The First English Bibles - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 17
About This Presentation

The First English Bibles


Samaritan Pentateuch. BC Samaritans had their own Hebrew MSS. Roots to Pre-Captivity MSS? ... Pentateuch: 1530. Jonah: 1531. Revised NT, 1534 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:50
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 18
Provided by: lauret1


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The First English Bibles

The First English Bibles
  • Early Manuscript Sources
  • Ancient Hebrew Manuscripts MSS
  • Uncertain origin none survive
  • Septuagint (LXX, 70) 3rd to 1st century BC
  • 72 scholars translated Ancient Hebrew MSS into
  • Greek Orthodox Church still uses these scriptures
  • Masoretic Texts 150 BC thru AD 1425
  • Hebrew manuscripts strict systematic copying by
    Jewish master-scribes
  • Basis of modern Jewish scriptures
  • Samaritan Pentateuch
  • BC Samaritans had their own Hebrew MSS
  • Roots to Pre-Captivity MSS?
  • Note LXX is closer to Samaritan than to

  • St. Jerome (382-405) translates the Latin
    Vulgate AD 404
  • OT based on Masoretic, and LXX
  • NT from Greek manuscripts
  • Vulgate means common, for common tongue
  • Latin Vulgate remains official RCC Bible text
  • The Church opposed new translations because
  • They didnt need another version
  • it undermined their authority
  • it fostered faction and controversy
  • Latin was the language of civilization

  • Why no English version in AD 405 ?
  • English did not exist!
  • English formed from invaders
  • Angles, Saxons, Jutes, 450
  • Danes (Vikings) 800-900
  • Normans (transplanted Vikings) in 1066
  • Bible fragments translated into Old English
    starting lt900
  • Middle English forms 1066- 1470
  • John Wycliff, 1320-1384
  • Oxford Doctor, church official
  • Master of languages, doctrine
  • Reformer during the two-Pope schism of 1378-1417

  • 1 And Jhesus, seynge the puple, wente vp in to an
    hil and whanne he was set, hise disciplis camen
    to hym.
  • 2 And he openyde his mouth, and tauyte hem, and
  • 3 Blessed ben pore men in spirit, for the kyngdom
    of heuenes is herne.
  • 4 Blessid ben mylde men, for thei schulen welde
    the erthe.
  • 5 Blessid ben thei that mornen, for thei schulen
    be coumfortid.
  • 6 Blessid ben thei that hungren and thristen
    riytwisnesse, for thei schulen be fulfillid.
  • 7 Blessid ben merciful men, for thei schulen gete
  • 8 Blessid ben thei that ben of clene herte, for
    thei schulen se God.
  • 9 Blessid ben pesible men, for thei schulen be
    clepid Goddis children.
  • 10 Blessid ben thei that suffren persecusioun for
    riytfulnesse, for the kingdam of heuenes is herne.
  • Wyclif, disgusted with church politics, declares
  • Authority of Scripture is greater than any Pope
    (a radical idea at the time)
  • Wyclif privately translates the Latin Vulgate
    into Middle English (see left column)
  • Wyclif Bible (1384) is the first complete
    version of the Bible in English
  • All copies were manuscripts (no printing)
  • Wyclifs fate
  • Condemned as a heretic, 1378, and forced into
  • Finishes translation before his death, 1384
  • Formally condemned in 1425, exhumed and burned

  • Wyclifs impact
  • Followers, the Lollards, begin to publicly read
    English scripture and preach throughout the
  • The Church reacts
  • Lollardy condemned
  • Many arrested, some burned
  • All Wyclif Bibles that can be found are burned
  • A few copies of Wyclifs Bible survive
  • No serious attempts at English translation for
    140 years

