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Introduction to Climate Change and the Clean Development Mechanism

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Title: Introduction to Climate Change and the Clean Development Mechanism


1
???????????Introduction to Climate Change and
the Clean Development Mechanism
  • ??CDM??????????Training Material
  • Building Capacity for the CDM in China

2
???? The climate system
  • ???????????????????????
  • The totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere,
    biosphere and geosphere
  • and their interaction.

3
??????Greenhouse Gas Effect
4
????Climate change
  • ?????????????????????,??????
  • ?????????????????????????
  • A change of climate which is attributed directly
    or indirectly to human activity that alters the
    composition of the global atmosphere and which is
    in addition to natural climate variability
    observed over comparable time periods.

5
??????Change of Global Temperature
????????????????????,???50????????????????????????
? In the light of new evidence and taking into
account the remaining uncertainties, most of the
observed warming over the last 50 years is likely
to have been due to the increase in greenhouse
gas concentrations Source IPCC Third Assessment
Report 2001
6
???????Climate Change Impacts
7
????UNFCCC objectives
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????,???????????,???????????????????????
  • Stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in
    the atmosphere at a level that would prevent
    dangerous anthropogenic interference with the
    climate system. Such a level should be achieved
    within a time-frame sufficient to allow
    ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change,
    to ensure that food production is not threatened
    and to enable economic development to proceed in
    a sustainable manner.
  • ARTICLE 2

8
?????The Kyoto Protocol
  • ???????????????????A???????????????????????,?2008?
    ?2012???????1990???????5.2,
  • The Parties included in Annex I shall,
    individually or jointly, ensure that their
    aggregate anthropogenic carbon dioxide equivalent
    emissions of the greenhouse gases listed in Annex
    A reduce their overall emissions by at least 5
    per cent below 1990 levels in the commitment
    period 2008 to 2012.
  • Article 3
  • ?2005?12?31??,?????????????????????????
  • Each Party included in Annex I shall, by 2005,
    have made demonstrable progress in achieving its
    commitments under this Protocol.

9
?????Annex I countries
10
???????The requirements for Annex I countries
  • ???????????????????
  • Provide new and additional financial resources
    to meet the agreed full costs incurred to
    developing country Parties in complying with
    their obligations
  • ???????????????????????
  • Assist the developing country Parties that are
    particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of
    climate change
  • ????????????,?????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????
  • Take all practicable steps to promote,
    facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the
    transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound
    technologies and know-how to other Parties,
    particularly developing country Parties

11
???????BAnnex B of the Kyoto Protocol
????
12
????Reduction objectives
6
-5
Kyoto-Protocol
4
GtC
2
Source ABB Corporate Research
1990
2000
2010
2020
13
????????Kyoto Protocol Greenhouse Gases
  • ????  Carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • ??   Methane (CH4)
  • ???? Nitrous oxide (N2O)
  •  ????? Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
  • ??? Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
  • ???? Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)

14
???Three mechanisms
  • ?????????????????????,???????????
  • The KP identifies three mechanisms to supplement
    national actions to achieve real, long-term,
    measurable and cost-effective GHG reductions
  • Clean Development Mechanism
  • ??????(CDM)
  • Joint Implementation
  • ????(JI)
  • Emissions Trading (ET)
  • ????(ET)

15
??????(CDM)Clean Development Mechanism
??? Sponsor
??? Host
Annex I/B
Annex I/B
???????? Certified Emission Reductions
?????
Developing countries
16
CDM??CDM Purpose
  • ????????????????????????????????
  • -to assist Parties included in Annex I in
    achieving compliance with their quantified
    emission limitation and reduction commitments
  • ?????????????????????????????,
  • -to assist Parties not included in Annex I in
    achieving sustainable development and in
    contributing to the ultimate objective of the
    Convention
  • Article of KP 12

17
?????????Management of CDM
  • ???????????????????????????????,????????????????
    ?
  • The clean development mechanism shall be subject
    to the authority and guidance of the Conference
    of the Parties serving as the meeting of the
    Parties to this Protocol and be supervised by an
    executive board of the clean development
    mechanism.
  • ?????( COP )???????????????,????????????????
  • Conference of the Parties (COP) The COP is the
    supreme body of the Convention. It currently
    meets once a year to review the Convention's
    progress.
  • ???????????????????? ( ???/ ???????)
    (COP/MOP)?????????,
  • Meeting of the Parties (MOP) The Kyoto
    Protocol's supreme body will be the MOP, which
    will serve as the Protocol's meeting of the
    Parties.

18
CDM ????CDM Bodies
???????????????????? ( ???/ ???????) Conference
of Parties to the UNFCCC Meeting of the Parties
to the Kyoto Protocol ( COP/MOP)
CDM ????? CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB)
????? Accreditation Panel
????? Afforestation and Reforestation Working
Group/Panel
?????? Methodology Panel
?????? Small scale CDM Panel
19
???????Executive Board
  • ?????(EB)??COP/MOP??????CDM????
  • Executive Board (EB) The Executive Board
    operates under the authority of the Parties.
  • ????????????,???????????????????(?????????????????
    ?????OECD ??),???????????,???????????,????????????
    ?
  • The Executive Board consists of 10 members,
    including one representative from each of the
    five official UN regions (Africa, Asia, Latin
    America and the Caribbean, Central Eastern
    Europe, and OECD), one from the small island
    developing states, and two each from Annex I and
    non-Annex I Parties.

