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The Endocrine System


Pineal Body. Reproductive Glands. Hypothalamus. In the lower central part of the brain ... What does the pineal gland regulate? Where are the male gonads ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System
Hormones Hormones!!!
  • Even though the endocrine system doesnt
    seem very important to us, it really is! It
    affects almost everything in our bodies, and
    participates in moods, growth and development,
    sexual functions, reproductive processes, tissue
    function, and metabolism.

These are the main parts of the endocrine system
Hormones Glands
  • The endocrine system is founded on hormones and
  • Hormones transfer info and orders from a set of
    cells to another. Each type of hormone is
    designed to affect only certain cells.

  • A gland is a bunch of cells that produce and
    gives off chemicals. A gland selects and removes
    materials from the blood, processes them, and
    secretes the finished chemical product for use
    somewhere in the body.
  • For example, exocrine glands like the sweat
    glands release secretions in the skin or inside
    the mouth.

Endocrine System Parts
  • Hypothalamus
  • Pituitary Gland
  • Thyroid
  • Parathyroids
  • Adrenal Glands
  • Pineal Body
  • Reproductive Glands

  • In the lower central part of the brain
  • The main link between the endocrine and the
    nervous systems.
  • Nerve cells in the hypothalamus control the
    pituitary gland by producing chemicals that
    either stimulate or suppress hormone secretions
    from the pituitary.

Pituitary Gland
  • The gland is no bigger than a pea.
  • Located at the base of the brain, and the most
    important part of the entire endocrine system.
  • AKA The master gland because it makes hormones
    that control other endocrine glands.
  • The production of hormones and secretions can be
    affected by emotions and seasons change.
  • Divided into two parts.

The MASTER Gland
The Division
  • The tiny pituitary has two parts the anterior
    and the posterior lobe.
  • The anterior regulates the thyroid, adrenals, and
    the reproductives activities. It makes hormones
    like growth hormones, prolactin (breastfeeding),
    thyrotropin, and corticotropin.
  • The posterior releases antiduretic hormones,
    which balances the bodys water level. It also
    makes oxytocin, which activates the contractions
    of the uterus in a woman in labor.
  • The pituitary also secretes endorphins, chemicals
    that act on the nervous sytem and reduce painful
    feelings. It also gets rid of hormones that
    signal the reproductive organs to make sex
    hormones. It also controls ovulation and the
    menstrual cycle.

  • The thyroid is in the front part of the lower
    neck, and is shaped like a butterfly.
  • It produces the hormones known as thyroxine and
  • These control the rate at which cells burn fuels
    from food to produce energy.
  • Thyroid hormones are important because they
    participate in the growth and development of
    kids and teens bones and the nervous system.
  • Attached to the thryoid are four small glands
    called the parathyroids, which, with the help of
    calcitonin, control the calcium level.

Adrenal Glands
  • There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each
  • There are two parts, each of which makes hormones
    and has a different function.
  • The outer part, or the Arenal Cortex, makes
    hormones (corticosteroids) that control the salt
    and water balance in the body, responses to
    stress, metabolism, the immune system, and sexual
  • The inner part, or the Adrenal Medulla, makes
    hormones (catecholamines) that increases blood
    pressure and heart rate when there is stress.
    (ex. Epinephrine, or adrenaline)

Pineal Gland
  • The pineal gland, or the pineal body is in the
    middle of the brain. It secretes melatonin, a
    hormone that regulates when you sleep at night
    and wake up in the morning.

Reproductive Glands!!!
  • The gonads are the main source of sex hormones.
    Even though you may think that gonads are just in
    guys, youre wrong! Girls have them too

Male Gonads
  • In guys the male gonads, or testes are located in
    the scrotum. They secrete hormones called
    androgens, the most important of which is
    testosterone. These hormones tell a guy's body
    when it's time to make the changes associated
    with puberty, like penis and height growth,
    deepening voice, and growth in facial and pubic
    hair. Working with hormones from the pituitary
    gland, testosterone also tells a guy's body when
    it's time to produce sperm in the testes.

