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Title: Writing Behavioral Intervention Plans Based on Functional Behavior Assessments


1
Writing Behavioral Intervention Plans Based on
Functional Behavior Assessments
  • Laura A. Riffel, Ph.D.

2
AGENDA
  • Today
  • Overview of Functional Behavior Support
  • Overview of PBS and the LAW
  • Overview of Data Collection
  • Analyze Real Data
  • Competing Pathways Form
  • Writing a Behavioral Intervention Plan
  • Tool for Making the Whole Process ABC easy
  • Interventions and Applications
  • Lunch- Most important agenda item ?

3
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4
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5
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6
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7
Sometimes we provide better frogs!
8
What Gives Bob? Ive been collecting the data
and youve been in the shower for three days man.
Help ME! Help ME!
Bob is stuck in the vicious loop of shampoo
bottle directions Lather, Rinse , Repeat.
Lather, Rinse, Repeat.
9
What is Positive Behavioral Support?
  • A new way of thinking about behavior
  • Broadens intervention from only one approach -
    reducing challenging behavior to..
  • Encompasses multiple approaches changing
    systems, altering environments, teaching skills,
    and appreciating positive behavior

page 6
10
PBS Includes
  • A team process for goal setting
  • Functional Behavioral Assessment
  • Behavior intervention plan design,
    implementation, and evaluation
  • This means everyone will react to the child in
    the same way.

page 6
11
Tertiary Prevention Specialized
Individualized Systems for Students with
High-Risk Behavior
CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE
BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
5
Secondary Prevention Specialized Group Systems
for Students with At-Risk Behavior
15
Primary Prevention School-/Classroom- Wide
Systems for All Students, Staff, Settings
80 of Students
page 5
12
Using the Three Tiered Problem Solving Model
13
Goal Setting
  • Identify team members
  • most effective as collaborative process
  • Develop a profile to include
  • childs strengths
  • childs needs
  • childs target behaviors
  • Identify settings situations that require
    intervention

page 6
14
Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
  • FBA is a process for gathering information to
    understand the function (purpose) of behavior in
    order to develop an effective intervention plan.

page 6
15
Assumptions Underlying FBA
  • Behavior is learned and serves a specific
    purpose.
  • Behavior is related to the context within which
    it occurs.

Page 6
16
Questions to Address
Who What When Where Why How
page 6
17
Defining Behavior
  • Poor impulse control
  • Angry, hostile, resentful
  • Paying attention
  • Stubborn
  • Lying on the floor and refusing to move
  • High pitched screams
  • Hitting with fist
  • Kicking over chairs
  • Completing work
  • crying

Page 7
18
Methods for Conducting FBA
  • Indirect
  • Anecdotal
  • Surveys
  • Notes
  • Interviews
  • Descriptive
  • Observational
  • Data collection

page 8
19
Indirect MethodsExamples
  • MAS - Motivational Assessment Scale
  • FAST- Functional Analysis Screening Tool
  • PBQ- Problem Behavior Questionnaire

page 8
20
Indirect MethodsStrengths and Limitations
  • Strengths
  • Easy to implement
  • Minimal time and training required
  • Structured methods
  • May use for initial assessment
  • Limitations
  • 30 reliability to determine function
  • Information can be subjective
  • Non-specific functions identified (ex escape
    from work)

page 8
21
Descriptive/ObservationalMethodsExamples
  • A-B-C Analysis
  • Scatter plot
  • Interval or
  • Time sampling

page 8
22
Descriptive Methods Strengths and Weaknesses
  • Strengths
  • Objective quantitative data
  • Behavior is sampled in relevant settings
  • Can ID environmental relationships
  • Sufficient for BIP development
  • Reliability (60-80)
  • Limitations
  • Analysis can be complex
  • Time requirement
  • Increased staff training experience may be
    necessary
  • May not ID function of infrequent behavior

page 8
23
The Old Way
  • Reactive
  • Do it because I said so..
  • You hear someone saying
  • Do you want a detention?
  • Do I need to send you to the office?
  • If you dont walk right down this hallway- Ill
    drag you down the hallway.

24
A man walks up to an elevator with a lion
25
(No Transcript)
26
Hes completely harmless unless something
startles him.
27
Positive Behavior Support
  • Look at the reason behind the target behavior.