The CDM-EB 2004
20
???????EB tasks
  • ????????????
  • Approval of proposed baseline and monitoring
    methodologies
  • ?????(EB)????????(DOE)
  • Accreditation of designated operational entities
  • ?????(EB)???????????????????????( CDM registry
    ),?????????( CERs )
  • The CDM-EB is responsible for the maintenance
    of a CDM registry, which will issue new CERs

21
???????task of DOE
  • ??CDM??
  • Validation of CDM projects
  • ???????
  • Presentation of projects for registration
  • ??????
  • Verification of monitoring reports
  • ????CERs
  • Recommendation for CER issuance.
  • ????4???????(DOEs),20?????(AEs)
  • At present 4 DOEs, approximately 20 Applicant
    Entities.

22
CDM????Participation requirements
  • ????????????????
  • All Parties must meet three basic requirements
  • ????CDM????
  • i) voluntary participation,
  • ????CDM?????????
  • ii) establishment of the National CDM Authority,
  • ????????
  • iii) ratification of the Kyoto Protocol.

23
??????Project Eligibility
  • ??????12?????????????????????????????????????????,
    ????????????????????????
  • Article 12 of the Protocol states that projects
    must result in reductions in emissions that are
    additional to any that would occur in the absence
    of the project activity. The CDM project must
    lead to real, measurable, and long-term benefits
    related to the mitigation of climate change.
  • Kyoto article 12
  • ??????????????????????????
  • Real if actual GHG emissions are less than the
    emissions in a credible and probable baseline
    scenario
  • ????????????????????????????????
  • Measurable if the actual level of GHG emissions
    of the project case and the level of GHG emission
    in the baseline scenario can be established with
    a reasonable degree of certainty
  • ??????????????????
  • Avoiding GHG emissions is per definition a
    long-term benefit

24
???????Sustainable development criteria
  • ????????????????????????????????????,???????????
  • The protocol specifies that the purpose of the
    CDM is to assist non-Annex I Parties in achieving
    sustainable development.
  • ?????????????????????????
  • Social criteria The project improves the quality
    of life, alleviates poverty, and improves equity.
  • ???? ???????????????,?????????????????
  • Economic criteria The project provides financial
    returns to local entities, results in a positive
    impact on balance of payments, and transfers new
    technology.
  • ???????????????????????????,????????????,????????
    ??,????????
  • Environmental criteria The project reduces
    greenhouse gas emissions and the use of fossil
    fuels, conserves local resources, reduces
    pressure on the local environments, provides
    health and other environmental benefits, and
    meets energy and environmental policies.

25
????(JI) Joint Implementation
??? Sponsor
??? Host
???? Emission Reduction Units
Annex I/B
Annex I/B
Economies in Transition
26
????(ET)International Emission Trading
120
todays emission ??????
100
????MARKET FOR CREDITS
Index
80
1990
2000
2010
2020
27
??????Summary KP Flexible Mechanisms
  • ??????Clean Development Mechanism
  • ????????(CERs)
  • Output Certified Emission Reductions (CERs)
  • ?????????????,?????2000?
  • Between Annex I and non-Annex I countries,
    started year 2000
  • ????Joint Implementation
  • ??????(ERU)
  • Output Emission Reduction Units (ERU)
  • ????????,?????2008?
  • Between Annex I countries, starts from 2008
  • ??????International Emissions Trading
  • ?????????(AAU)
  • Output Assigned Amount Units (AAU)
  • ????????,?????2008?
  • Between Annex I Parties, starts from 2008

28
??????Marrakech accords17/CP.7
  • ????????????????????????
  • Decision 17/CP.7 Modalities and procedures for a
    clean development mechanism as defined in Article
    12 of the Kyoto Protocol
  • ??????????????
  • ANNEXModalities and procedures for a clean
    development mechanism
  • A. ?? Definitions
  • B. ???????????????????????
  • Role of the Conference of the Parties serving as
    the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol
  • C. ????? Executive board
  • D. ????????? Accreditation and designation of
    operational entities
  • E. ?????? Designated operational entities
  • F. ???? Participation requirements
  • G. ????? Validation and registration
  • H. ?? Monitoring
  • I. ????? Verification and certification
  • J. ????????? Issuance of certified emission
    reductions

29
????????Marrakech Accords APPENDICES
  • ??A????????
  • APPENDIX A Standards for the accreditation of
    operational entities
  • ??B?????
  • APPENDIX B Project design document
  • ??C?????????????????
  • APPENDIX C Terms of reference for establishing
    guidelines on baselines and monitoring
    methodologies
  • ??D??????????
  • APPENDIX D Clean development mechanism registry
    requirements

30
CDM????project cycle
??
??/??
PP ????? DOE?????? EB ????? CER ??????
??
??/??
??CERs
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