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Fire Safety


Fire alarm sounder &/or strobe lights (main indication) Other indications may be... Unusual sounds e.g. glass shattering. Unexplained spark generation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fire Safety

Fire Safety Emergency Evacuation
For Your Information
  • Fire Safety
  • First Aid
  • Duration
  • Breaks
  • Toilets
  • Mobile Phones
  • Handouts

  • Aishling Mannion BSc.
  • Occupational Health Officer,
  • DIT Cathal Brugha St
  • Contact Details
  • Occupational Health First Aid Office
  • Phone Ext. 4317 / 087 9809131
  • Email

  • Audrey Murray BSc. MSc.
  • Occupational Health Officer
  • DIT Kevin St
  • Contact Details
  • Room 225, 2nd Floor
  • Phone Ext. 4603/ 087 9809135
  • Email

  • Rosie Cannon BSc. MSc.
  • Occupational Health Officer
  • DIT Bolton St
  • Contact Details
  • DIT Student Health Centre, Linenhall
  • Phone Ext. 3615 / 087 9809194
  • Email

Overview - Theory
  • Legislation Responsibilities
  • The Chemistry of Fire
  • Types of Fires
  • Fire Safety Management
  • DIT Emergency Evacuation Procedure

Overview - Practical
  • Practical Demonstration
  • - Selecting the correct type of fire
    extinguisher how to use it
  • Video
  • Fire Safety in The Workplace

Fires do happen...Dorset College May 2005
  • The policy of DIT with respect to fire safety is
    to prevent fires/emergency situations from
    occurring, and to evacuate all persons to a place
    of safety as quickly as possible in the event of
    such occurrences.

Legal Background
  • Fire Services Act 1981
  • Safety, Health, and Welfare at Work Act 2005
  • Employers duties
  • Employees duties
  • Safety, Health, and Welfare at Work (General
    Application) (Amendment No.2) Regulations 2003
  • To provide the necessary measures for fire
    fighting evacuation of employees
  • To contact appropriate emergency services

Responsibilities For Fire Safety
  • All staff should
  • Ensure that ones acts/omissions do not create a
    fire or other hazard
  • Observe all policies procedures in relation to
    fire safety
  • Follow the DIT Evacuation Procedure
  • Report fire hazards
  • Undertake fire safety training

Risks of Fire
  • Impact on the organisation
  • Structural damage to buildings
  • Loss financial, reputation, facilities,
    research, expertise, and lost work
  • Impact on the environment
  • Pollution water, air, soil, flora fauna.

Risks of Fire
  • Impact on human life
  • Physical injuries e.g. burns, smoke inhalation!
  • Psychological effects e.g. post traumatic stress
  • Occupational issues e.g. loss of earnings,
    unemployment, work related stress.
  • Loss of life

Chemistry of Fire
  • 3 Elements
  • - Fuel, Oxygen Energy
  • Example
  • Wood, Air, Spark
  • Need all three elements to start a fire
  • Fire extinguishers remove one or more of these

Sources of Ignition
  • Chemical ignition oily rags by oxidation,

  • liquids.
  • Electrical insulation breakdown short
    circuits, overloading circuits, connections
    too tight
  • or
  • Mechanical sparks generated by friction or
    welding, machinery overheating, dust-covered
  • motors
  • Others Sources smoking, hot surfaces, articles
    placed on heating appliances, arson

Sources of Fuel
  • Solids e.g. paper, cloth, wood, textiles, dust,
    packaging materials etc.
  • Gases e.g. LPG, welding gases
  • Flammable liquids e.g. petrol, oil, paint,
    cleaning fluids, chemicals etc.