We are going to be
Proactive

28
Possible Functions
  • Positive Reinforcement
  • Social attention
  • Access to materials
  • Sensory Stimulation
  • Negative Reinforcement
  • Escape from
  • Activities
  • People
  • Sensory
  • Pain

To Get Out of
To Get
page 9
29
  • Sit N Fit Disk and Ikea Seat Cushions

30
Analyzing Patterns
  • Under what circumstances or antecedent events is
    the target behavior most/least likely? WHEN?
    WHERE? WHAT? WHO? WHY?
  • What consequences or results predictably follow
    the target behavior? WHAT DO THEY GET? WHAT DO
    THEY AVOID?
  • What broader issues are important influences on
    behavior?

Page 9
31
  • I know that you believe that you understood what
    you think I said, but I am not sure you realize
    that what you heard is not what I meant.  -
    Robert McCloskey

32
Other Information
  • Times, activities, and individuals when behavior
    is most or least likely to occur
  • Conditions that are typically associated before
    or after the target behavior
  • Common setting events associated with the
    behavior
  • Other behaviors that may occur before or with the
    target behavior

pages 9
33
Summary Statement
  • 1. When this occurs(describe circumstances/antec
    edents)
  • When we enter Sams Club
  • 2. the child does(describe target behavior)
  • Ryan emits a loud vocalization of protest
  • 3. to get/to avoid(describe consequences)
  • To escape the smell in Sams Club

34
Example Statements
  • 1. When the teachers attention is withdrawn or
    focused on another child,2. Zoe makes noises3.
    this results in the teacher scolding and moving
    closer to Zoe.
  • 1. When all the student attention is on the
    teacher,2. Terry interrupts the class with
    comments3. the students laugh at Terrys
    comments.
  • 1. When Kim finishes work before the rest of the
    class,2. Kim scribbles on the desk3. this
    results in the teacher giving Kim some work to do.

page 10
35
Summary Statement Model
page 10
36
Summary Statement Model
Target Behavior
Function(Reinforcer)
Setting Events/Antecedent
37
Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)
  • The summary statement is the foundation for a
    positive and supportive plan.

38
Effective
  • Managing consequences to reinforce desired
    behaviors and replacement skills
  • Withhold reinforcement following target behavior
  • Use of natural, least intrusive consequences that
    address the identified function

page 11
39
Behavioral Intervention Plan Model
Desired Behavior
Reinforcement
Setting Event/Antecedent
Target Behavior
Reinforcement (lt R)
Acceptable Alternative
Reinforcement(Function)
Antecedent Modifications
page 11
40
Lets Meet Taylor
  • When the teacher gives Taylor work to do, Taylor
    whines and cries about too much work to do. The
    whining becomes so disruptive to the class that
    the teacher tells Taylor to just do some of them.
    Taylor then does about half of them.

other examples on pages 12--14
41
Behavioral Intervention Plan Model for Taylor
Uses social skills
other examples on pages 12--14
Attention
Taylor whines
Control/Escape
Work Assigned
Making deposits by giving choices.
Teacher attention praise- ignore whining.
Give choices Precorrects for following
directions Use enforceable statements
I listen to arguments at 800 a.m. or 330 p.m.
Which is better for you?
42
Lets meet Terry
  • Terry interrupts the teacher 63 times in a
    30-minute period. Terry frequently receives
    responses from other students in the class.

other examples on pages 12--14
43
Behavioral Intervention Plan Model for Terry
other examples on pages 12--14
44
Lets Meet Kim.
  • Kim uses cuss words like they were part of the
    English Language.
  • The teacher repeatedly calls attention to this by
    telling Kim to stop cussing.
  • The teacher called home and the mom said, I
    dont know why Kim uses those d words.

other examples on pages 12--14
45
Behavioral Intervention Plan Model for Kim
Self-monitoring
Gets needs met
Class time
Attention and habit
Profanity
Ignore cuss words as much as possible. Give tons
of praise when new word is used.
Teach Model Practice Praise
Brainstorm new words to use
46
Promoting Self-Management
  • Self-monitoring (e.g., the child tracking own
    performance by logging incidents such as speaking
    out of turn)
  • Self-reinforcement(e.g., taking a break
    following completion of a specific number of math
    problems, recruiting praise from an adult for use
    of a particular social skill)
  • Self-correction(e.g., child uses behavioral
    checklist to evaluate own performance at the end
    of each class period)

page 15
47
3
23
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
2
6
3
3 Great Day- No or very few behavioral learning
opportunities occurred 2 Pretty Good Day- few
behavioral learning opportunities occurred 1
This day could have been better- more than a few
behavioral learning opportunities
occurred Student Signature _____________________
____________________________ Teacher Signature
_________________________________________________
Parents' Signature ______________________________
___________________ For younger students use
smiling faces
48
Crisis Management
  • If the childs behavior poses a significant risk
    to self or others, a plan to ensure safety and
    rapid de-escalation needs to be developed.
  • Crisis plans are reactive, rather then proactive.
  • Team members may require outside training to
    implement procedures.