Female Gonads
  • The ovaries are located in her pelvis. They
    produce eggs and secrete the female hormones
    estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is involved
    when a girl begins to go through puberty. During
    puberty, a girl will experience breast growth,
    will begin to accumulate body fat around the hips
    and thighs, and will have a growth spurt.
    Estrogen and progesterone are also involved in
    the regulation of a girl's menstrual cycle. These
    hormones also play a role in pregnancy.

What Does the Endocrine System Do?
  • Once a hormone is secreted, it travels from the
    endocrine gland that produced it through the
    bloodstream to the cells designed to receive its
    message. These cells are called target cells.
    Along the way to the target cells, special
    proteins bind to some of the hormones. These
    proteins act as carriers that control the amount
    of hormone that is available for the cells to
    use. The target cells have receptors that latch
    onto only specific hormones, and each hormone has
    its own receptor, so that each hormone will
    communicate only with specific target cells that
    have receptors for that hormone. When the hormone
    reaches its target cell, it locks onto the cell's
    specific receptors and these hormone-receptor
    combinations transmit chemical instructions to
    the inner workings of the cell.
  • When hormone levels reach a certain normal
    amount, the endocrine system helps the body to
    keep that level of hormone in the blood. For
    example, if the thyroid gland has secreted the
    right amount of thyroid hormones into the blood,
    the pituitary gland senses the normal levels of
    thyroid hormone in the bloodstream. Then the
    pituitary gland adjusts its release of
    thyrotropin, the hormone that stimulates the
    thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones.
  • Another example of this process is parathyroid
    hormone. Parathyroid hormone increases the level
    of calcium in the blood. When the blood calcium
    level rises, the parathyroid glands sense the
    change and reduce their secretion of parathyroid
    hormone. This turnoff process is called a
    negative feedback system.

What can go wrong
  • Too much or too little of any hormone can be
    harmful to your body.

For example, if the pituitary gland produces too
much growth hormone, a teen may grow excessively
tall. If it produces too little, a teen may be
unusually short. Doctors can often treat the
problems by controlling the production of
hormones or replacing certain hormones with
medication. Some endocrine problems that affect
teens are
  • Adrenal insufficiency. This condition occurs when
    the adrenal glands don't produce enough
    corticosteroids. The symptoms of adrenal
    insufficiency may include weakness, fatigue,
    abdominal pain, nausea, dehydration, and skin
  • Growth hormone problems. Too much growth hormone
    in kids and teens who are still growing will make
    their bones and other body parts grow
    excessively. This rare condition (sometimes
    called gigantism) is usually caused by a
    pituitary tumor and can be treated by removing
    the tumor.
  • Hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a condition
    in which the levels of thyroid hormones in the
    blood are very high/low.
  • Precocious puberty. If the pituitary glands
    release hormones that stimulate the gonads to
    produce sex hormones too early, some kids may
    begin to go through puberty at a very young age.

The End
  • Made for you by
  • Chelsea Hunter
  • Karina Emeric
  • Shelby Kesic
  • Roberto Ramos
  • The Endocrine System

Review Questions
  • TRUE or FALSE?
  • The endocrine system is founded on hormones and
  • A gland is a bunch of cells that produce and
    gives off chemicals.
  • The Pituitary gland is no bigger than a bean.

Review Questions (cont.)
  • What is a gland?
  • a. Cells that produce and give off gland tissue.
  • b. Cells that produce and give off chemicals.
  • c. Transporters of blood to the heart.
  • What two systems is the hypothalamus linked
  • The nervous and the endocrine
  • The respiratory and the endocrine
  • The skeletal and the reproductive
  • Which part of the endocrine is the most
    important, and nicknamed the Master Gland?
  • The thyroid
  • The testes
  • The pituitary gland

Review Questions (again)
  • What gland is important because of the
    participation in development of kids bones and
    the nervous system its also shaped like a
  • Pineal Gland
  • Ovary
  • Thyroid
  • The two parts of the adrenal gland are the
    Adrenal _______ and the Adrenal _______.
  • What does the pineal gland regulate?
  • Where are the male gonads located?
  • In the penis
  • In the testes
  • In the scrotum
  • The ovaries produce ______ and secrete the female
    hormones _________ and_____________.

  • List a few things that could go wrong with the
    endocrine system.
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