Fire at Bradford11th May 1985
  • Time?
  • How many died?
  • Why?
  • 3-4 Minutes
  • 56 people lost their lives, 265 injured
  • Cause match or cigarette stubbed out in a
    polystyrene cup, fuelled by rubbish underneath
    wooden stand.
  • Very Poor standards of fire safety housekeeping

Fire Safety Management
  • Key Elements
  • Fire Prevention
  • Fire Protection
  • Fire Evacuation

Fire Prevention
  • The elimination of risks by controlling sources
    of ignition and
  • management of combustible and flammable fuels.
  • Necessary to
  • Recognise all possible risks associated with an
  • Evaluate the risks and their likely impact on the
  • Control of risks to ensure that ignition does not
  • Implement controls identified in the Risk
    Assessment/Safety Statement

Fire Prevention
  • No Smoking Policy
  • Smoking is prohibited in all internal buildings
    and near entrances/exits/window openings.
  • Housekeeping
  • We all must keep our work areas clean and tidy as
    possible dispose of all waste appropriately.
  • Access to escape routes, exit doors or fire
    extinguishers should be kept clear.
  • Remember corridors are your route to safety - so
    keep them clear!

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Hazard Spotting
  • Always report any hazard using the Institutes
    Hazard Report Forms available from the health
    and safety website
  • For Example
  • Leakage of flammable material
  • If any exit door is blocked or obstructed
  • If fire-fighting equipment is missing, damaged or
  • Locked windows

Fire Protection
  • Fire extinguishing equipment
  • Fire extinguishers
  • Hose reels
  • Fire blankets
  • Sprinkler systems
  • Fire protection infrastructure
  • Manual systems break glass unit
  • Automatic systems to detect and give warning in
    case of fire
  • Emergency lighting systems
  • Escape routes

Types of Fires
  • Class A  SOLIDS such as paper, wood,
    plastic, carpets, furniture etc.
  • Class B  FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS such as paraffin,
    petrol, oil
  • Class C   FLAMMABLE GASES such as propane,
  • Class D METALS such as aluminium, magnesium
  • Class F Cooking OIL FAT etc

Different Types of Extinguishers
  • Each type of extinguisher has a specific use!
  • Important to consider the nature of the fire risk
    before deciding on which type to use.
  • 4 Most Common Types
  • Water
  • Carbon Dioxide Gas
  • Foam
  • Dry Powder

  • Use on CLASS A fires
  • Red label
  • Pressurized water
  • Pressure gauge present

Carbon Dioxide
  • Use on CLASS B CLASS C, and CLASS E fires
  • Black label
  • Hard, plastic nozzle
  • No pressure gauge

Dry Powder
  • Use on CLASS A, B, C, D E fires
  • Blue label
  • Fine powder under pressure
  • Pressure gauge present

  • Use on CLASS A CLASS B fires
  • Cream label
  • Works by forming a blanket on the burning surface
    preventing re-ignition and bringing about

Wet Chemical
  • Use on Class F fires
  • Yellow Label
  • Solution reacts with oil to prevent re-ignition

Selecting the correct type of extinguisher to use
Selecting the correct type of extinguisher to use
Selecting the correct type of extinguisher to use
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P.A.S.S. Method
  • Pull the pin
  • This will allow you to squeeze the handle in
    order to discharge the extinguisher

P.A.S.S. Method
  • Aim at the base of the fire
  • Aiming at the middle will do no good.
  • The agent will pass through the flames.

P.A.S.S. Method
  • Squeeze the handle
  • This will release the extinguishing agent

P.A.S.S. Method
  • Sweep side to side
  • Cover the entire area that is on fire.
  • Continue until fire is extinguished.
  • Keep an eye on the area for re-lighting.
  • Remember to stand well back from the fire.

Points to Remember
  • Before attempting to use any fire extinguisher
    always check the label to ensure it is suitable
    and safe to use.
  • In fires involving electrical equipment and
    gaseous fires, the prime need is to SWITCH THE
  • Extinguishing before the supply is off may cause
    an explosion or electric shock.

Fighting a Fire!
  • Only fight a fire ..
  • when an exit is to your back
  • when it is small and in the early stages
  • when you have the correct fire equipment you
    know how to use it
  • when the equipment is depleted leave the area as
    quickly as possible.
  • Remember - if in doubt get out!