  • Two important people set the stage
  • Johann Gutenburg, 1398-1468
  • Invents moveable metal type press, 1450
  • First ever mass media
  • Publishes Gutenburg Bibles..(Latin Vulgate)
  • Desiderius Erasmus 1466-1536
  • Most famous scholar of his time
  • Challenged church doctrine and corruption
  • Greeks fleeing fall of Constantiople brought MSS
    of LXX and Greek NT manuscripts (the Byzantine
  • Erasmus assembles Greek MSS into a complete Greek
    NT, called the Textus Receptus
  • First edition, 1519
  • Improved edition, 1522

  • Martin Luther 1483-1546
  • Posts famous 95 Theses in 1517
  • Prot. Reformation ensues. A long story
  • Translates the 1519 ed. Of Textus Receptus into
    German NT, 1522 (OT in 1534)
  • William Tyndale 1484-1536
  • Priest, scholar, pro-reformation
  • Works in secret, to translate the improved 1522
    ed. Of Textus Receptus into early Modern English
  • Tyndale masters Hebrew, to partially translate
    Masoretic into English OT
  • Genesis thru 2 Chronicles, plus Jonah

  • Tyndale (continued)
  • Publishes while in hiding, on the Continent
  • New Testament 1526
  • Pentateuch 1530
  • Jonah 1531
  • Revised NT, 1534
  • Tyndales translation is so good, it forms the
    foundation for all subsequent Protestant English
    translations, up to King James
  • 1536, Tyndale is betrayed to Henry VIIIs
    executioners, hunting him in Belgium
  • He is strangled, Oct. 6, 1536, then burned
  • His famous last words
  • Oh Lord, open the King of Englands eyes

  • 1535, Miles Coverdale (in hiding) completes OT
  • Translates the rest of OT from Vulgate and
    Luthers German, combines with Tyndales NT and
    incomplete OT
  • Creates Coverdale Bible, 1535, Antwerp
  • First complete Bible (OT and NT) printed in
  • 1537, Henry VIII opens his eyes licenses
    printing of Matthews Bible (same as
    Coverdales Bible, with notes)
  • Overseen by Tyndales friend, John Rogers
  • First Bible legally printed in English
  • Translation is Tyndale / Coverdale
  • Includes margin notes by Tyndale

  • 1539 Henry VIII commissions Great Bible to be
    read in the new Anglican Churches
  • Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer,
    oversees the project (first Protestant head of
    English church)
  • Miles Coverdale hired to oversee translation
  • Essentially, a revision of Matthews Bible
  • Eliminates margin notes.
  • Continues in publication under Henrys son,
    Edward VI, 1547-1553
  • The church in England becomes officially
  • 1553, Catholic Bloody Mary I becomes queen (r.
  • Bans, confiscates, and destroys all English
    Bibles, legal or not
  • Executes
  • Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas
  • Many Protestant/Anglican leaders nobles
  • Anyone caught with any English Bible

  • 1553 Scholar William Whittingham, and translator
    Miles Coverdale.
  • Flee England for the safety of John Calvins
    Protestant city Geneva
  • Lead 5 translators to finish Tyndales Masoretic
    translation from 2 Chronicles, on. (not from
    German or Latin, as Coverdales 1535 Bible)
  • Make minor revisions to Tyndale
  • They Publish the Geneva Bible 1557-60
  • Also called Breeches Bible from Gen. 2
  • Also called Pilgrims Bible
  • First English Bible entirely from Greek Hebrew
  • First English Bible with chapters and verses
  • Adds maps, notes, etc.
  • Used by Shakespeare, Donne, Bunyan, Cromwell,
  • Brought to America on the Mayflower
  • 80 to 90 of the wording is Tyndale!
  • Hugely popular. last printing 1644

  • 1558, Elizabeth I becomes queen (reigns
  • Anglican church restored many Catholics flee to
  • Problem The Geneva Bible, with commentary, is
  • Very Puritanical,
  • Generally opposed to Anglican Church
  • Strongly disliked by the Anglican Church
  • Young Elizabeth I
  • Commissions Archbishop Matthew Parker for a new
    translation replace the Great Bible for use in
  • Parker and 17 Scholars labor on Greek and Hebrew
  • Translators borrow heavily from Great Bible and
    Geneva (that is, Tyndale, Coverdale, and
  • 1568, the Anglican Bishops Bible is published
  • Designed to replace the Great Bible of 1539
  • Used by clergy, and in services
  • Quoted extensively in the Common Book of Prayer
  • BUT. Never Replaces Geneva with the people.