page 15
49
Contextual Fit of Plan
  • How does the plan align with the goals of the
    child and support providers?
  • Do the people implementing the plan have the
    capacity and commitment to do so?
  • Are the resources needed for the plan available?

page 15
50
Dynamic Process
Functional Assessment Positive Interventions
Over time, plans will need to be adjusted as the
childs needs and circumstances change.
page 15
51
Old ABC Forms
page 18
52
Example
Key format
19-23
53
Common Entries Form
  • Available on www.behaviordoctor.org

54
Example
beginning
ending
24
55
When you get a chance fill in the other
information
page 24
66 OUT OF 420 MIN 16
56
page 24
57
page 25
66 OUT OF 420 MIN 16
58
Lets Put it to Practice
  • Meet Reese Roundtree

Fictional Name
page 30
59
Reese Roundtree
  • Reese is 12 years old and has Down Syndrome and
    some spectrum characteristics. Reese has the
    physical characteristics of a person with Down
    Syndrome and many of the typical behavioral
    characteristics as well. Reese is functioning on
    a third grade level with the ability to read
    third grade level books, do multiplication facts,
    and spell most of the first three levels of Dolch
    words from memory.
  • Reese has lived in a residential center since he
    was five years old. Reese has very little
    contact with his biological family. His parents
    health is declining and Reese has two older
    brothers who are about 15-18 years older than him
    and they visit about once a year.

page 27
60
Reeses Strengths
  • Strengths
  • Reese is very good at music
  • Reese is functioning on a third grade level
  • Reese knows a lot about trains

PAGE 27
  • Reinforcers
  • Reese would do just about anything to play with
    trains. There is a wooden set in the free choice
    room and Reese is always trying to go in there.
  • Reese loves to have peer attention and is not shy
    about being in front of a large crowd.
  • Reese has a pretty good relationship with Philip
    Quinn the vice principal. Mr. Quinn happens to
    be the administrator in charge of discipline and
    therefore is the one that Reese reports to when
    he is sent to the office.

61
Behaviors We Would Like to Target for Change
  • School and Home
  • Verbal outbursts
  • Non-compliance
  • Physical aggression

62
Scouts Behaviors
page 30
  • Verbal Outburst
  • A loud verbal sound or words that come from Reese
    that disturbs the learning environment or the
    peace of others.
  • Non-Compliance
  • Any directive met with a negative verbal
    response or no physical attempt to begin
    activity.
  • Physical Aggression
  • Any behavior that involves a part of Reeses
    body coming in contact with another person-
    including objects coming from Reeses hands or
    feet.