Indications of Fire/Emergency
  • Fire alarm sounder /or strobe lights (main
  • Other indications may be.
  • Flickering lights / power failure
  • Smoke/dust smell /or sight
  • Unusual sounds e.g. glass shattering
  • Unexplained spark generation
  • Smell of fuels e.g. gas
  • Unexplained heat levels

  • If You Discover A Fire
  • Activate the alarm by operating the nearest
    break glass unit
  • If it is safe to do so, extinguish the fire using
    the equipment provided
  • Leave the building promptly do not use the

If you hear an alarm DO NOT assume it is a
drill, Your life may depend on it!
DIT Emergency Evacuation Procedure(all staff,
students, visitors, contractors)
  • Evacuate the building using the nearest and
    safest exit, ensuring the safe shutdown of
  • All students in classrooms should be led by
  • Visitors should be escorted to safety by the
    person they are visiting.

DIT Emergency Evacuation Procedure
  • Form a single file on both sides of the corridor
    or stairway and leave the centre passageway
  • Any person in common areas or moving between
    areas, should join the lines of people exiting
    the area.
  • The last person in the line closes the door
  • Evacuation marshals will sweep/search their
    designated areas.

DIT Emergency Evacuation Procedure
  • Disperse from the building and go to the nearest
    assembly point.
  • The Incident Controller will provide the
    emergency services with details of casualties or
    persons needing assistance with evacuation
  • No person shall re-enter the building until the
    all clear has been given by the Incident

Evacuation Marshals/Sweepers
  • Evacuation Marshals/Sweepers are designated
  • for planned evacuations.
  • It is the responsibility of each evacuation
  • To sweep/search all rooms in their designated
    area to ensure that everyone is evacuated and
    directed to the nearest available exit (only if
    it is safe to do so).
  • To exit via the nearest available escape route,
    once the search is complete.
  • To assemble at a designated point, informing the
    Incident Controller (Porter on Duty/another
    elected person) present of any persons in need of
    assistance. This information is then relayed to
    the Emergency Services by the Incident Controller.

Evacuation Marshals/Sweepers
  • General Rule of Thumb
  • Everyone should act as an evacuation
    marshal/sweeper sweeping/searching the areas
    as they evacuate and directing people to the
    nearest escape routes.
  • This is of particular importance during holiday
    periods etc, whereby the designated evacuation
    marshals may not be onsite.

Evacuation for People with Disabilities
  • If a staff member/student with a disability
    requires assistance with evacuation, the
    Emergency Egress Questionnaire must be completed
    as soon as possible.
  • A Personal Emergency Egress Plan (PEEP) is then
  • All people with disabilities should contact their
    local OHO to ensure this is put in place.

The Evacuation Chair
  • Evacuation Chairs may be used in the event of an
    emergency for individuals who cannot evacuate a
    building unaided.
  • Instructions on the correct operation of the
    Evacuation Chair are attached to the backrest of
    the chair itself.
  • The Evacuation Chair may be wall mounted and
    located near stairwells in some buildings.

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Evacuation Dos Donts
  • DO
  • When you hear the alarm, remain calm!
  • Ensure the safe shutdown of equipment/electricity
    / gas if time permits
  • Follow any instructions given to you by a
    person in authority e.g. Evacuation Marshall

Evacuation Dos Donts
  • DONT
  • ? Take risks
  • ? Run or cause an obstruction
  • ? Use the lift
  • ? Congregate outside main entrances move away
    to assembly points
  • ? Return for personal belongings
  • ? Re-enter the building until the all clear
    has been given

Floor Plans
  • Floor Plans indicate the following
  • - An indicator point on the map to identify where
    you are located in the building
  • Location of nearest Staircases and Escape Routes
  • Location of Fire Fighting Equipment

Sample Floor Plan
Fire Action Notices
  • Fire Action Notices provide instructions on what
    to do if
  • You discover a fire, or
  • You hear the fire alarm
  • They also provide information on
  • Your nearest escape route out of the building
  • Your designated assembly point

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Escape Routes
  • Escape routes are clearly indicated with signage
    and lighting.
  • Ensure that escape routes and doors, including
    fire control doors, are kept free from
  • Fire control doors must not be wedged/propped
    open. If this happens it will permit the fire to
    spread between sections of the building and put
    the escape routes in danger.

