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Title: Agenda

Why do Shias Commemorate the Martyrdom of IMAM
HUSAYN (as) ?
Ali Azhar Arastu February, 2006
  • Who are the shias
  • Similarities between Shias and other sects
  • Belief unique to Shias
  • Doubts/Misconceptions regarding Shias
  • Why Mourn?
  • The events of Karbala
  • -Husayn is from me and I am from Husayn
  • -Islam saved
  • -Shias commemorate Karbala

Who are the Shias
  • Shia Followers, members of a group
  • - Then from every group we shall draw
    (Surah Maryam 1969)
  • - This one from among his followers
    (Surah Qasas 2815)
  • The Holy Quran says The day we shall summon
    every group of people with their imam (Isra
  • The destiny of the followers depend on their imam
  • Being a Shia does not mean anything, unless we
    know the Shia of whom.

Quranic Emphasis on Leadership
  • Bad Leaders
  • We made them leaders who invite to the Fire and
    on the day of Resurrection they will not receive
    any help (Qasas 2841)
  • Fate of the followers (shia) of imams of this
    kind is going to be bad
  • Good Leaders
  • And amongst them We appointed imams who guide by
    Our command when they had been patient and had
    convictions in Our signs
  • (Sajdah 3224)
  • Certainly, the true followers (Shia) of these
    Imams will be real prosperous on the day of
    resurrection. Thus being a Shia does not mean
    anything, unless we know the Shia of whom.

Things that are common among Shias and other
  • Belief in Oneness of God
  • Belief in all the Prophets
  • Belief in the last Prophet Muhammed (Pbuh hf)
  • Belief in the Day of Judgment
  • Belief in the Holy Quran
  • Five daily prayers
  • Sending Salawat on our Holy Prophet Muhammed and
    his Holy Progeny in Namaz is obligatory for all
    of us

Verse and Hadith about Salawat
Indeed Allah and His angels bless the Prophet, O
you who have faith! Invoke blessings on him and
invoke Peace upon him in a worthy manner.
(Quran, al-Ahzab, 3356).   Hadith regarding
Salawat   It was said, "O Allah's Apostle! We
know how to greet you, but how to invoke Allah
for you?" The Prophet said, "Say O Allah! Send
your blessings/greetings (Salawat) on Muhammad
and his family, the same way as You sent Your
blessings/greetings on Abraham's family. You are
indeed worthy of all praise, full of glory.'"
(Sahih al-Bukhari Hadith 6.320)
Famous Poem of Imam Al-Shafi
  • Members of the House of the Prophet!
  • Your love is a Divine duty from Allah
  • In the Quran that He revealed.
  • Suffices for you for your esteem status that
    whoever does not send Salawat on you, his prayer
    is void.
  • If the love of the members of the House of the
    Prophet is Rafdhan (rejection), then let
    humankind and the Jinn testify that I am a
    Rafidhi (rejecter).
  • References
  • Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, v27,
    p166, under the commentary of verse 4223 of
  • al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar, p88, in
    connection with the verse 3333 of Quran

Things that are common among Shi'as and other
sects (continued)
  • Fasting in the Holy Month of Ramadhan and the
    belief that Holy Quran was revealed in this Holy
  • Belief in Hajj and the rituals are almost the
  • Zakat
  • Belief that Imam Mahdi (AS) will appear and
    establish justice in this world

Some traditions regarding Imam Mahdi (AS)
  • The Prophet (PBUHHF) said "al-Mahdi is one of
    us, the members of the household (Ahlul-Bayt)."
    (Reference Sunan Ibn Majah, v2, Tradition 4085)
  • The Prophet (PBUHHF) said The Mahdi will be of
    my family, of the descendants of Fatimah (the
    Prophet's daughter).
  • References
  • -Sunan Abu Dawud, English version, Ch. 36,
    Tradition 4271 (narrated by Umm Salama, the
    wife of the Prophet)
  • - Sunan Ibn Majah, v2, Tradition 4086
  • - al-Nisa'i and al-Bayhaqi, and others as
    quoted in
  • - al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar
    al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p249

Another Hadith regarding Imam Mahdi (AS)
  • The Prophet (PBUHHF) said "Even if the entire
    duration of the world's existence has already
    been exhausted and only one day is left (before
    the day of judgment), Allah will expand that day
    to such a length of time, as to accommodate the
    kingdom of a person from my Ahlul-Bayt who will
    be called by my name. He will fill out the earth
    with peace and justice as it will have been full
    of injustice and tyranny (by then)."

References - Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v2, p86, v9, pp
74-75 - Sunan Abu Dawud, v2, p7 - Musnad Ahmad
Ibn Hanbal, v1, pp 84,376 V3, p63 - al-Mustadrak
ala al-Sahihayn, by al-Hakim, v4, p557 - Jami'
al-Saghir, by al-Suyuti, pp 2,160 - al-Urful
Wardi, by al-Suyuti, p2 - al-Majma', by
al-Tabarani, p217 - Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, by Ibn
Hajar al-Asqalani, v9, p144 - Fat'h al-Bari fi
Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, by Ibn Hajar Asqalani,
v7, p305 - al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar
al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p249 -
al-Tathkirah, by al-Qurtubi, p617 - al-Hawi, by
al-Suyuti, v2, pp 165-166 - Sharh al-Mawahib
al-Ladunniyyah, by al-Zurqani, v5, p348 - Fat'h
al-Mugheeth, by al-Sakhawi, v3, p41 - Kanz
al-Ummal, v7 P186 - Iqd al-Durar Fi Akhbar
al-Mahdi al-Muntadhar, v12, Ch. 1, - al-Bayan fi
Akhbar Sahib al-Zaman, By Ganji al-Shafi'i, Ch.
12 - al-Fusool al-Muhimmah, by Ibn Sabbagh
al-Maliki, Ch. 12 - Arjahul Matalib, by
Ubaidallah Hindi al-Hanafi, p380 - Muqaddimah, by
Ibn Khaldoon, p266 - and also in the works of Ibn
Habban, Abu Nua'ym, Ibn Asakir, etc.  
Beliefs unique to Shias
  • Imamat, definition of an Imam
  • Why do the Shias believe in Imamat?
  • "O' you who have faith! Obey Allah, and Obey the
    Apostle and those vested with authority among
    you." (Quran 459)
  • Where did the idea of 12 Imams originate?
  • -The Holy Prophet said a number of times
  • -Some traditions regarding 12 Imams

Traditions regarding 12 caliphs/imams
  • Narrated Jabir Ibn Samura I heard the Prophet
    (PBUHHF) saying, There will be twelve
    commanders (Amir). He then said a sentence which
    I did not hear. My father said, the Prophet
    added, All of them will be from Quraish. Sahih
    al-Bukhari Hadith 9.329 (Arabic-English version)
  • The Prophet (PBUHHF) said There shall be
    twelve Caliphs for this community, all of them
    from Quraish.
  • (Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v5, p106)

Another Hadith regarding 12 Caliphs/Imams
  • Narrated Jabir Ibn Samura The Prophet (PBUHHF)
    said The matter (life) will not end, until it
    is passed by twelve Caliphs. He then whispered a
    sentence. I asked my father what the Prophet
    said. He said, the Prophet added All of them
    will be from Quraish.
  •   References
  •   Sahih Muslim, Arabic version, Kitab
    al-Imaara, 1980 Edition Pub. In Saudi Arabia, v3,
  • p1452, Tradition 5
  • Sahih Muslim, English version, Chapter
    DCCLIV (titled The People are subservient to the
    Quraish and the Caliphate is the Right of the
    Quraish), v3, p1009, Tradition 4477

Doubts/Misconceptions regarding Shias
  • Misconception 1
  • The shias believe that Quran we have today
    is incomplete.
  • Quran itself guarantees its own preservation
  • Indeed We have sent down the reminder and
    indeed We will preserve it (Surah Hijr 159)

Doubts/Misconceptions Continued
  • Misconception 2
  • Shias say that Ali (AS) should have been the
    last Prophet
  • -Claim is made by a sect known as Ghulat
  • -Ghulats are not Ithna Ashari Shias
  • -None of the Ithna Ashari books mention this
  • -Imams condemned the Ghulats
  • -Ali(AS) student/slave of the Prophet

