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Community Cohesion: Issues, Practice and Geography


7/7 and the fear of terrorism and extremism related to religion ... Should British modern, social and cultural history be the 4th pillar of citizenship? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Community Cohesion: Issues, Practice and Geography

Community Cohesion Issues, Practice and Geography
  • Sir Keith Ajegbo

Why Community Cohesion Now (1)
  • 7/7 and the fear of terrorism and extremism
    related to religion
  • Trevor Phillips Sleepwalking to segregation
  • Changing patterns of immigration-immigration as a
    major political issue fears around the BNP and
    local council elections
  • Fears around teenage gang killings, teenage
    pregnancy, binge drinking and community
  • Concerns about the achievement gap of pupils on
    free school meals including white

Why Community Cohesion Now (2)
  • In 1965 75 million people lived outside the home
    country, now 180 m
  • 600,000 Britons live in Spain, more in other
    countries (200,000) in NZ 3m with second homes
  • 25m tourists to the UK, 70m from UK to global
  • Globalisation in many forms internet,
    international students, brands etc

Community Cohesion and Geography
  • Aspects of community cohesion
  • Migration
  • Urbanisation
  • Globalisation
  • Tourism
  • Insularity

Review for the Secretary of State
  • How is ethnic, religious and cultural diversity
    addressed in the school curriculum?
  • Should British modern, social and cultural
    history be the 4th pillar of citizenship?
  • Response while schools should celebrate
    difference they must also explore what brings us
    together, what we share and how we create

What are schools for?
  • What are the wider responsibilities of school to
  • Childrens Plan Schools at the heart of their
  • community
  • Development of pupils as active and responsible
  • Creating more cohesive and resilient communities

Schooling and the big themes of the 21st Century
  • What is the relationship between a schools
    vision and the big themes of eg identity and
    cultural diversity, community participation,
    globalisation. How does the world impact on
  • Every Child Matters, Personalised Learning,
    Citizenship Education, Extended Schooling,
    Community Cohesion?
  • Given the close relationship between geography
    and the big themes what impact does the subject
    have on the schools vision and ethos?

What are the implications of community?
  • School community
  • Community in which the school is located
  • Religious community
  • UK community
  • European community
  • Global community
  • Presumably within these interconnections lies a
    large part of a relevant geography curriculum.
    Geography helps to tease out the relationship
    between local national and global identities and

The Big Themes
  • Religion and non religion
  • (The relationship between religion and diasporic
    communities. The spread of fundamentalism.
    Changing face of cities and social cohesion))
  • Ethnicity and culture
  • (The relationship between migration and cultural
    identity. The mixing of cultures. The
    relationship between race and place go back
  • Socio economic status
  • (White working class communities. Insularity)
  • How do geographers deal with controversial issues?

Aspects of Community Cohesion
  • Teaching, Learning and the Curriculum
  • Equity and excellence
  • Engagement and extended services
  • Concentrate on teaching, learning and the

Teaching, Learning and the Curriculum (1)
  • Perspectives of some BME students
  • They see Africa as poor, Asia as flooded and
    England as snobby whites and poor blacks
  • Im black I live in London-thats my home. My
    parents are from the Caribbean but Im really
    African. Im a Christian, but Im E7 -thats
    where I hang theyre my people. Thats who I am.
  • Within those quotes are political, socio
    economic, environmental, place and identity
    issues all of which relate to geography.

Teaching, learning and the curriculum (2)
  • Perspectives of some white students
  • I do feel sometimes that there is no white
    history. Theres either black history month or
    they do Muslims and Sikhs.
  • Youre bored with it, youre just British.
  • A quote from a DEA discussion paper Questioning
  • The Ipsos MORI research (1955 secondary students
    2007) found that 76 of black students and 66 of
    Asian students were positive about different
    kinds of people living together whilst only 47
    of white students were

