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Views of Earth


Characterized by swamps, marshes, and low rolling hills ... characterized by sharp jagged peaks. Example Sierra Nevada Mountains. 5.1 Continued ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Views of Earth

Chapter 5
  • Views of Earth

5.1 Landforms
  • Three types of Landforms
  • Plains
  • Large, relatively flat areas
  • Coastal plains near the oceans
  • Can be called lowlands
  • Characterized by swamps, marshes, and low rolling
  • Examples Atlantic coastal plains Gulf coastal

5.1 Continued
  • Interior plains middle of the land
  • Large center portion of the U.S. is called the
    Great Plains or High plains due to their
  • covered with grass and few trees

5.1 Continued
  • Plateaus
  • Relatively flat, raised areas
  • Made of nearly horizontal rocks that have been
    uplifted by Earth processes
  • Differ from plains because the rise sharply from
    their surroundings
  • Example Colorado Plateau has been cut through
    by the Colorado River to form the Grand Canyon

5.1 Continued
  • Mountains
  • tallest mountain Mount Everest 8800m above
    sea level (28,871 feet)
  • Four types of mountains
  • Folded
  • Upwarped
  • Fault-block
  • Volcanic

5.1 Continued
  • Folded Mountains
  • Resemble a rug pushed against a wall
  • Earth processes cause the land to be pushed
    together causing it to fold
  • Example Appalachian mountains
  • See figure 5-4

5.1 Continued
  • Upwarped Mountains
  • Earths crust pushed up by forces inside Earth
  • Composed of exposed metamorphic and igneous rocks
  • Example southern Rocky Mountains
  • See figure 5-5

5.1 Continued
  • Fault-Block Mountains
  • Huge tilted blocks of rocks that are separated
    from surrounding rock by faults
  • fault a large crack in rocks along which
    there is movement
  • one block of rock is pushed up while the other
    is pushed down
  • characterized by sharp jagged peaks
  • Example Sierra Nevada Mountains

5.1 Continued
  • Volcanic Mountains
  • Begin when magma reaches the Earths surface
    through a weak area in the crust
  • One layer builds on another until a cone is formed

5.2 Viewpoints
  • Latitude
  • Lines that circle the earth in an East and West
  • Center latitude line equator
  • Divides the Earth into the Northern and Southern
  • numbered 0 degrees latitude
  • All lines parallel to the equator are latitude
  • Latitude at the poles is 90 degrees latitude

5.2 Continued
  • Longitude (Meridians)
  • Lines that run from the North Pole to the South
    Pole and are not parallel to one another
  • Divides the Earth into East and West directions
  • Center Longitude line that travels through
    Greenwich, England Prime Meridian
  • Points to the west are labeled West
  • Points to the East are labeled East
  • Longitude line that is 180 degrees around the
    world from the prime meridian international
    date line

5.2 Continued
  • Purpose of Latitude and Longitude
  • It provides an easier and more accurate method of
    locating places on a map
  • How are points written
  • They are written so that latitude comes first
    followed by longitude
  • 20ºN, 155ºW Hawaii

5.2 Continued
  • Earth Time
  • Time is measured by the movement of Earth in
    relation to the sun
  • Time Zones
  • There are 24 time zones on Earth due to the fact
    that it takes the Earth 24 hours to make one
    complete turn
  • There are 6 time zones in the U.S.
  • Do not follow longitude lines

5.2 Continued
  • Calendar Dates
  • The calendar date changes as you cross over the
    international date line
  • Cross it to the west add a day to the calendar
  • Cross it to the east subtract a day from the

5.3 Maps
  • Map projections
  • Used to make maps of Earth
  • The transferring of points and lines of Earth to
  • Several different ways to make map projections
  • Each method is distorted in some manner

5.3 Continued
  • Three types of projection
  • Mercator Projection
  • Have correct shapes of continents
  • Continents have a distorted area
  • Longitude lines are parallel
  • Latitude lines distorted
  • Areas near the poles are exaggerated

5.3 Continued
  • Robinson Projection
  • Accurate continent shapes with accurate areas
  • Latitude lines are kept parallel
  • Longitude lines are kept curved
  • Less distortion near the poles

5.3 Continued
  • Conic Projection
  • Used with weather and road maps
  • Used with maps of small area
  • Project points from a globe

5.3 Continued
  • Topographic maps
  • Shows the changes in elevation of the Earths
  • Contour lines
  • A line on a map that connects points of equal
  • Contour interval
  • The distance between contour lines
  • The closer the lines the steeper the surface

5.3 Continued
  • Index contours
  • Marked with their elevation
  • Topographic map rules
  • Read the elevation numbers to determine if the
    structure is a hill, basin, or depression
  • Look for hatchures
  • Short lines at right angles to the contour line,
    which depicts depressions
  • Point to lower elevations

5.3 Continued
  • Contour lines never cross
  • If they did it would mean that a particular place
    would have two elevations
  • Contour lines form Vs that point upstream
    whenever they cross streams.
  • Because streams flow in depressions that are
    lower than the surrounding areas

5.3 Continued
  • Map Legend and Scale
  • Map Legend
  • Explain what the symbols used on the map mean
  • Map Scale
  • The relationship between the distances on the map
    and actual distances on Earths surface
  • Used in a ratio (1100)
  • 1 unit on a map is equal to 100 units on land

5.3 Continued
  • Uses of Maps
  • The map used will depend on the need
  • Mercator map used to determine the relationship
    between two places
  • Robinson used to see actual shapes of land near
    the poles
  • Conic map used to travel in straight lines
  • Topographic used to see heights in certain

5.4 Mapping Our Planet
  • Remote Sensing from Space
  • Landsat Satellites
  • Detect different wavelengths of energy reflected
    or emitted from Earths surface
  • Can show landforms in great detail
  • Topex-Poseidon Satellite
  • Uses radar to compute the distance to the oceans
  • Used to map the ocean bottom

5.4 Continued
  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • Used to determine the exact location on Earth
  • Used in travel and tracking wildlife
  • Remote Sensing Under Water
  • Sonar
  • Uses sound waves to detect ocean bottom features
  • Used to make ocean floor maps
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