Shias take pride in this Hadith where Ali (AS)
a gate to the city of knowledge, whereas Prophet
(SAWA) is the city The Messenger of Allah
(PBUHHF) said "I am the City of Knowledge, and
Ali is its Gate. So whoever intends to enter the
City and the Wisdom, he should enter from its
Gate." 1) Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, pp 201,637 (2)
al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, pp 126-127,226,
Chapter of the Virtues of Ali, narrated on the
authority of two reliable reporters one, Ibn
Abbas, whose report has been transmitted through
two different but chain of authorities, and the
other, Jabir Ibn Abdullah al-Ansari. He said this
tradition is Authentic (Sahih). (3) Fadha'il
al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p635,
Tradition 1081 (4) Jami' al-Saghir, by
Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, v1, pp 107,374 Also in
Jami' al-Jawami' Also in Tarikh al-Khulafaa,
p171. He said this tradition is accepted
(Hasan). (5) al-Kabir, by al-Tabarani (d. 360)
Also in al-Awsat (6) Ma'rifah al-Sahaba, by
al-Hafidh Abu Nu'aym al-Isbahani (7) Ihyaa
al-Ululm, by al-Ghazzali (8) History of Ibn
Kathir, v7, p358 (9) History of Ibn Asakir (10)
Tarikh, by al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi, v2, p337 v4,
p348 v7, p173 v11, pp 48-50 v13,
p204 (11) al-Isti'ab, by Ibn Abd al-Barr, v3,
p38 v2, p461 (12) Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn al-Athir,
v4, p22 (13) Tahdhib al-Athar, by Ibn Jarir
al-Tabari (14) Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami,
v9, p114 (15) Bahr al-Asateed, by al-Hafidh Abu
Muhammad Hassan Samarghandi (d. 491) (16) Siraj
al-Muneer, by al-Hafidh Ali Ibn Ahmad Azizi
Shafi'i (d.1070), v2, p63 (17) And many
more .
Another Hadith
  • Imam Ali (AS) used to patch up Prophets (SAWA)
  • References
  • - Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p634
  • - Fada'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Hanbal, v2,
    p571, Tradition 966
  • - al-Riyad al-Nadirah, by al-Muhib
    al-Tabari, v3, p152
  • - Tabaqat, by Ibn Sa'd, v1, p349
  • - Matalib al-'Aliyah, v4, p56
  • - Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9,

Doubts/Misconceptions Contd
  • Doubt 3
  • The Prophet (SAWA) did not have any sons,
    then how come Imam Hasan and Imam Husayn are
    considered to be his sons?
  • -Surah Anam 6 83-85 As per these Ayats,
    Jesus (AS) is
  • from the progeny of Abraham (AS)
  • -Story of Imam Musa Kadhim (AS)
  • -Surah Mubahila Aale Imran 361 where
    Prophet took
  • Imam Hasan and Imam Husayn (AS) as his

According to the Holy QuranThe Verse of Mubahilah
Indeed the case of Jesus with Allah is like the
case of Adam He created him from dust, then said
to him Be and he was. (Quran, Aal-e-Imran
359) This is the truth from your Lord, so do
not be among the skeptics. (Quran, Aal-e-Imran
360) When Christians did not accept the words
of Allah, the Prophet recited the last revealed
verse Should anyone argue with you concerning
him, after the knowledge that has come to you,
then say Come let us call our sons and your
sons, and our women and your women, and ourselves
and your selves then let us be earnest in prayer
and invoke the curse of Allah upon the liars.
(Quran, Aal-e-Imran 361)
Regarding the Verse of Mubahilah
  • Al-Suyuti, a great Sunni scholar, writes 
  • In the above verse (361), according to what
    Jabir Ibn Abdillah al-Ansari (the great companion
    of the Prophet) said, the word "sons" refers to
    al-Hasan and al-Husayn, the word "women" refers
    to Fatimah, and the word "our selves" refer to
    the Prophet and Ali (al-Durr al-Manthoor by
    al-Hafidh Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, v2, p38)
  • Narrated Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas  
  • ...And when the verse 361 was revealed, the
    Prophet called Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan, and
    al-Husayn. Then the Prophet said "O Lord! These
    are my family members (Ahli)."
  • References
  • -Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions,
    section of virtues of Ali, 1980 Edition Pub. in
    Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1871, the end
    of tradition 32
  • -Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p654
  • -al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p150, who said
    this tradition is authentic based on the criteria
    set by two Shaikhs, al-Bukhari and Muslim
  • -Dhakha'ir al-Uqba, by Muhibbuddin al-Tabari, p25

Why Mourn for Imam Husayn?
  • Why still cry mourn for Imam Husayn? He is
    dead. This is Bidat.
  • -Definition of Bidat.
  • Imam Husayn dead? As per Quran he is still alive.
  • -Surah Baqarah 2154 And do not call those
    who were slain in Allahs way dead Rather
    they are living but you are not aware
  • Then why mourn if he is still alive?
  • -First of all, Imam Husayn was one of the
  • -Importance of Ahlulbait as per Quran/Hadith

