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Drug

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Prescription drugs (Rx) are medications which require written authorization for ... There are prescription drugs which may require restrictions, with typical ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Drug


1
Drug Alcohol Testing Alliance (DATA)
  • Prescription and
  • Over-The-Counter
  • Drug Use

2
Our Purpose
  • Educate employees of the risks associated with
    prescription, over-the-counter and herbal
    supplement use.
  • Emphasize safety.

3
Cause for Concern
  • Some side effects of Rx and OTC medications can
    be a safety issue when taken by safety-sensitive
    employees.

4
Definition
  • Prescription drugs (Rx) are medications which
    require written authorization for use by a
    healthcare professional whose license permits
    them to prescribe medication.
  • Must include
  • Patients name
  • Name of substance
  • Quantity/amount dispensed
  • Instructions on dosage, frequency, and method of
    administration
  • Refills
  • Date

5
Prescription Medications
  • Analgesics (Pain Medications)
  • Antidepressants
  • Anti-Motion Sickness
  • Barbiturates
  • Muscle Relaxants
  • Tranquilizers Sedatives

6
Analgesics-Pain Medicines
  • Aspirin w/Codeine
  • Codeine
  • Darvocet
  • Darvon
  • Demerol
  • Dilaudid
  • Empirim w/Codeine
  • Lovo-Dromoran
  • Methadone
  • Morphine
  • Percocet
  • Talwin
  • Tylenol w/Codeine
  • Vicodin

Can cause drowsiness, slower reaction time,
mental confusion, anxiety, agitation, dizziness,
sleepiness, blurred vision, agitation, or muscle
spasm.
7
Antidepressants
  • Adapin
  • Amitriptyline
  • Asendin
  • Deprol
  • Desyrel
  • Elavil
  • Endep
  • Etrafon
  • Limbitrol
  • Lithium
  • Ludiomil
  • Marplan
  • Nardil
  • Norpramin
  • Pamelor
  • Parnate
  • Petrofrane
  • Sinequan
  • Tofranil
  • Triavil
  • Vivactil

Can cause seizures, hallucinations, delusions,
disorientation, tremors, anxiety and restlessness.
8
Anti-Motion Sickness
  • Antivert
  • Draminmine
  • Phenergan
  • Transderm-Scop

Can Cause drowsiness, restlessness,
over-excitement, nervousness, hallucinations and
blurred vision.
9
Barbiturates
  • Alurates
  • Butisol
  • Dilantin
  • Mebaral
  • Nembutal
  • Pentobarbital
  • Phenobarbital
  • Secobarbital
  • Seconal
  • Sedapap
  • Tuinal

Can cause drowsiness, lethargy, hang-over,
excitement, dizziness, twitching, mental
confusion, decreased coordination, blurred
vision, shallow and slow breathing.
10
Muscle Relaxers
  • Flexeril
  • Paranfon Forte
  • Soma
  • Lioresal
  • Robaxin
  • Norflex

Can cause drowsiness, fatigue, nervousness,
confusion, dizziness, visual disturbances,
seizures, tachycardia, fainting, tremors,
agitation and fast drop in blood pressure.
11
Tranquilizers Sedatives
  • Ativan
  • Benadryl
  • Centrax
  • Compazine
  • Dalane
  • Diazepam
  • Equani
  • Halcion
  • Haldol
  • Libritabs
  • Libruim
  • Limbitrol
  • Paxipam
  • Phenergan
  • Prolixin
  • Serax
  • Thorazine
  • Tranxene
  • Valium
  • Xanax

Can cause drowsiness, amnesia, agitation,
sedation, dizziness, weakness, unsteadiness,
disorientation and visual disturbances.

12
Retention Times of Drugs in Urine
13
Mandatory Reportable Drugs with Restrictions
  • There are prescription drugs which may require
    restrictions, with typical constraints, that you
    must report the use of that drug to your
    employer.
  • Constraint means the time between when you take
    the medication and perform your safety-sensitive
    job.