  • 1582, The Catholic Bible Douay-Rheims
  • English Catholic scholars flee England, establish
    the English College at Douai, France
  • In reaction to Anglican and Puritan translations,
    they create a pro-Catholic translation
  • Led by Gregory Martin, Oxford Fellow
  • Translated entirely from Latin Vulgate (like
  • NT in 1582, published at Rheims
  • OT in 1609, published at Douai
  • Poorly received, not popular, until extensively
    revised by Richard Challoner in 1752 (with much
    influence from Tyndale, Geneva, etc.)

  • 1603, James I becomes King of England
  • He faces a problem
  • The English church is splitting between the
    government-sanctioned Anglican church, and the
    popular Puritan movement
  • The people like the Geneva Bible, but
  • The Geneva Bible is too Puritanical for either
    church or government
  • Anglican/Puritan friction is becoming worse
    leads to civil war in 1640s
  • James calls a meeting between Anglican and
    Puritan leaders, 1604
  • Puritan leader John Reynolds proposes a new
    translation, to eliminate biases of both the
    Bishops Bible, and the Geneva Bible
  • "moved his majesty that there might be a new
    translation of the Bible, because those which
    were allowed in the reign of king Henry the
    Eighth and his son Edward the Sixth were
    corrupt and not answerable to the truth of the
    original. Wikipedia

  • King James Version
  • King James's instructions made it clear that he
    wanted the resulting translation to contain a
    minimum of controversial notes ., and that he
    wanted the episcopal structure of the Established
    Church, and traditional beliefs about an ordained
    clergy to be reflected in the new translation.
    His order directed the translators to revise the
    Bishop's Bible, comparing other named English
    versions. Wikipedia
  • 54 Scholars work in 6 committees at different
  • They started with Bishops Bible, using Tyndale,
    Coverdale, Matthews, and Geneva for references.
    (Bishops Bible is also mostly Tyndales
  • Worked from Masoretic for OT, Textus Receptus for
  • Imported some words and phrases from Douay-Rheims
  • Result King James version, first ed. published
  • Approximately 80 unaltered from Tyndale
  • Later editions 1629, 1638, 1762, 1769 (1769 is
    the most common version in use today)
  • Eclipses Geneva in popularity, after Puritans
    fall from power, 1660

  • Conclusions
  • One translator can make a HUGE impact
  • The 72 Greeks formed a basis for translation ever
    since (over 2000 years)
  • Jeromes translation was the ONLY western
    translation for 1000 years, and is still official
  • Tyndales translation dominated English versions
    from 1530 until the 20th century
  • Some translations are better, but none is
  • Many influenced by culture
  • Many influenced by religious bias or politics
    (usually in commentary)
  • Not all MSS agree a choice must be made
  • Some people will always get upset about
  • Tyndale, John Rogers, Thomas Cranmer, etc.,
  • Coverdale and others forced to flee
  • Literally 1000s of English Bibles burned or
    destroyed, in the name of the Lord by the
    Church, Henry VIII, and Mary I
  • Many people today, oppose any translation since
    1611 KJV, just like the Catholic Church didnt
    want anything after Jerome
  • Many of their arguments are similar dont rock
    the boat, its been good enough for 400/1000
    years, if you cant understand, then learn

  • Sources
  • Ink Blood, Dead Sea Scrolls to the English
  • William H. Noah, Founder
  • Craig B. Salazar, COO
  • F. J. Rusty Maisel, Associate Curator
  • David L. Brown, Associate Curator
  • Wikipedia (online encyclopedia, various authors)
  • History of the English-Speaking Peoples (Winston
    Churchill, 1955)
  • St. Augustine (Garry Wills, 2000)
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)