63
Antecedent, Behavior, and Consequence Form
24
minutes total


page 31-40
Student _____REESE___ ______Circle One Mon
Tue Wed Thurs Fri
Page _______
Full day Absent Partial day In _____
Out ______ Date Aug 21, 2006___
64
Data Analysis
Page 41
Date______IMPORTANT____________ Team
Members_____IMPORTANT________ Days of Data
__________10______________ For this example we
have 10 days of data. You might have more or
less. Total Number of Incidents
________41___________ Count the number of
incidents for all the days of data
collection. Average Number of Incidents Daily
_____4.1______ Take total incidents divided by
number of days you collected data Average length
of time engaged in target behavior____2.05 Take
total number of minutes of target behavior and
divide by number of incidents. 84/41 of day
engaged in behavior_____2_________ Add up the
total minutes of target behavior and divide by
total number of available minutes for the data
recording time. 84/4200 minutes 100 2
65
Thinking Chair- Time Out Chair
They stopped counting the behavior once the
decision was made to send Reese to the time out
chair (thinking chair). He sat there for 15
minutes on average He was sent there 13 times
in 10 days- multiply 13 by 15 and that is 195
minutes of class time lost - plus the 84 minutes
he engaged in targeted behaviors and that is 279
minutes of time lost from learning.
279/42001006.6 or 7
66
Behavior Analysis
Page 42
67
Behavior Analysis
Page 42
68
Behavior Analysis
Page 43
2
2
2
2
2
2
You might have 3 Mondays and 1 Friday or some
other combination. You add up the total tallies
and divide by the number of each day of the week
that you collected data. For this example there
are 2 of each.
69
Behavior Analysis
Page 43
2
2
2
2
2
You might have 3 Mondays and 1 Friday or some
other combination. You add up the total tallies
and divide by the number of each day of the week
that you collected data. For this example there
are 2 of each.
70
Behavior Analysis
Page 43
71
Behavior Analysis
Page 43
72
Behaviors
Page 44
73
Behaviors
Page 44
74
Behavior Analysis
Page 44
75
Behavior Analysis
Page 44
76
Page 45
So if you have a transition antecedent and a
disruptive outburst you would mark it in the A
row in the B column.
77
Page 45
So if you have a transition antecedent and a
disruptive outburst you would mark it in the A
row in the B column.
78
Just like the last one. Graph row column.
Page 46
79
Just like the last one. Graph row column.
Page 46
80
Behavior Analysis
Page 46
Tally the consequence and the student reaction.
Then divide the number of stopped by the total
number of behaviors.
Divide the stopped by the total tallies.
81
Behavior Analysis
Page 46
Tally the consequence and the student reaction.
Then divide the number of stopped by the total
number of behaviors.
Divide the stopped by the total tallies.
82
Summary Statement
  • 1. When this occurs(describe circumstances/antec
    edents)
  • When Reece has _____________________
  • 2. the child does(describe target behavior)
  • 3. to get/to avoid(describe consequences)
  • To ________________________________________

Quiet time
Reese has a verbal outburst
Get adult attention.
83
Summary Statement
  • When this occurs(describe circumstances/antecede
    nts)
  • When Reese has _____________________
  • 2. the child does(describe target behavior)
  • Reese shows noncompliance
  • 3. to get/to avoid(describe consequences)
  • To ________________________________________

transitions
To get adult attention
Question to ask the team Does the attainment of
adult attention however, delay the next task to
the point that the real function is escape?
84
Summary Statement
  • When this occurs(describe circumstances/antecede
    nts)
  • When Reese has _____________________
  • 2. the child does(describe target behavior)
  • Reese has physical aggression
  • 3. to get/to avoid(describe consequences)
  • To ________________________________________

New tasks
To escape work
Question to ask the team Does the attainment of
adult attention however, delay the next task to
the point that the real function is escape?
85
Competing Pathways Chart
Desired Alternative
Maintaining Consequence or Function
Page 48
Target Behavior
Maintaining Consequence or Functions
Setting Events/Triggering Antecedents
Verbal outburst
adult attention
Quiet time
Behavior Support Planning
Behavior Teaching
Consequence Modifications
Setting Events Modifications
Antecedent Modifications
86
Competing Pathways Chart
49
Desired Alternative
Maintaining Consequence or Function
Target Behavior
Maintaining Consequence or Functions
Setting Event/ Triggering Antecedents
Non-compliance
Attention or escape
transition
Behavior Support Planning
Behavior Teaching
Consequence Modifications
Setting Event and/or Antecedent Manipulations
87
Competing Pathways Chart
50
Desired Alternative
Maintaining Consequence or Function
Target Behavior
Maintaining Consequence or Functions
Setting Event/ Triggering Antecedents
Physical aggression
Escape
New task
Behavior Support Planning
Behavior Teaching
Consequence Modifications
Setting Event and/or Antecedent Manipulations
88
Home Setting Data
89
  • Verbal outbursts
  • Non-compliance
  • Physical aggression

