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ADHD

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Fact: Inattentive subtype accounts for about 1/4 boys and 1/3 girls with ADHD ... Higher rates of adult psychopathology, substance abuse, criminality ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ADHD


1
ADHD
  • Dr. Christopher Gibbins, Ph.D., R.Psyc.
  • Clinic Psychologist
  • Provincial ADHD Program

2
OBJECTIVES
  • Dispelling myths about ADHD
  • Access to testing in schools
  • Impact of ADHD
  • Societal costs of ADHD

3
Myths and Facts about ADHD
  • Myth Only hyper kids have ADHD.
  • Fact Inattentive subtype accounts for about 1/4
    boys and 1/3 girls with ADHD
  • Myth Children grow out of ADHD
  • Fact 2/3 children continue to show impairment as
    adults.
  • Fact Inattentive symptoms show little decline
    over time.

4
Myths and Facts about ADHD
  • Myth Children with ADHD are just energetic.
  • Fact Proper diagnosis requires evidence of
    impairment in multiple environments.
  • Fact Strong evidence for a genetic/neurological
    cause
  • High level of heredity, second only to height.
  • E.g. Dopamine receptor/transporter genes (DRD4,
    DRD5, DAT1)-neurotransmitters.
  • Research of brain scans indicate decreased size
    and activity in pre-frontal cortex.

5
Myths and Facts about ADHD
  • Myth Stimulants lead to drug abuse.
  • Fact Stimulants reduce the increased risk of
    drug abuse in children with ADHD.
  • Myth Stimulants cure ADHD.
  • Fact Stimulants are ineffective in 30.
  • Fact Most children have residual impairment.
  • Fact Pills do not teach skills. Students with
    ADHD may need remediation and coping skills.

6
Myths and Facts about ADHD
  • Myth ADHD is just bad discipline.
  • Fact Good behaviour management is crucial for
    many children with ADHD.
  • Fact Behavioural strategies do not correct the
    cognitive deficits of ADHD.
  • Myth Proven, reliable alternative treatments
    exist.
  • Fact Alternative treatments have not been shown
    to be effective.

7
Myths and Facts about ADHD
  • Myth ADHD is ia not a learning disability.
  • Fact LDs are defined as
  • Impairments in processes related to perceiving,
    thinking, remembering or learning
  • Lifelong, neurological, affecting learning and/or
    school performance (LDAC, 2002)
  • Fact ADHD is a neurological, lifelong impairment
    in cognitive processes which affects learning and
    school performance.

8
Access to testing in schools
  • Schools have access to most of the information
    necessary to identify children with ADHD
  • School based teams are well placed to screen
    children for possible ADHD and provide crucial
    information to diagnosticians.
  • Access to professionals trained and qualifies to
    diagnose ADHD is lacking. Most children with ADHD
    either have no access to testing or wait 2-4
    years.
  • Training is required to teach effectively, avoid
    over-, under- and mis-diagnosis, and to identify
    co-morbidity.

9
Access to testing in schools
  • Diagnosis can be made by psychologists or
    physicians trained to identify ADHD.
  • Access to academic assessment allows
    identification of areas requiring remediation and
    areas of underperformance.
  • Diagnosis of ADHD requires multiple sources of
    information and informed clinical judgment.
  • Diagnosis of ADHD does not usually require
    extensive psychometric testing, expensive
    computerized hardware.

10
Impact on Children
  • Increased risk of
  • Learning difficulties (reading, writing, math)
  • Academic underperformance, teacher conflict
  • Academic failure / dropping out
  • Victimization, social rejection, isolation
  • Aggression and antisocial behaviour
  • Anxiety and depression
  • Substance use, pregnancy, STDs, accidents, injury

11
CRISIS POINTS Children/Youth
  • Infancy colic
  • Preschool circle time, pre-academic skills
  • Grade 4 increased scholastic and social
    demands
  • High school increased planning demands,
    decreased structure, peer pressures, relative
    developmental delay / immaturity

12
Impact on Adults
  • The gap between by potential and my achievements
    is huge.
  • Variability is enormous, but
  • Academic underperformance Loss of income and
    career choices, derailment in higher education
  • Difficulties managing money, paying bills/taxes,
    saving for retirement
  • Career instability, conflicts with
    employers/clients
  • Instability in intimate relationships, poor
    social networks
  • Temper, driving, criminality, substance abuse
  • Consequences of past experiences

13
Impact on AdultsADHD parents, ADHD kids
  • ADHD kids will often have at least one ADHD
    parent. Challenges with
  • Patience
  • Awareness of own childs moods
  • Organization planning
  • Inability to assist child in attention demanding
    tasks
  • Difficulty soothing child
  • Marital conflict and single parent families

14
Societal Costs of Untreated / Undiagnosed ADHD
  • Less educated, less skilled citizens and
    workforce
  • Higher rates of adult psychopathology, substance
    abuse, criminality
  • Multigenerational impairment
  • Greater medical, legal, social service costs
  • Poorer classroom functioning
  • Impact on parents, siblings and community
  • Early intervention is cheaper than the
    consequences of impairment
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