Fire Drills
  • Fire Evacuation Drills will be held periodically
    to ensure all staff and students are familiar
    with the evacuation procedure.
  • The Local Fire Authority and Gardai will be
    informed of the DITs intention to operate a fire
  • All staff, students, contractors and visitors
    must partake in and co-operate with fire drills.

Evacuation Evaluation
  • An Evacuation Evaluation Form is available to
    provide feedback on the evacuation drill, so as
    to allow for future improvements to be made.
  • It is very important to complete the Evacuation
    Evaluation Form, particularly if
  • You could not hear the fire alarm
  • You encountered any difficulties/problems during
    a fire drill
  • You encountered any obstructions during the

Emergency Numbers
  • If you discover a fire, an injured or seriously
    ill person, or another situation you consider to
    be an emergency, go to the nearest office and
    dial 0 for an outside line and then
  • 112 or 999

Emergency First Aid Procedure
  • If you require first aid treatment
  • Contact your nearest departmental first-aider
  • In the event that your departmental first-aider
    cannot be contacted or is unavailable, then
  • The Occupational Health Officer between 9am-5pm
  • If it is a student, the Student Health Centre
  • Aungier St. (Southside)
  • Linenhall (Northside)
  • (iii) The Emergency Services (112 or 999)

Emergency First Aid Procedure
  • Familiarise yourself with the location of your
    nearest first aid kit
  • An emergency first aid kit and Incident Report
    Book are available at all Porters desks /
    reception areas
  • The Incident Report Form must be completed and
    forwarded to the Health and Safety Officer as
    soon as practicable.

Safety Is In Your Hands !
Fire Safety in the Home
  • Smoke the silent killer
  • Smoke does not wake people, it actually puts them
    into a deeper sleep.
  • Smoke Alarms
  • Costs approx. 12
  • Check for Irish or British Standards
  • Test battery once a week
  • Average home needs two smoke alarms
  • Locate on ceilings and install one on each level
  • upstairs downstairs
  • Keep free from dust and debris
  • Replace battery once a year and replace the smoke
    alarm itself every ten years
  • Ten year batteries and linked smoke alarms are
    also available

Other Key Points
  • Check electric blankets for wear/damage and
    follow manufacturers instructions.
  • Never place heaters near combustible materials
    (e.g. curtains, furnishings, newspapers,
  • Check all electrical leads, plugs, sockets for
    loose wiring, scorch marks and fraying, and
    replace if necessary.
  • Candles and tea lights can melt plastic surfaces
    like the tops of TVs and bath tubs

Other Key Points
  • Take care not to overload sockets
  • Remember one socket one plug!
  • If you must use an extension lead, keep the total
    output to no more than 13 amps. Watch out! A
    single kettle uses 13 amps alone.
  • Have your boiler serviced once a year
  • Before going to bed, switch off and unplug any
    appliances not in use and close all doors in the

  • Familiarise yourself with
  • How to raise the fire alarm
  • Location of your nearest escape routes assembly
  • Location of fire extinguishers
  • Emergency telephone numbers

Question Time!
  • Please tick the appropriate box?v
  • Q1. For which class of fire would you use a water
    fire extinguisher?
  • A? B? C? D? E? F?
  • Q2. For which classes of fires would you use a
    carbon dioxide fire extinguisher?
  • A? B? C? D? E? F?
  • Q3. Which fire extinguisher can be used on most
    classes of fires?
  • H20?, Carbon Dioxide?, Foam?, Dry Powder?
  • Q4. What type of fire extinguisher can you use on
    an electrical fire?
  • H20?, Carbon Dioxide?, Foam?, Dry Powder?

Further Information
  • DIT Safety Booklet Wallet Card
  • DIT Manual for Management of Fire Emergency
  • DIT Health Safety Website

  • Any Questions?
  • Thank You for
  • Your Participation
  • Please complete your feedback form.
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