90
Weekday
91
Data Analysis
Page 62
Date______IMPORTANT____________ Team
Members_____IMPORTANT________ Days of Data
__________10______________ For this example we
have 10 days of data. You might have more or
less. Total Number of Incidents
________21___________ Count the number of
incidents for all the days of data
collection. Average Number of Incidents Daily
_____2.1______ Take total incidents divided by
number of days you collected data Average length
of time engaged in target behavior____7.71 about
8 minutes Take total number of minutes of target
behavior and divide by number of incidents.
162/21 of day engaged in behavior_____4_____
____ Add up the total minutes of target behavior
and divide by total number of available minutes
for the data recording time. 162/4200 minutes
100 3.85 about 4
92
Behavior Analysis
Page 63
93
Behavior Analysis
Page 64
You might have 3 Mondays and 1 Friday or some
other combination. You add up the total tallies
and divide by the number of each day of the week
that you collected data. For this example there
are 2 of each.
94
Behaviors
Page 64
95
Behavior Analysis
Page 65
96
Page 66
So if you have a transition antecedent and a
disruptive outburst you would mark it in the A
row in the B column.
97
Just like the last one. Graph row column.
Page 67
98
Behavior Analysis
Page 67
Tally the consequence and the student reaction.
Then divide the number of stopped by the total
number of behaviors.
Divide the stopped by the total tallies.
99
Summary Statement
  • 1. When this occurs(describe circumstances/antec
    edents)
  • When Reece has _____________________
  • 2. the child does(describe target behavior)
  • 3. to get/to avoid(describe consequences)
  • To ________________________________________

Quiet work
Reese has a verbal outburst
Get adult attention.
100
Summary Statement
  • When this occurs(describe circumstances/antecede
    nts)
  • When Reese has _____________________
  • 2. the child does(describe target behavior)
  • Reese shows noncompliance
  • 3. to get/to avoid(describe consequences)
  • To ________________________________________

directives
To escape
Question to ask the team Does the attainment of
adult attention however, delay the next task to
the point that the real function is escape?
101
Summary Statement
  • When this occurs(describe circumstances/antecede
    nts)
  • When Reese has _____________________
  • 2. the child does(describe target behavior)
  • Reese has physical aggression
  • 3. to get/to avoid(describe consequences)
  • To ________________________________________

Been denied access
To having to do the non-preferred
Question to ask the team Does the attainment of
adult attention however, delay the next task to
the point that the real function is escape?
102
Weekend
103
Data Analysis
Page 72
Date______IMPORTANT____________ Team
Members_____IMPORTANT________ Days of Data
__________4______________ For this example we
have 10 days of data. You might have more or
less. Total Number of Incidents
________8___________ Count the number of
incidents for all the days of data
collection. Average Number of Incidents Daily
_____2.0______ Take total incidents divided by
number of days you collected data Average length
of time engaged in target behavior____122/4
30.5 Take total number of minutes of target
behavior and divide by number of incidents.
122/4 of day engaged in behavior_____4______
___ Add up the total minutes of target behavior
and divide by total number of available minutes
for the data recording time. 122/3480 minutes
100 3.5 or about 4
104
Behavior Analysis
Page 73
105
Behavior Analysis
Page 74
You might have 3 Mondays and 1 Friday or some
other combination. You add up the total tallies
and divide by the number of each day of the week
that you collected data. For this example there
are 2 of each.
106
Behaviors
Page 74
107
Behavior Analysis
Page 75
108
Page 76
So if you have a transition antecedent and a
disruptive outburst you would mark it in the A
row in the B column.
109
Just like the last one. Graph row column.
Page 76
110
Behavior Analysis
Tally the consequence and the student reaction.
Then divide the number of stopped by the total
number of behaviors.
Page 77
Divide the stopped by the total tallies.
111
NEW!!!!
FBA Tool
Page 53
FBA Tool Online
112
Check out page 54-67
Check out page 66
Check out page 68
113
Formula for Baseline
  • I-B/B D100
  • Intervention Frequency 3 times per day
  • Baseline Frequency 34 times per day
  • 3-34 -31
  • -31/34 .91176
  • .91100
  • 91 Decrease in Behavior

114
Duration Recording Data Sheet Individual
___Barry Woods____________________________ Observe
r ___________F. Scott___________________ Behavior
_____________humming____________________________
___________________________________ Initiation
_____915__________________________
Termination 1230
115
Clarice- Poking Eyes- Data collected from
815-330
116
Self-Injurious Behavior- pulling hair
117

None
1-5
5
Hitting Others 930-1000 is Music 1030-1100
is PE
118
b
s
s
b
b
s
s
b
Minute by Minute Student Name __Biff_________
Observer __________Riff____________
Date______________12/5________
119
We want to know the following
What was going on right before the behavior began?
This lets us know when to put the New
interventions in place
Exactly what was the behavior in measurable and
observable terms?
This ensures that we are all measuring the Same
thing when collecting data.
ABC
How did the child react to the usual consequences
that occurred?
This is the real key to why the behavior is
maintaining.
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