Challenges leadership
  • The conclusion in our report was that issues of
    race and identity are often not high on schools
    agendas. Need to be regardless of location and
  • DEA report Questioning Education on global
  • Leadership, as demonstrated by the head, senior
    managers and governors sets the tone for
    everything in schools
  • A culture is needed in which the leadership team
    demonstrates global learning through their own
    practice but also enable everyone to bring their
    own creativity to the vision.
  • Where the agenda is taken forward by one or two
    committed teachers but not by the leadership team
    it tends not to be embedded across the whole

Challenges teachers
  • 36 of teachers felt well equipped to teach in
    multi cultural schools following their Teacher
    Training. (TDA survey 2006) Surely all geography
    teachers should feel equipped to teach in multi
    cultural schools or about multi culturalism in
    white schools
  • Geography teachers need to be at the heart of the
    schools policy on dealing with controversial
    issue. Migration, race, religion, cultural
    clashes, stereotyping are unavoidable in
    discussions of place and space.

Challenges the curriculum
  • Geography inspires pupils to become global
  • Geography inspires pupils to think about their
    place in the world
  • Geographers have a strong sense of their own
    place in the world as well as other peoples
    cultures and traditions and how these interrelate
  • Geography has the capacity to lead on the whole
    curriculum dimensions of identity and cultural
    diversity, community participation and the global
    dimension and sustainable development.

Citizenship education and geography
  • Geography in schools changing practice
  • With regard to citizenship, geography has a vital
    role to play, as David Bell identified in his
    Roscoe lecture a partnership between geography
    and citizenship. will energise the former and
    give substance to the latter. Why are there not
    more geography departments which teach sustained
    and progressive units of work with citizenship
    objectives, making a substantial contribution to
    the citizenship agenda overall?...Citizenship can
    be a breath of fresh air, making geography
    relevant, exciting and most important of all,
    empowering pupils so that they know how they can
    make a difference.

Identity and diversity living together in the UK
  • In our report we recommended a 4th strand for
    citizenship education.
  • Rationale Britain has committed itself to
    certain values- respect for the law, democratic
    political structures, values of mutual tolerance,
    equal rights. These should be subject to
    discussion and debate through looking at aspects
    of modern Britain and its history.
  • The aspects of modern Britain and its history
  • The UK as a multi national state. (Issues of
    place Welshness, Scottishness)
  • Immigration, Commonwealth and the legacy of
    Empire (Historical geography- the changing nature
    of us and them and of whiteness and blackness)
  • The European Union (How do Poles now see
  • Extending the franchise (eg the legacy of
    slavery, universal suffrage, equal opportunities
    legislation) ( relationship to urbanisation and

Curriculum support
  • QCA Cross curriculum dimensions (revised 1st
  • Identity and Cultural Diversity
  • Case studies

Who Do We Think We Are?
  • The week in June attracted around 500 schools.
  • Website
  • Vast array of resources at sharp end of issues
  • School and community
  • Relationships, belonging and faith
  • History and settlement
  • Britishness, national identity/values 2012
  • Organised by RGS, History Association,
    Citizenship Foundation

Materials on the website
  • London 2012 keystage 3 geography and citizenship
  • Exploring archives
  • Global dimensions
  • Moving Here
  • Young diasporas
  • Building up case studies eg Enfield primary
    school to compare the ethnic and religious
    composition of a year 5 class with Enfield as an

Schools Linking Network
  • Started in Bradford following 2001 disturbances
  • Gateway 100 schools registered
  • Waves Wave1 3 pilot authorities, Wave 2 10
    authorities, Wave 3 10 authorities
  • Sponsored by DCSF, money for authorities involved
    CPD for teachers

Equity and excellence/Engagement and extended
  • Equity and excellence Very few schools have
    identified opportunities within the curriculum to
    promote the positive aspects of gypsy culture.
  • Engagement and extended services At a conference
    focussed on raising achievement of Somali pupils
    2 schools (Richard Atkins Primary in Lambeth,
    Little Ilford Secondary in Newham) indicated how
    they used extended schooling to raise achievement
    and build community cohesion.

The Humanities and Social Sciences Diploma
  • Geography features strongly in the new Humanities
    and Social Sciences diploma for teaching in 2011.
  • Consultation on the criteria for awarding bodies
    starts next week with events around the country.
  • Tell us what you think at
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