14
Note Effects of other medications or alcohol
may alter stated constraints
  • Drug Constraint Time
  • Lotab 8 hrs.
  • Meperdine 8 hrs.
  • Mepergan 8 hrs.
  • Meprobamate 8 hrs.
  • Morphine 8 hrs.
  • Naldecon 6 hrs.
  • Norgesic 8 hrs.
  • Percocet/Percoddan 8 hrs.
  • Phenergan 8 hrs.
  • Pyridium 6 hrs.
  • Reglan 12 hrs.
  • Skelaxin 6 hrs.
  • Talwin 8 hrs.
  • Tylenol/codiene 8 hrs.
  • Valium 48 hrs.
  • Vicodin 8 hrs.
  • Drug Constraint Time
  • Antivert 24 hrs.
  • Atarax 8hrs.
  • Benedryl 6 hrs.
  • Codiene 6 hrs.
  • Compazine 8 hrs.
  • Darvocet 6 hrs.
  • Darvon 6 hrs.
  • Demerol 8 hrs.
  • Empirin/codiene 6 hrs.
  • Equagesic 8 hrs.
  • Flexeril 8 hrs.
  • Hydrocodone 8 hrs.
  • Hyphen 8 hrs.
  • Levsin 12 hrs.
  • Lioresal 8 hrs.
  • Lomotil 6 hrs.

15
Most Commonly Abused Drugs
16
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17
Definition
  • Over-The-Counter (OTC) medications are any legal,
    non-prescription substance taken for relief of
    discomforting symptoms.
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
    determines whether medicines are prescription or
    nonprescription.

18
Over-the-Counter(Antihistamines)
  • Benadryl
  • Bromfed
  • Chlrotrimeton
  • Claritin-D
  • Comtrex
  • Contac
  • Dimetapp
  • Dristan
  • Drixoral
  • Naldecon
  • Nasahist-B
  • Novafed
  • Ornade
  • Phenergan
  • Sinubid
  • Sinulin
  • Travist-D
  • Zyrtec

Can cause drowsiness, confusion, dizziness,
sedation, sleepiness, loss of coordination,
fatigue, tremors, nervousness, seizures, heart
arrhythmias, disorientation, irritability,
anxiety and stimulation.
19
Herbal Supplements
  • Surveys show that more than one-half of the U.S.
    adult population uses dietary supplements.
  • FDA does not authorize or test dietary
    supplements.
  • Supplements cannot be marketed for treatment,
    cure or prevention of a disease.

20
Example of Herbal Supplements
21
Examples of Increased Use of OTC Herbal Drugs
  • Aging workforce with increased prescribed
    long-term and multiple prescriptions.
  • Employees without sick time or dont have
    health/prescription insurance coverage.
  • Accessibility of drugs from on-line pharmacies,
    doctor shopping and pharmacy theft.

22
Effects of Combining Drugs
  • Unpredictable Reactions
  • Magnified Reactions
  • Physical Trauma (brain damage, stroke, heart
    attack)
  • Death

23
Drugs that have dangerous consequences when
combined
  • Alcohol
  • Prescription Drugs
  • PCP other Hallucinogens
  • Over-the Counter Drugs
  • Marijuana
  • Amphetamines
  • Opiates
  • Cocaine

24
Use All Medications Safely
  • Always follow medication directions safely.
  • Dont increase or decrease doses without talking
    to your doctor.
  • Dont stop taking medication on your own.
  • Dont crush or break pills.
  • Be clear about the drugs effects on driving and
    other daily tasks.
  • Learn about the drugs potential interactions
    with other prescription medicines and
    over-the-counter medicines.
  • Dont use other peoples prescription medications
    and dont share yours.

25
Read the Label
  • Labels tell you what a medicine is suppose to
    do,
  • who should, or should not take it, and
  • how to use the medicine
  • Age categories
  • How much to take
  • How to take the medicine
  • How often to take the medicine
  • How long to take the medicine

26
New OTC Medicine Label
27
Your ResponsibilityGood labeling cant help
unless you read it and use the information.Its
up to you to be informed and to use all
medications and supplements wisely and
responsibly.
28
Employers Goal
  • Not intended to force employees in need of
    medical attention to work or keep employees off
    duty for receiving treatment of a medical
    condition.
  • Goal is to balance the treatment of medical
    conditions and the requirements of performing
    safety-sensitive job duties.

29
DATA Disclaimer
  • The information provided herein should be used
    only as a guideline and does not constitute
    Federal Regulations. Sound medical knowledge and
    understanding of pharmacological properties of
    prescription and over-the-counter medications,
    and a detailed knowledge of an employees medical
    history and safety-sensitive job duties must
    guide the final assessment of the potential risks
    to the public.
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