behaviors at some ages in childhood, it
    is the impulsive behaviors that often stand out
    in very young children with ADD / ADHD. By age
    four or five, though, most children have become
    more selectively attentive and less active, so
    those with ADD / ADHD stand out in all three
    behaviors inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and

ADD and ADHD in the Classroom
  • Become familiar with your child's medical, legal,
    and educational rights
  • Keep in touch with your child's teachers and
    school officials to monitor your child's progress
    and keep them informed about your child's needs.
  • Other tips for classroom success..
  • Reduce seating distractions. Lessening
    distractions might be as simple as seating your
    child near the teacher instead of near the
  • Use a homework folder for parent-teacher
    communications. The teacher can include
    assignments and progress notes, and you can check
    to make sure all work is completed on time.
  • Break down assignments. Keep instructions clear
    and brief, breaking down larger tasks into
    smaller, more manageable pieces.
  • Give positive reinforcement. Always be on the
    lookout for positive behaviors. Ask the teacher
    to offer praise when your child stays seated,
    doesn't call out, or waits his or her turn,
    instead of criticizing when he or she doesn't.

  • ADHD had been found to exist in every country
    studied, but most commonly diagnosed in the
    United States.
  • ADHD affects three to seven percent of all
    children in the U.S.
  • In 2004, nearly four million children younger
    than 18 in the U.S. had been diagnosed with
  • In general, 5-8 of children likely to have ADHD
    while 4-5 of adults do so.

Statistics Continued
  • Boys are about three times more likely than girls
    to be diagnosed with ADHD.
  • ADHD is under-diagnosed in girls, since their
    symptoms are less dramatic than those in boys and
    thus draw less attention from parents and
  • This is due to a lower likelihood of aggressive
    and antisocial behavior in girls.

Statistics Continued
  • The ADHD treatment rate among Caucasian children
    is significantly higher than among African and
    Hispanic Americans.
  • Obstacles to ADHD treatment are higher in the
    African-American and female populations.
  • Incidence of ADHD is higher in urban than rural
    communities and higher in more affluent than less

Why Higher Incidence in U.S.?
  • Increased incidence of ADHD in U.S. can, in part,
    be explained by the fact that the U.S. permits
    direct marketing of ADHD drugs to the general
    public whereas most other countries do not.
  • Due to high to the high risk traits of ADHD
    affected people, a higher prevalence of ADHD in
    the immigrants heading for America in former
    centuries than in the general population.

Effects on Family
  • Parents may become frustrated or angry because
    children misbehave
  • Adolescents seem to not be bothered by normal
    discipline routines
  • It is hard to trust the teen with
  • Emotional Immaturity
  • Parents may give more attention to the child with

Family Coping with ADD/ADHD
  • Create a routine
  • Help your adolescent organize
  • Avoid distractions
  • Limit choices
  • Change your interactions
  • Use goals and rewards
  • Help your teen discover a talent

Parent Education and Training
  • Parent Training and Information centers (PTIs)
  • Partners Resource Network
  • Community Parent Resource Centers (CPRCs)
  • Professional Help

ADHD Issues in School
  • ADHD is often associated with poorer school
  • Sufferers of ADHD report higher occurrences of
    grade retention, suspensions and expulsions, and
    school dropout rates.
  • Children have difficulties sitting still,
    controlling behavior, and paying attention.

Emotional Deregulation
  • Minimal brain dysfunctions, or abnormal cerebral
    structures, affect people so that they may
    experience periods of explosive rage that can
    lead to violent episodes.
  • Emotional irregularity of ADHD could come from
    coexisting conditions such as
  • Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct
  • Mood Disorders (such as depression)
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Learning Disabilities

Internal and External Problems
  • The symptoms of ADHD can cause problems in
    classroom settings.
  • The inability to pay attention to details or a
    tendency to make careless errors in schoolwork or
    other activities.
  • Fidgeting and Squirming, along with inability to
    stay seating can be seen as delinquency if
    adolescent is not diagnosed.

Medication and Treatment
  • Behavioral Management helps patients change or
    control their ADHD behaviors. Identifies unwanted
    behaviors and helps to replace them.
  • Counseling Helps patients and families identify
    unwanted behaviors and teaches how to cope with
    and change them. Can also help with low-self
    esteem, depression and stubborn behaviors.
  • Medication different medications help to improve
    symptoms so your child can manage better at home,
    at school, and with friends. Is most helpful
    when combined with behavioral management and

Behavioral Strategies
  • Attempts to change behavior by
  • ? reorganizing home and school environment
  • ? giving clear directions and commands
  • ? setting up a system of consistent rewards for
    appropriate behaviors and negative consequences
    for bad behaviors

  • Ritalin
  • helps increase attention span during the day,
  • helps with staying on task, and
  • helps with rapid ADHD morning symptom control so
    it is easier to start the day
  • Dexedrine (Dextroamphetamine)
  • Stimulant
  • Also helps with attention, disruptive behavior
    and relationship problems
  • other medications include Adderall, Straterra,
    Concerta and Wellbutrin

Side Effects to Medication
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Suppressed growth
  • Depressed appetites
  • Headaches
  • Some children may exhibit a zombie like

  • Student use of ADD/ADHD medication rises. David
    Belluromi, The California Aggie. March 9, 2006.
  • Signs and Symptoms of ADD/ADHD. National
    Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).
  • ADHD Does My Child Have It? What are the signs
    of ADHD?
  • Statistical Prevalence. National Resource Center
    of ADHD.
  • Incidence. Attention deficit hyperactivity
    disorder Wikepedia. http//
  • What is ADHD? KidsHealth. The Nemours
    Foundation. http//
  • Comparative Behavior. Tiffany L. Panko.
    Rochester Institute of Technology.
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