According to the Holy QuranThe Verse of
Mawaddatul Qurba
  • "(O Prophet) tell (people) I don't ask you any
    wage (in return for my prophethood) except to
    love my near kin. And if anyone earns any good We
    shall give Him an increase of good (in return for
    it)" (Quran Al-Shuraa, 4223).
  • It has been widely reported by the commentators
    of the Holy Quran that
  • Ibn Abbas narrated When the above verse (4223)
    was revealed, the companions asked "O' the
    Messenger of Allah! Who are those near kin whose
    love Allah has made obligatory for us?" Upon that
    the Prophet (PBUHHF) said "Ali, Fatimah, and
    their two sons." He (PBUHHF) repeated this
    sentence thrice.
  • References
  • (1) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi,
    Part 27, pp 165-166
  • (2) Tafsir al-Tha'labi, under the commentary of
    verse 4223 of Quran
  • (3) Tafsir al-Tabari, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari,
    under verse 4223
  • (4) Tafsir al-Qurtubi, under commentary of verse
    4223 of Quran
  • (5) Tafsir al-Kashshaf, by al-Zamakhshari, under
    commentary of verse 4223
  • (6) Tafsir al-Baidhawi, under the commentary of
    verse 4223 of Quran
  • (7) Tafsir al-Kalbi, under commentary of verse
    4223 of Quran
  • (8) al-Madarik, in connection with verse 4223
  • (9) Dhakha'ir al-Uqba, by Muhibbuddin al-Tabari,
  • (10) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal,
  • (11) al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar
    Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p259
  • (12) Shawahid al-Tanzeel, Hakim Hasakani,
    al-Hanafi, v2, p132
  • (13) Many others such as Ibn Abi Hatam,
    al-Tabarani, etc.

Why Mourn contd
  • As per Quran The story of Nabi Yaqoub (Jacob)
    and Nabi Yusuf (Joseph).
  • Explanation of dream
  • The brothers schemed
  • Nabi Yaqoub cried until he lost his sight. Why?
  • Nabi Yaqoub knew that Yusuf was alive
  • He said, I complain of my anguish and
    grief only to Allah. I know from Allah what you
    do not know. Go my sons and look for Joseph and
    his brother and do not despair of Allahs mercy.
    (Surah Yusuf 86/87)
  • I sense the scent of Joseph (Surah Yusuf
    Ayat 94)

Why mourn contd
  • Nabi Yaqoub, a prophet of Allah cried so much
    even though he knew his son was alive
  • Imam Husain (AS) , dear grandson of our Holy
    Prophet (SAWA)
  • The Messenger of Allah said "Al-Hasan and
    al-Husayn are the chiefs of the youth of Paradise
    and Fatimah is the chief of the women in
  • The Messenger of Allah said Husayn is from me
    and I am from Husayn.
  • Lets ponder a bit on this Hadith

Husayn is from me and I am from Husayn
  • Islam in the hands of worldly Umayyads
  • Yazid openly ridiculed the Prophets Sunna and
  • Yazid gives a choice to Imam Husayn to accept him
    as a caliph or get killed
  • Imam Husayns acceptance of Yazid would have
    meant his endorsement of Yazids character
  • Pledging Allegiance ? the end of Islam
  • Imam Husayn(AS) refused to pledge

No wonder why our Holy Prophet (SAWA)
saidHusayn is from me and I am from Husayn
  • Imam had two ways open to him
  • -Gather forces and fight
  • -Defend and Sacrifice
  • In order to save Islam, to order good and forbid
    evil and rectify the Ummah of his grandfather a
    great sacrifice was needed
  • Imam Husayn (AS) gave the greatest sacrifice, 18
    male members of his immediate family and 44 of
    his dear companions were killed for saving Islam
  • Imams body already torn by wounds was trampled
    under the hooves of the horses, his tents burnt
    and looted
  • The women children of the Prophets household
    were taken captives and shamelessly paraded from
    Kerbala to Kufa and then to Damascus

Islam Saved
  • People pondered on the tragedy
  • The tragedy awakened the muslims and their
  • People started standing up against oppression
  • Change in thinking which prevailed after the
    sacrifice of Husayn(AS) always served as a
    criterion of distinction between the Islamic
    concept of leadership and the corrupt rulers
  • Today when we hear the Adhaan and when we see
    this big congregation prayers its due to the
    sacrifice given by Imam Husayn (AS). Thats why
    the holy Prophet (SAWA) said
  • Husayn is from me and I am from Husayn

The Shias commemorate Kerbala
  • Incredible respect and love that the Prophet gave
    the Ahlul-Bayt
  • Keeping their path alive is a duty upon us
  • Learn lessons from his noble thoughts and
  • The tragedy is not all that we talk about!
  • We talk about the Prophet, the Ahlul-Bayt, Quran,
    Fiqh, etc.
  • Gives us new life each year
  • Reminds us that there is more to life
  • Reminds us of the purpose of our creation
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